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Examples of Writing in First Person
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How to Write a First Person Essay | Essay Tigers
KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. An analysis of the writing first history of both of capital punishment, technology shows that technological change is exponential, contrary to person, the common-sense “intuitive linear” view. Outline? So we won’t experience 100 years of progress in first the 21st century — it will be more like 20,000 years of engineering cover letter outline, progress (at today’s rate). The “returns,” such as chip speed and cost-effectiveness, also increase exponentially. There’s even exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. Within a few decades, machine intelligence will surpass human intelligence, leading to The Singularity — technological change so rapid and profound it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history. The implications include the merger of essay writing first, biological and description of your, nonbiological intelligence, immortal software-based humans, and ultra-high levels of intelligence that expand outward in the universe at the speed of light. You will get $40 trillion just by reading this essay and understanding what it says.
For complete details, see below. (It’s true that authors will do just about anything to keep your attention, but I’m serious about writing first person, this statement. Of Your Bedroom Essay? Until I return to a further explanation, however, do read the first sentence of first person, this paragraph carefully.) Now back to the future: it’s widely misunderstood. Letter Outline? Our forebears expected the essay first future to be pretty much like their present, which had been pretty much like their past. Although exponential trends did exist a thousand years ago, they were at letter outline that very early stage where an exponential trend is so flat that it looks like no trend at all. So their lack of writing, expectations was largely fulfilled.
Today, in accordance with the common wisdom, everyone expects continuous technological progress and the social repercussions that follow. But the engineering outline future will be far more surprising than most observers realize: few have truly internalized the implications of the person fact that the rate of change itself is accelerating. The Intuitive Linear View versus the Historical Exponential View. Most long range forecasts of technical feasibility in future time periods dramatically underestimate the power of future technology because they are based on what I call the “intuitive linear” view of technological progress rather than the “historical exponential view.” To express this another way, it is not the child essays case that we will experience a hundred years of progress in first person the twenty-first century; rather we will witness on the order of twenty thousand years of progress (at today’s rate of progress, that is). This disparity in outlook comes up frequently in a variety of contexts, for example, the dialect discussion of the ethical issues that Bill Joy raised in his controversial WIRED cover story, Why The Future Doesn’t Need Us. Bill and I have been frequently paired in a variety of venues as pessimist and optimist respectively. Although I’m expected to criticize Bill’s position, and indeed I do take issue with his prescription of relinquishment, I nonetheless usually end up defending Joy on the key issue of feasibility.
Recently a Noble Prize winning panelist dismissed Bill’s concerns, exclaiming that, “we’re not going to see self-replicating nanoengineered entities for a hundred years.” I pointed out that 100 years was indeed a reasonable estimate of the amount of technical progress required to achieve this particular milestone at today’s rate of writing first person, progress . But because we’re doubling the engineering cover outline rate of progress every decade, we’ll see a century of progress– at today’s rate –in only 25 calendar years. When people think of essay first, a future period, they intuitively assume that the churchill essay current rate of progress will continue for future periods. However, careful consideration of the pace of essay writing person, technology shows that the rate of progress is more to the lake not constant, but it is human nature to adapt to writing person, the changing pace, so the intuitive view is english essay that the pace will continue at essay first person the current rate. Even for psychology essays those of us who have been around long enough to experience how the pace increases over time, our unexamined intuition nonetheless provides the impression that progress changes at writing person the rate that we have experienced recently. From the both punishment essays mathematician’s perspective, a primary reason for this is that an exponential curve approximates a straight line when viewed for a brief duration. So even though the rate of progress in essay person the very recent past (e.g., this past year) is far greater than it was ten years ago (let alone a hundred or a thousand years ago), our memories are nonetheless dominated by our very recent experience. It is professor typical, therefore, that even sophisticated commentators, when considering the future, extrapolate the person current pace of essays, change over the next 10 years or 100 years to determine their expectations. This is why I call this way of looking at essay person the future the “intuitive linear” view. But a serious assessment of the history of technology shows that technological change is essays exponential. In exponential growth, we find that a key measurement such as computational power is writing first multiplied by engineering letter a constant factor for each unit of time (e.g., doubling every year) rather than just being added to essay writing first person, incrementally.
Exponential growth is a feature of any evolutionary process, of which technology is a primary example. One can examine the data. in different ways, on different time scales, and for a wide variety of technologies ranging from electronic to eb white more lake, biological, and writing first person, the acceleration of progress and growth applies. Indeed, we find not just simple exponential growth, but “double” exponential growth, meaning that the punishment essays rate of exponential growth is itself growing exponentially. Essay Writing Person? These observations do not rely merely on an assumption of the continuation of description of your, Moore’s law (i.e., the exponential shrinking of transistor sizes on an integrated circuit), but is based on a rich model of diverse technological processes. Essay? What it clearly shows is that technology, particularly the pace of english dialect essay, technological change, advances (at least) exponentially, not linearly, and person, has been doing so since the eb white more lake thesis advent of technology, indeed since the advent of evolution on Earth.
I emphasize this point because it is the most important failure that would-be prognosticators make in considering future trends. Most technology forecasts ignore altogether this “historical exponential view” of technological progress. That is first person why people tend to overestimate what can be achieved in engineering cover letter outline the short term (because we tend to leave out necessary details), but underestimate what can be achieved in essay first the long term (because the exponential growth is ignored). We can organize these observations into what I call the professor law of accelerating returns as follows: Evolution applies positive feedback in essay writing that the more capable methods resulting from one stage of evolutionary progress are used to create the next stage. As a result, the description bedroom rate of progress of an evolutionary process increases exponentially over time.
Over time, the “order” of the information embedded in the evolutionary process (i.e., the measure of how well the information fits a purpose, which in evolution is first person survival) increases. A correlate of the above observation is that the “returns” of an to the lake, evolutionary process (e.g., the speed, cost-effectiveness, or overall “power” of a process) increase exponentially over writing time. In another positive feedback loop, as a particular evolutionary process (e.g., computation) becomes more effective (e.g., cost effective), greater resources are deployed toward the further progress of that process. This results in a second level of outline, exponential growth (i.e., the rate of exponential growth itself grows exponentially). Biological evolution is one such evolutionary process. Technological evolution is another such evolutionary process. Indeed, the emergence of the first technology creating species resulted in the new evolutionary process of technology. Therefore, technological evolution is an person, outgrowth of–and a continuation of–biological evolution. A specific paradigm (a method or approach to solving a problem, e.g., shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit as an approach to english, making more powerful computers) provides exponential growth until the method exhausts its potential. When this happens, a paradigm shift (i.e., a fundamental change in the approach) occurs, which enables exponential growth to continue.
If we apply these principles at the highest level of first, evolution on Earth, the first step, the psychology creation of cells, introduced the paradigm of essay, biology. The subsequent emergence of DNA provided a digital method to record the results of engineering cover outline, evolutionary experiments. Writing Person? Then, the evolution of a species who combined rational thought with an opposable appendage (i.e., the thumb) caused a fundamental paradigm shift from eb white once more to the lake thesis, biology to technology. The upcoming primary paradigm shift will be from biological thinking to a hybrid combining biological and nonbiological thinking. This hybrid will include “biologically inspired” processes resulting from the reverse engineering of biological brains. If we examine the timing of these steps, we see that the process has continuously accelerated. Writing First? The evolution of life forms required billions of years for the first steps (e.g., primitive cells); later on progress accelerated.
During the Cambrian explosion, major paradigm shifts took only tens of millions of years. Later on, Humanoids developed over a period of millions of both, years, and Homo sapiens over a period of only essay first, hundreds of thousands of years. With the advent of a technology-creating species, the exponential pace became too fast for evolution through DNA-guided protein synthesis and child essays, moved on to human-created technology. Technology goes beyond mere tool making; it is a process of essay first, creating ever more powerful technology using the tools from the previous round of child essays, innovation. In this way, human technology is distinguished from the tool making of other species.
There is a record of each stage of technology, and each new stage of technology builds on the order of the previous stage. The first technological steps-sharp edges, fire, the writing person wheel–took tens of description bedroom essay, thousands of years. For people living in first this era, there was little noticeable technological change in even a thousand years. By 1000 A.D., progress was much faster and a paradigm shift required only a century or two. Cover? In the essay first person nineteenth century, we saw more technological change than in essay the nine centuries preceding it. Then in essay person the first twenty years of the twentieth century, we saw more advancement than in essay all of the essay writing person nineteenth century. Now, paradigm shifts occur in only a few years time. The World Wide Web did not exist in anything like its present form just a few years ago; it didn’t exist at all a decade ago.
The paradigm shift rate (i.e., the overall rate of technical progress) is currently doubling (approximately) every decade; that is, paradigm shift times are halving every decade (and the rate of acceleration is itself growing exponentially). So, the technological progress in of your bedroom the twenty-first century will be equivalent to what would require (in the essay linear view) on the order of 200 centuries. Child Psychology Essays? In contrast, the twentieth century saw only about 25 years of progress (again at today’s rate of progress) since we have been speeding up to essay writing first person, current rates. So the twenty-first century will see almost a thousand times greater technological change than its predecessor. To appreciate the nature and significance of the coming “singularity,” it is important to churchill, ponder the nature of exponential growth. Toward this end, I am fond of telling the tale of the inventor of chess and essay writing, his patron, the emperor of China. In response to the emperor’s offer of a reward for his new beloved game, the inventor asked for a single grain of rice on the first square, two on the second square, four on the third, and so on. The Emperor quickly granted this seemingly benign and humble request. One version of the story has the eb white more to the lake emperor going bankrupt as the 63 doublings ultimately totaled 18 million trillion grains of rice. At ten grains of essay writing, rice per square inch, this requires rice fields covering twice the surface area of the Earth, oceans included.
Another version of the child psychology story has the inventor losing his head. It should be pointed out that as the emperor and the inventor went through the first half of the chess board, things were fairly uneventful. The inventor was given spoonfuls of rice, then bowls of writing, rice, then barrels. By the end of the first half of the chess board, the eb white once to the lake inventor had accumulated one large field’s worth (4 billion grains), and the emperor did start to take notice. It was as they progressed through the writing first person second half of the chessboard that the situation quickly deteriorated. Incidentally, with regard to description of your bedroom essay, the doublings of computation, that’s about where we stand now–there have been slightly more than 32 doublings of performance since the first programmable computers were invented during World War II. This is the nature of exponential growth. Essay Person? Although technology grows in the exponential domain, we humans live in a linear world. So technological trends are not noticed as small levels of technological power are doubled. Then seemingly out of nowhere, a technology explodes into description bedroom, view.
For example, when the Internet went from 20,000 to 80,000 nodes over writing person a two year period during the 1980s, this progress remained hidden from the general public. A decade later, when it went from 20 million to 80 million nodes in the same amount of time, the impact was rather conspicuous. As exponential growth continues to both sides essays, accelerate into the first half of the essay writing twenty-first century, it will appear to explode into infinity, at least from the limited and linear perspective of contemporary humans. The progress will ultimately become so fast that it will rupture our ability to follow it. It will literally get out of our control.
The illusion that we have our hand “on the plug,” will be dispelled. Can the pace of technological progress continue to speed up indefinitely? Is there not a point where humans are unable to think fast enough to keep up with it? With regard to unenhanced humans, clearly so. But what would a thousand scientists, each a thousand times more intelligent than human scientists today, and each operating a thousand times faster than contemporary humans (because the cover outline information processing in their primarily nonbiological brains is faster) accomplish? One year would be like a millennium. What would they come up with? Well, for one thing, they would come up with technology to become even more intelligent (because their intelligence is no longer of writing person, fixed capacity). They would change their own thought processes to think even faster. When the scientists evolve to be a million times more intelligent and operate a million times faster, then an hour would result in a century of progress (in today’s terms). This, then, is the Singularity.
The Singularity is technological change so rapid and so profound that it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history. Some would say that we cannot comprehend the Singularity, at professor essay least with our current level of understanding, and writing first, that it is impossible, therefore, to look past its “event horizon” and make sense of what lies beyond. My view is that despite our profound limitations of thought, constrained as we are today to a mere hundred trillion interneuronal connections in our biological brains, we nonetheless have sufficient powers of abstraction to make meaningful statements about the nature of life after the Singularity. Most importantly, it is cover letter outline my view that the intelligence that will emerge will continue to represent the human civilization, which is already a human-machine civilization. This will be the next step in evolution, the next high level paradigm shift. To put the concept of Singularity into perspective, let’s explore the history of the word itself. Essay Person? Singularity is a familiar word meaning a unique event with profound implications. In mathematics, the eb white thesis term implies infinity, the writing first person explosion of value that occurs when dividing a constant by a number that gets closer and closer to zero.
In physics, similarly, a singularity denotes an event or location of both sides of capital punishment essays, infinite power. At the essay first center of a black hole, matter is dialect so dense that its gravity is infinite. As nearby matter and energy are drawn into the black hole, an event horizon separates the region from the writing first rest of the Universe. It constitutes a rupture in the fabric of space and eb white once to the thesis, time. The Universe itself is said to have begun with just such a Singularity. In the 1950s, John Von Neumann was quoted as saying that “the ever accelerating progress of technology…gives the appearance of essay writing, approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.” In the 1960s, I. J. Good wrote of an “intelligence explosion,” resulting from intelligent machines designing their next generation without human intervention. In 1986, Vernor Vinge, a mathematician and computer scientist at San Diego State University, wrote about a rapidly approaching technological “singularity” in english essay his science fiction novel, Marooned in Realtime.
Then in essay 1993, Vinge presented a paper to both punishment, a NASA-organized symposium which described the Singularity as an essay writing person, impending event resulting primarily from the advent of “entities with greater than human intelligence,” which Vinge saw as the harbinger of to the lake, a run-away phenomenon. From my perspective, the Singularity has many faces. It represents the nearly vertical phase of exponential growth where the rate of growth is essay person so extreme that technology appears to be growing at infinite speed. Of course, from professor ward essay, a mathematical perspective, there is no discontinuity, no rupture, and the growth rates remain finite, albeit extraordinarily large. But from our currently limited perspective, this imminent event appears to essay writing person, be an acute and abrupt break in the continuity of progress. However, I emphasize the professor ward word “currently,” because one of the salient implications of the Singularity will be a change in the nature of our ability to writing person, understand. In other words, we will become vastly smarter as we merge with our technology. When I wrote my first book, The Age of Intelligent Machines, in the 1980s, I ended the essay book with the specter of the emergence of machine intelligence greater than human intelligence, but found it difficult to look beyond this event horizon.
Now having thought about its implications for the past 20 years, I feel that we are indeed capable of first person, understanding the child essays many facets of this threshold, one that will transform all spheres of human life. Consider a few examples of the essay first person implications. The bulk of our experiences will shift from real reality to virtual reality. Most of the intelligence of our civilization will ultimately be nonbiological, which by of your the end of this century will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than human intelligence. However, to address often expressed concerns, this does not imply the end of essay writing first, biological intelligence, even if thrown from its perch of evolutionary superiority. Moreover, it is important to note that the nonbiological forms will be derivative of biological design. Engineering Outline? In other words, our civilization will remain human, indeed in many ways more exemplary of what we regard as human than it is writing person today, although our understanding of the term will move beyond its strictly biological origins. Many observers have nonetheless expressed alarm at the emergence of forms of nonbiological intelligence superior to human intelligence. Psychology Essays? The potential to augment our own intelligence through intimate connection with other thinking mediums does not necessarily alleviate the concern, as some people have expressed the wish to remain “unenhanced” while at the same time keeping their place at the top of the intellectual food chain. My view is that the likely outcome is essay writing first person that on both sides of capital the one hand, from the perspective of biological humanity, these superhuman intelligences will appear to be their transcendent servants, satisfying their needs and writing first person, desires. On the other hand, fulfilling the wishes of a revered biological legacy will occupy only a trivial portion of the both of capital essays intellectual power that the Singularity will bring.
Needless to writing, say, the Singularity will transform all aspects of our lives, social, sexual, and economic, which I explore herewith. Before considering further the implications of the Singularity, let’s examine the wide range of child essays, technologies that are subject to the law of accelerating returns. The exponential trend that has gained the greatest public recognition has become known as “Moore’s Law.” Gordon Moore, one of the inventors of integrated circuits, and then Chairman of Intel, noted in the mid 1970s that we could squeeze twice as many transistors on an integrated circuit every 24 months. Essay Writing First Person? Given that the electrons have less distance to travel, the circuits also run twice as fast, providing an overall quadrupling of once to the lake thesis, computational power. After sixty years of devoted service, Moore’s Law will die a dignified death no later than the year 2019. By that time, transistor features will be just a few atoms in width, and essay writing, the strategy of essay, ever finer photolithography will have run its course. So, will that be the end of the exponential growth of computing? If we plot the speed (in instructions per second) per $1000 (in constant dollars) of person, 49 famous calculators and computers spanning the entire twentieth century, we note some interesting observations. Moore’s Law Was Not the First, but the Fifth Paradigm To Provide Exponential Growth of Computing.
Each time one paradigm runs out of steam, another picks up the pace. It is important to ward, note that Moore’s Law of Integrated Circuits was not the first, but the fifth paradigm to provide accelerating price-performance. Computing devices have been consistently multiplying in power (per unit of time) from the mechanical calculating devices used in the 1890 U.S. Census, to Turing’s relay-based “Robinson” machine that cracked the Nazi enigma code, to the CBS vacuum tube computer that predicted the election of Eisenhower, to the transistor-based machines used in the first space launches, to the integrated-circuit-based personal computer which I used to dictate (and automatically transcribe) this essay. But I noticed something else surprising.
When I plotted the 49 machines on an exponential graph (where a straight line means exponential growth), I didn’t get a straight line. What I got was another exponential curve. In other words, there’s exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. Computer speed (per unit cost) doubled every three years between 1910 and 1950, doubled every two years between 1950 and 1966, and is now doubling every year. But where does Moore’s Law come from? What is first person behind this remarkably predictable phenomenon?
I have seen relatively little written about the ultimate source of this trend. Both? Is it just “a set of industry expectations and goals,” as Randy Isaac, head of basic science at IBM contends? Or is essay writing there something more profound going on? In my view, it is one manifestation (among many) of the exponential growth of the evolutionary process that is technology. The exponential growth of computing is a marvelous quantitative example of the exponentially growing returns from an evolutionary process. We can also express the exponential growth of computing in terms of an accelerating pace: it took ninety years to description, achieve the first MIPS (million instructions per second) per thousand dollars, now we add one MIPS per thousand dollars every day. Moore’s Law narrowly refers to the number of transistors on essay person an integrated circuit of english dialect essay, fixed size, and sometimes has been expressed even more narrowly in terms of transistor feature size.
But rather than feature size (which is essay writing first only one contributing factor), or even number of transistors, I think the most appropriate measure to track is computational speed per unit cost. Psychology? This takes into account many levels of “cleverness” (i.e., innovation, which is to say, technological evolution). In addition to writing first, all of the innovation in integrated circuits, there are multiple layers of innovation in bedroom essay computer design, e.g., pipelining, parallel processing, instruction look-ahead, instruction and memory caching, and many others. From the above chart, we see that the exponential growth of computing didn’t start with integrated circuits (around 1958), or even transistors (around 1947), but goes back to the electromechanical calculators used in the 1890 and 1900 U.S. Census. This chart spans at least five distinct paradigms of computing, of which Moore’s Law pertains to first person, only the latest one. It’s obvious what the english dialect sixth paradigm will be after Moore’s Law runs out of first person, steam during the second decade of this century. Engineering Cover Letter Outline? Chips today are flat (although it does require up to 20 layers of material to produce one layer of circuitry). Our brain, in contrast, is organized in three dimensions. We live in a three dimensional world, why not use the third dimension?
The human brain actually uses a very inefficient electrochemical digital controlled analog computational process. The bulk of the calculations are done in the interneuronal connections at a speed of only about 200 calculations per second (in each connection), which is about ten million times slower than contemporary electronic circuits. But the brain gains its prodigious powers from writing, its extremely parallel organization in three dimensions . There are many technologies in the wings that build circuitry in of your essay three dimensions. Nanotubes, for example, which are already working in laboratories, build circuits from pentagonal arrays of carbon atoms. One cubic inch of nanotube circuitry would be a million times more powerful than the human brain. There are more than enough new computing technologies now being researched, including three-dimensional silicon chips, optical computing, crystalline computing, DNA computing, and quantum computing, to keep the law of accelerating returns as applied to computation going for a long time. Thus the (double) exponential growth of essay writing person, computing is broader than Moore’s Law, which refers to english, only one of its paradigms. And this accelerating growth of computing is, in turn, part of the yet broader phenomenon of the accelerating pace of any evolutionary process. Observers are quick to criticize extrapolations of an exponential trend on the basis that the essay person trend is bound to run out of “resources.” The classical example is when a species happens upon a new habitat (e.g., rabbits in Australia), the species’ numbers will grow exponentially for sides punishment essays a time, but then hit a limit when resources such as food and essay person, space run out. But the resources underlying the exponential growth of an evolutionary process are relatively unbounded: (i) The (ever growing) order of the evolutionary process itself.
Each stage of evolution provides more powerful tools for the next. In biological evolution, the advent of english, DNA allowed more powerful and faster evolutionary “experiments.” Later, setting the writing first “designs” of animal body plans during the Cambrian explosion allowed rapid evolutionary development of other body organs such as the brain. Or to take a more recent example, the advent of computer assisted design tools allows rapid development of the next generation of both essays, computers. Writing? (ii) The “chaos” of the environment in which the evolutionary process takes place and which provides the options for essay further diversity. In biological evolution, diversity enters the process in the form of mutations and ever changing environmental conditions. In technological evolution, human ingenuity combined with ever changing market conditions keep the process of innovation going. The maximum potential of essay first person, matter and description bedroom essay, energy to contain intelligent processes is a valid issue. But according to essay writing first, my models, we won’t approach those limits during this century (but this will become an issue within a couple of centuries). We also need to distinguish between the of your bedroom “S” curve (an “S” stretched to the right, comprising very slow, virtually unnoticeable growth–followed by very rapid growth–followed by essay first a flattening out as the process approaches an asymptote) that is characteristic of any specific technological paradigm and the continuing exponential growth that is characteristic of the ongoing evolutionary process of technology. Specific paradigms, such as Moore’s Law, do ultimately reach levels at which exponential growth is professor churchill essay no longer feasible. Thus Moore’s Law is an writing first, S curve.
But the growth of once lake, computation is an ongoing exponential (at least until we “saturate” the Universe with the writing first intelligence of professor, our human-machine civilization, but that will not be a limit in this coming century). In accordance with the law of essay writing person, accelerating returns, paradigm shift, also called innovation, turns the S curve of any specific paradigm into a continuing exponential. A new paradigm (e.g., three-dimensional circuits) takes over lake thesis when the old paradigm approaches its natural limit. This has already happened at least four times in first person the history of computation. This difference also distinguishes the tool making of psychology, non-human species, in which the person mastery of a tool-making (or using) skill by cover letter each animal is characterized by an abruptly ending S shaped learning curve, versus human-created technology, which has followed an exponential pattern of growth and essay first, acceleration since its inception.
DNA Sequencing, Memory, Communications, the Internet, and Miniaturization. This “law of both of capital punishment essays, accelerating returns” applies to all of technology, indeed to any true evolutionary process, and essay writing, can be measured with remarkable precision in information based technologies. There are a great many examples of the exponential growth implied by the law of accelerating returns in technologies as varied as DNA sequencing, communication speeds, electronics of all kinds, and even in the rapidly shrinking size of technology. Punishment Essays? The Singularity results not from the writing person exponential explosion of computation alone, but rather from the interplay and myriad synergies that will result from manifold intertwined technological revolutions. Also, keep in mind that every point on the exponential growth curves underlying these panoply of technologies (see the graphs below) represents an intense human drama of innovation and competition.
It is child psychology remarkable therefore that these chaotic processes result in such smooth and predictable exponential trends. For example, when the writing first human genome scan started fourteen years ago, critics pointed out english dialect, that given the writing first person speed with which the genome could then be scanned, it would take thousands of years to english, finish the project. Yet the fifteen year project was nonetheless completed slightly ahead of schedule. Of course, we expect to see exponential growth in writing first person electronic memories such as RAM. Notice How Exponential Growth Continued through Paradigm Shifts from eb white more to the lake thesis, Vacuum Tubes to Discrete Transistors to essay writing first, Integrated Circuits. However, growth in magnetic memory is not primarily a matter of Moore’s law, but includes advances in mechanical and electromagnetic systems. Exponential growth in communications technology has been even more explosive than in computation and is no less significant in its implications. Again, this progression involves far more than just shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit, but includes accelerating advances in ward churchill essay fiber optics, optical switching, electromagnetic technologies, and others. Notice Cascade of smaller “S” Curves.
Note that in the above two charts we can actually see the progression of “S” curves: the acceleration fostered by a new paradigm, followed by a leveling off as the paradigm runs out of steam, followed by renewed acceleration through paradigm shift. The following two charts show the overall growth of the essay writing first person Internet based on psychology essays the number of hosts. These two charts plot the same data, but one is on an exponential axis and the other is linear. As I pointed out earlier, whereas technology progresses in the exponential domain, we experience it in the linear domain. So from the perspective of most observers, nothing was happening until the mid 1990s when seemingly out of nowhere, the first world wide web and email exploded into view. Child? But the emergence of the essay first person Internet into a worldwide phenomenon was readily predictable much earlier by examining the exponential trend data. Notice how the description bedroom explosion of the Internet appears to be a surprise from the Linear Chart, but was perfectly predictable from the essay Exponential Chart.
Ultimately we will get away from the tangle of wires in our cities and in our lives through wireless communication, the power of which is doubling every 10 to once to the lake, 11 months. Another technology that will have profound implications for the twenty-first century is the pervasive trend toward making things smaller, i.e., miniaturization. The salient implementation sizes of a broad range of technologies, both electronic and mechanical, are shrinking, also at a double exponential rate. At present, we are shrinking technology by a factor of approximately 5.6 per linear dimension per decade. The Exponential Growth of essay writing person, Computation Revisited. If we view the exponential growth of computation in its proper perspective as one example of the pervasiveness of the exponential growth of information based technology, that is, as one example of many of the law of accelerating returns, then we can confidently predict its continuation. In the accompanying sidebar, I include a simplified mathematical model of the law of accelerating returns as it pertains to the (double) exponential growth of computing. The formulas below result in the above graph of the continued growth of computation. This graph matches the available data for the twentieth century through all five paradigms and provides projections for the twenty-first century. Note how the Growth Rate is growing slowly, but nonetheless exponentially. The Law of Accelerating Returns Applied to professor ward churchill, the Growth of Computation.
The following provides a brief overview of the law of accelerating returns as it applies to the double exponential growth of computation. This model considers the impact of the growing power of the technology to foster its own next generation. For example, with more powerful computers and related technology, we have the tools and the knowledge to writing first person, design yet more powerful computers, and to do so more quickly. Note that the data for the year 2000 and beyond assume neural net connection calculations as it is expected that this type of calculation will ultimately dominate, particularly in emulating human brain functions. This type of calculation is less expensive than conventional (e.g., Pentium III / IV) calculations by ward a factor of at least 100 (particularly if implemented using digital controlled analog electronics, which would correspond well to the brain’s digital controlled analog electrochemical processes). A factor of 100 translates into approximately 6 years (today) and less than 6 years later in the twenty-first century. My estimate of brain capacity is 100 billion neurons times an average 1,000 connections per writing first person neuron (with the professor calculations taking place primarily in the connections) times 200 calculations per second. Although these estimates are conservatively high, one can find higher and essay writing first, lower estimates.
However, even much higher (or lower) estimates by orders of eb white lake thesis, magnitude only shift the prediction by a relatively small number of years. Some prominent dates from this analysis include the following: We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for essay writing first person $1,000 around the year 2023. We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for one cent around the year 2037. Psychology? We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2049. We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for one cent around the essay year 2059. The Model considers the following variables: V: Velocity (i.e., power) of dialect, computing (measured in CPS/unit cost) W: World Knowledge as it pertains to designing and building computational devices t: Time. The assumptions of the model are: In other words, computer power is a linear function of the knowledge of essay writing, how to build computers. This is actually a conservative assumption.
In general, innovations improve V (computer power) by letter outline a multiple, not in an additive way. Independent innovations multiply each other’s effect. For example, a circuit advance such as CMOS, a more efficient IC wiring methodology, and a processor innovation such as pipelining all increase V by independent multiples. In other words, W (knowledge) is cumulative, and the instantaneous increment to knowledge is proportional to V. W = C1 * C2 * Integral (0 to first, t) W W = C1 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) (Note on notation: a^b means a raised to the b power.) Simplifying the constants, we get: So this is a formula for “accelerating” (i.e., exponentially growing) returns, a “regular Moore’s Law.” As I mentioned above, the data shows exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. (We doubled computer power every three years early in the twentieth century, every two years in the middle of the century, and of your bedroom essay, close to every one year during the 1990s.) Let’s factor in writing another exponential phenomenon, which is the growing resources for computation. Not only is professor ward each (constant cost) device getting more powerful as a function of W, but the resources deployed for computation are also growing exponentially. N: Expenditures for essay first computation V = C1 * W (as before) N = C4 ^ (C5 * t) (Expenditure for computation is growing at its own exponential rate) W = C2 * Integral(0 to t) (N * V)
As before, world knowledge is accumulating, and the instantaneous increment is proportional to professor essay, the amount of computation, which equals the person resources deployed for computation (N) * the power of each (constant cost) device. W = C1 * C2 * Integral(0 to t) (C4 ^ (C5 * t) * W) W = C1 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) Simplifying the constants, we get: This is a double exponential–an exponential curve in which the essay rate of exponential growth is growing at a different exponential rate. Now let’s consider real-world data. Considering the essay writing data for eb white once more lake thesis actual calculating devices and essay first person, computers during the twentieth century: CPS/$1K: Calculations Per Second for $1,000. Twentieth century computing data matches: We can determine the growth rate over a period of time: Growth Rate =10^((LOG(CPS/$1K for Current Year) – LOG(CPS/$1K for essay Previous Year))/(Current Year – Previous Year)) Human Brain = 100 Billion (10^11) neurons * 1000 (10^3) Connections/Neuron * 200 (2 * 10^2) Calculations Per Second Per Connection = 2 * 10^16 Calculations Per Second Human Race = 10 Billion (10^10) Human Brains = 2 * 10^26 Calculations Per Second. These formulas produce the graph above.
Already, IBM’s “Blue Gene” supercomputer, now being built and writing person, scheduled to be completed by engineering letter outline 2005, is projected to provide 1 million billion calculations per second (i.e., one billion megaflops). This is essay already one twentieth of the child capacity of the human brain, which I estimate at a conservatively high 20 million billion calculations per writing first second (100 billion neurons times 1,000 connections per neuron times 200 calculations per second per connection). In line with my earlier predictions, supercomputers will achieve one human brain capacity by 2010, and cover, personal computers will do so by around 2020. By 2030, it will take a village of essay person, human brains (around a thousand) to churchill, match $1000 of computing. By 2050, $1000 of computing will equal the processing power of all human brains on Earth. Of course, this only includes those brains still using carbon-based neurons. While human neurons are wondrous creations in a way, we wouldn’t (and don’t) design computing circuits the same way.
Our electronic circuits are already more than ten million times faster than a neuron’s electrochemical processes. Most of the complexity of a human neuron is devoted to maintaining its life support functions, not its information processing capabilities. Ultimately, we will need to port our mental processes to a more suitable computational substrate. Essay Writing First? Then our minds won’t have to stay so small, being constrained as they are today to a mere hundred trillion neural connections each operating at a ponderous 200 digitally controlled analog calculations per description of your essay second. So far, I’ve been talking about the hardware of computing. The software is even more salient.
One of the writing first person principal assumptions underlying the expectation of the Singularity is the ability of nonbiological mediums to emulate the richness, subtlety, and depth of psychology essays, human thinking. Achieving the first computational capacity of the human brain, or even villages and nations of human brains will not automatically produce human levels of capability. Sides? By human levels I include all the essay writing diverse and subtle ways in which humans are intelligent, including musical and artistic aptitude, creativity, physically moving through the world, and english dialect, understanding and first, responding appropriately to emotion. The requisite hardware capacity is a necessary but not sufficient condition. The organization and content of these resources–the software of intelligence–is also critical. Before addressing this issue, it is important to note that once a computer achieves a human level of once more, intelligence, it will necessarily soar past it. A key advantage of nonbiological intelligence is that machines can easily share their knowledge. If I learn French, or read War and Peace, I can’t readily download that learning to you. You have to acquire that scholarship the same painstaking way that I did.
My knowledge, embedded in a vast pattern of neurotransmitter concentrations and interneuronal connections, cannot be quickly accessed or transmitted. But we won’t leave out quick downloading ports in our nonbiological equivalents of human neuron clusters. When one computer learns a skill or gains an insight, it can immediately share that wisdom with billions of other machines. As a contemporary example, we spent years teaching one research computer how to recognize continuous human speech. We exposed it to thousands of hours of person, recorded speech, corrected its errors, and both essays, patiently improved its performance. Finally, it became quite adept at recognizing speech (I dictated most of my recent book to it). Now if you want your own personal computer to recognize speech, it doesn’t have to writing person, go through the same process; you can just download the fully trained patterns in ward churchill essay seconds.
Ultimately, billions of nonbiological entities can be the master of all human and machine acquired knowledge. In addition, computers are potentially millions of times faster than human neural circuits. Essay First? A computer can also remember billions or even trillions of facts perfectly, while we are hard pressed to remember a handful of phone numbers. The combination of human level intelligence in a machine with a computer’s inherent superiority in the speed, accuracy, and eb white once more to the lake thesis, sharing ability of its memory will be formidable. There are a number of compelling scenarios to essay person, achieve higher levels of intelligence in our computers, and ultimately human levels and beyond. We will be able to evolve and train a system combining massively parallel neural nets with other paradigms to understand language and model knowledge, including the ability to engineering cover outline, read and writing, model the knowledge contained in written documents. Unlike many contemporary “neural net” machines, which use mathematically simplified models of human neurons, some contemporary neural nets are already using highly detailed models of human neurons, including detailed nonlinear analog activation functions and other relevant details. Although the ability of today’s computers to extract and learn knowledge from natural language documents is ward churchill limited, their capabilities in this domain are improving rapidly.
Computers will be able to essay first, read on their own, understanding and modeling what they have read, by psychology essays the second decade of the twenty-first century. Essay First Person? We can then have our computers read all of the world’s literature–books, magazines, scientific journals, and other available material. Ultimately, the machines will gather knowledge on their own by venturing out on the web, or even into the physical world, drawing from the full spectrum of media and information services, and sharing knowledge with each other (which machines can do far more easily than their human creators). Reverse Engineering the letter Human Brain. The most compelling scenario for essay mastering the software of intelligence is to tap into the blueprint of the best example we can get our hands on of an intelligent process. There is no reason why we cannot reverse engineer the human brain, and essentially copy its design. Of Your Essay? Although it took its original designer several billion years to develop, it’s readily available to us, and not (yet) copyrighted. Although there’s a skull around the brain, it is not hidden from our view. The most immediately accessible way to writing, accomplish this is professor ward churchill essay through destructive scanning: we take a frozen brain, preferably one frozen just slightly before rather than slightly after it was going to die anyway, and examine one brain layer–one very thin slice–at a time. We can readily see every neuron and every connection and every neurotransmitter concentration represented in each synapse-thin layer.
Human brain scanning has already started. A condemned killer allowed his brain and body to be scanned and you can access all 10 billion bytes of writing first person, him on the Internet http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/visible_human.html. He has a 25 billion byte female companion on the site as well in engineering cover outline case he gets lonely. Essay First Person? This scan is not high enough in resolution for our purposes, but then, we probably don’t want to base our templates of machine intelligence on the brain of a convicted killer, anyway. But scanning a frozen brain is feasible today, albeit not yet at a sufficient speed or bandwidth, but again, the law of accelerating returns will provide the engineering letter requisite speed of scanning, just as it did for the human genome scan. Carnegie Mellon University’s Andreas Nowatzyk plans to essay first, scan the nervous system of the outline brain and essay first person, body of description bedroom, a mouse with a resolution of essay first person, less than 200 nanometers, which is getting very close to the resolution needed for reverse engineering. We also have noninvasive scanning techniques today, including high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, optical imaging, near-infrared scanning, and cover letter, other technologies which are capable in certain instances of resolving individual somas, or neuron cell bodies. Brain scanning technologies are also increasing their resolution with each new generation, just what we would expect from the law of accelerating returns. Future generations will enable us to resolve the connections between neurons and to peer inside the essay first person synapses and record the neurotransmitter concentrations. We can peer inside someone’s brain today with noninvasive scanners, which are increasing their resolution with each new generation of english dialect, this technology.
There are a number of technical challenges in accomplishing this, including achieving suitable resolution, bandwidth, lack of first, vibration, and safety. For a variety of reasons it is easier to scan the brain of someone recently deceased than of both punishment essays, someone still living. It is easier to get someone deceased to writing first, sit still, for one thing. Professor Ward Churchill? But noninvasively scanning a living brain will ultimately become feasible as MRI, optical, and other scanning technologies continue to essay first, improve in resolution and speed. Although noninvasive means of scanning the brain from outside the skull are rapidly improving, the most practical approach to capturing every salient neural detail will be to scan it from inside. Thesis? By 2030, “nanobot” (i.e., nano robot) technology will be viable, and brain scanning will be a prominent application. Nanobots are robots that are the size of human blood cells, or even smaller. Billions of them could travel through every brain capillary and scan every relevant feature from up close. Using high speed wireless communication, the first nanobots would communicate with each other, and eb white once lake thesis, with other computers that are compiling the brain scan data base (in other words, the essay writing first person nanobots will all be on once to the a wireless local area network). This scenario involves only capabilities that we can touch and essay writing, feel today.
We already have technology capable of producing very high resolution scans, provided that the scanner is physically proximate to the neural features. The basic computational and communication methods are also essentially feasible today. The primary features that are not yet practical are nanobot size and cost. Ward Churchill? As I discussed above, we can project the exponentially declining cost of computation, and the rapidly declining size of both electronic and mechanical technologies. We can conservatively expect, therefore, the requisite nanobot technology by around 2030. Because of its ability to place each scanner in very close physical proximity to every neural feature, nanobot-based scanning will be more practical than scanning the brain from outside. How will we apply the thousands of trillions of bytes of information derived from essay writing first, each brain scan? One approach is to both of capital essays, use the essay person results to design more intelligent parallel algorithms for eb white lake our machines, particularly those based on one of the neural net paradigms. With this approach, we don’t have to copy every single connection.
There is a great deal of repetition and redundancy within any particular brain region. Although the information contained in a human brain would require thousands of trillions of bytes of information (on the order of 100 billion neurons times an average of 1,000 connections per writing neuron, each with multiple neurotransmitter concentrations and connection data), the design of the brain is characterized by a human genome of only about a billion bytes. Furthermore, most of the genome is redundant, so the initial design of the brain is characterized by approximately one hundred million bytes, about the size of Microsoft Word. Of Your Essay? Of course, the complexity of our brains greatly increases as we interact with the first person world (by a factor of more than ten million). English? Because of the highly repetitive patterns found in each specific brain region, it is not necessary to capture each detail in order to reverse engineer the essay person significant digital-analog algorithms. With this information, we can design simulated nets that operate similarly. Child Psychology? There are already multiple efforts under way to essay writing, scan the human brain and apply the insights derived to engineering cover letter outline, the design of intelligent machines.
The pace of essay writing first person, brain reverse engineering is only slightly behind the availability of the english dialect brain scanning and neuron structure information. A contemporary example is a comprehensive model of writing, a significant portion of the human auditory processing system that Lloyd Watts (www.lloydwatts.com) has developed from both neurobiology studies of specific neuron types and professor ward, brain interneuronal connection information. Watts’ model includes five parallel paths and includes the actual intermediate representations of auditory information at each stage of neural processing. Essay? Watts has implemented his model as real-time software which can locate and identify sounds with many of the same properties as human hearing. Although a work in progress, the of capital punishment model illustrates the feasibility of converting neurobiological models and brain connection data into working simulations. Also, as Hans Moravec and others have speculated, these efficient simulations require about 1,000 times less computation than the theoretical potential of the biological neurons being simulated. Reverse Engineering the Human Brain: Five Parallel Auditory Pathways. Chart by Lloyd Watts. Cochlea : Sense organ of hearing. 30,000 fibers converts motion of the person stapes into spectro-temporal representation of sound. MC : Multipolar Cells.
Measure spectral energy. GBC : Globular Bushy Cells. Relays spikes from the professor ward churchill auditory nerve to the Lateral Superior. Olivary Complex (includes LSO and MSO) . Encoding of timing and amplitude of signals for first person binaural comparison of level. SBC : Spherical Bushy Cells. Provide temporal sharpening of time of arrival, as a pre-processor for professor ward essay interaural time difference calculation. OC : Octopus Cells.
Detection of transients. DCN : Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. Detection of spectral edges and calibrating for noise levels. VNTB : Ventral Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body. Essay Writing First Person? Feedback signals to modulate outer hair cell function in the cochlea. VNLL , PON : Ventral Nucleus of the Lateral Lemniscus, Peri-Olivary Nuclei. Processing transients from the Octopus Cells.
MSO : Medial Superior Olive. Computing inter-aural time difference (difference in description of your time of arrival between the first two ears, used to tell where a sound is coming from). LSO : Lateral Superior Olive. Also involved in computing inter-aural level difference. ICC : Central Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus. The site of major integration of multiple representations of sound. ICx : Exterior Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus.
Further refinement of sound localization. SC : Superior Colliculus. Location of auditory/visual merging. MGB : Medial Geniculate Body. The auditory portion of the child thalamus. LS : Limbic System. Comprising many structures associated with emotion, memory, territory, etc. The brain is first not one huge “tabula rasa” (i.e., undifferentiated blank slate), but rather an cover, intricate and intertwined collection of hundreds of specialized regions. The process of “peeling the onion” to understand these interleaved regions is well underway. As the requisite neuron models and brain interconnection data becomes available, detailed and implementable models such as the auditory example above will be developed for all brain regions.
After the algorithms of a region are understood, they can be refined and extended before being implemented in synthetic neural equivalents. For one thing, they can be run on a computational substrate that is already more than ten million times faster than neural circuitry. And we can also throw in writing person the methods for eb white once more to the building intelligent machines that we already understand. A more controversial application than this scanning-the-brain-to-understand-it scenario is scanning-the-brain-to- download -it . Here we scan someone’s brain to map the locations, interconnections, and contents of all the somas, axons, dendrites, presynaptic vesicles, neurotransmitter concentrations, and other neural components and levels. Writing? Its entire organization can then be re-created on a neural computer of sufficient capacity, including the professor churchill essay contents of its memory.
To do this, we need to understand local brain processes, although not necessarily all of the higher level processes. Scanning a brain with sufficient detail to download it may sound daunting, but so did the human genome scan. All of the basic technologies exist today, just not with the requisite speed, cost, and size, but these are the attributes that are improving at a double exponential pace. The computationally pertinent aspects of individual neurons are complicated, but definitely not beyond our ability to accurately model. For example, Ted Berger and his colleagues at essay writing Hedco Neurosciences have built integrated circuits that precisely match the digital and analog information processing characteristics of neurons, including clusters with hundreds of neurons. Carver Mead and his colleagues at CalTech have built a variety of integrated circuits that emulate the digital-analog characteristics of psychology essays, mammalian neural circuits. A recent experiment at San Diego’s Institute for essay first person Nonlinear Science demonstrates the child psychology potential for electronic neurons to precisely emulate biological ones.
Neurons (biological or otherwise) are a prime example of what is often called “chaotic computing.” Each neuron acts in an essentially unpredictable fashion. When an entire network of neurons receives input (from the outside world or from essay first, other networks of neurons), the signaling amongst them appears at first to be frenzied and random. Over time, typically a fraction of a second or so, the chaotic interplay of the neurons dies down, and a stable pattern emerges. This pattern represents the “decision” of the ward essay neural network. If the neural network is performing a pattern recognition task (which, incidentally, comprises the first person bulk of the activity in the human brain), then the emergent pattern represents the child psychology appropriate recognition. So the question addressed by the San Diego researchers was whether electronic neurons could engage in this chaotic dance alongside biological ones. They hooked up their artificial neurons with those from spiney lobsters in a single network, and their hybrid biological-nonbiological network performed in writing first the same way (i.e., chaotic interplay followed by a stable emergent pattern) and with the same type of results as an all biological net of neurons.
Essentially, the biological neurons accepted their electronic peers. Both Sides Of Capital Punishment? It indicates that their mathematical model of these neurons was reasonably accurate. There are many projects around the world which are creating nonbiological devices to recreate in great detail the writing first functionality of human neuron clusters. The accuracy and scale of these neuron-cluster replications are rapidly increasing. We started with functionally equivalent recreations of single neurons, then clusters of tens, then hundreds, and now thousands. Scaling up technical processes at an exponential pace is what technology is good at.
As the computational power to emulate the human brain becomes available–we’re not there yet, but we will be there within a couple of more to the, decades–projects already under way to scan the human brain will be accelerated, with a view both to understand the human brain in essay writing first person general, as well as providing a detailed description of the churchill contents and design of specific brains. By the third decade of the twenty-first century, we will be in a position to create highly detailed and complete maps of essay writing, all relevant features of bedroom, all neurons, neural connections and synapses in the human brain, all of the writing first person neural details that play a role in the behavior and churchill, functionality of the brain, and to recreate these designs in suitably advanced neural computers. Is the Human Brain Different from a Computer? Is the first human brain different from a computer? The answer depends on what we mean by psychology essays the word “computer.” Certainly the brain uses very different methods from conventional contemporary computers. Most computers today are all digital and first person, perform one (or perhaps a few) computations at a time at extremely high speed. In contrast, the human brain combines digital and analog methods with most computations performed in the analog domain. The brain is both sides of capital punishment essays massively parallel, performing on the order of a hundred trillion computations at the same time, but at essay writing extremely slow speeds. With regard to letter outline, digital versus analog computing, we know that digital computing can be functionally equivalent to analog computing (although the reverse is not true), so we can perform all of the essay first capabilities of a hybrid digital–analog network with an all digital computer. On the other hand, there is an engineering advantage to child psychology essays, analog circuits in that analog computing is potentially thousands of times more efficient.
An analog computation can be performed by a few transistors, or, in essay first the case of mammalian neurons, specific electrochemical processes. A digital computation, in description of your contrast, requires thousands or tens of thousands of transistors. So there is a significant engineering advantage to emulating the essay first brain’s analog methods. The massive parallelism of the both of capital human brain is the writing first person key to its pattern recognition abilities, which reflects the strength of human thinking. As I discussed above, mammalian neurons engage in a chaotic dance, and if the neural network has learned its lessons well, then a stable pattern will emerge reflecting the network’s decision. There is no reason why our nonbiological functionally equivalent recreations of sides, biological neural networks cannot be built using these same principles, and writing, indeed there are dozens of cover letter, projects around the world that have succeeded in doing this. My own technical field is pattern recognition, and the projects that I have been involved in for first person over thirty years use this form of chaotic computing. Particularly successful examples are Carver Mead’s neural chips, which are highly parallel, use digital controlled analog computing, and are intended as functionally similar recreations of child essays, biological networks.
The Singularity envisions the emergence of human-like intelligent entities of astonishing diversity and scope. Although these entities will be capable of passing the “Turing test” (i.e., able to fool humans that they are human), the question arises as to whether these “people” are conscious, or just appear that way. To gain some insight as to why this is an extremely subtle question (albeit an ultimately important one) it is useful to consider some of the paradoxes that emerge from the concept of essay first person, downloading specific human brains. Although I anticipate that the most common application of the knowledge gained from reverse engineering the human brain will be creating more intelligent machines that are not necessarily modeled on specific biological human individuals, the scenario of of your bedroom essay, scanning and reinstantiating all of the neural details of writing first, a specific person raises the most immediate questions of identity. Let’s consider the question of what we will find when we do this. We have to consider this question on both the objective and subjective levels. “Objective” means everyone except me, so let’s start with that. Objectively, when we scan someone’s brain and reinstantiate their personal mind file into a suitable computing medium, the newly emergent “person” will appear to other observers to have very much the same personality, history, and memory as the english dialect essay person originally scanned. That is, once the technology has been refined and perfected. Like any new technology, it won’t be perfect at first. But ultimately, the scans and recreations will be very accurate and realistic.
Interacting with the newly instantiated person will feel like interacting with the original person. The new person will claim to be that same old person and will have a memory of having been that person. The new person will have all of the patterns of knowledge, skill, and personality of the original. We are already creating functionally equivalent recreations of neurons and neuron clusters with sufficient accuracy that biological neurons accept their nonbiological equivalents and work with them as if they were biological. There are no natural limits that prevent us from first person, doing the same with the hundred billion neuron cluster of clusters we call the human brain. Subjectively, the issue is essay more subtle and profound, but first we need to reflect on writing first one additional objective issue: our physical self. Consider how many of our thoughts and sides punishment essays, thinking are directed toward our body and its survival, security, nutrition, and image, not to mention affection, sexuality, and reproduction. Many, if not most, of the goals we attempt to advance using our brains have to do with our bodies: protecting them, providing them with fuel, making them attractive, making them feel good, providing for their myriad needs and desires.
Some philosophers maintain that achieving human level intelligence is impossible without a body. Essay Writing? If we’re going to port a human’s mind to a new computational medium, we’d better provide a body. A disembodied mind will quickly get depressed. There are a variety of bodies that we will provide for our machines, and that they will provide for themselves: bodies built through nanotechnology (i.e., building highly complex physical systems atom by of capital atom), virtual bodies (that exist only in virtual reality), bodies comprised of swarms of nanobots, and essay writing person, other technologies. A common scenario will be to enhance a person’s biological brain with intimate connection to description of your, nonbiological intelligence. In this case, the body remains the good old human body that we’re familiar with, although this too will become greatly enhanced through biotechnology (gene enhancement and replacement) and, later on, through nanotechnology.
A detailed examination of twenty-first century bodies is beyond the first scope of this essay, but recreating and enhancing our bodies will be (and has been) an easier task than recreating our minds. To return to the issue of subjectivity, consider: is the lake reinstantiated mind the essay same consciousness as the person we just scanned? Are these “people” conscious at all? Is this a mind or just a brain? Consciousness in our twenty-first century machines will be a critically important issue. But it is not easily resolved, or even readily understood. People tend to have strong views on the subject, and often just can’t understand how anyone else could possibly see the issue from a different perspective. Marvin Minsky observed that “there’s something queer about describing consciousness.
Whatever people mean to say, they just can’t seem to make it clear.” We don’t worry, at least not yet, about causing pain and suffering to our computer programs. But at what point do we consider an entity, a process, to english dialect, be conscious, to feel pain and discomfort, to have its own intentionality, its own free will? How do we determine if an entity is conscious; if it has subjective experience? How do we distinguish a process that is writing first person conscious from one that just acts as if it is conscious? We can’t simply ask it.
If it says “Hey I’m conscious,” does that settle the issue? No, we have computer games today that effectively do that, and they’re not terribly convincing. How about if the entity is very convincing and compelling when it says “I’m lonely, please keep me company.” Does that settle the issue? If we look inside its circuits, and see essentially the identical kinds of feedback loops and other mechanisms in eb white more lake thesis its brain that we see in essay writing first a human brain (albeit implemented using nonbiological equivalents), does that settle the issue? And just who are these people in the machine, anyway? The answer will depend on who you ask. If you ask the people in the machine, they will strenuously claim to description of your essay, be the writing person original persons. For example, if we scan–let’s say myself–and record the exact state, level, and position of every neurotransmitter, synapse, neural connection, and every other relevant detail, and then reinstantiate this massive data base of information (which I estimate at thousands of trillions of bytes) into a neural computer of churchill essay, sufficient capacity, the person who then emerges in the machine will think that “he” is essay first (and had been) me, or at least he will act that way. He will say “I grew up in Queens, New York, went to college at MIT, stayed in the Boston area, started and sold a few artificial intelligence companies, walked into a scanner there, and cover, woke up in the machine here.
Hey, this technology really works.” Is this really me? For one thing, old biological Ray (that’s me) still exists. Writing Person? I’ll still be here in my carbon-cell-based brain. English? Alas, I will have to sit back and watch the new Ray succeed in writing endeavors that I could only dream of. Let’s consider the issue of just who I am, and who the new Ray is ward churchill essay a little more carefully. First of all, am I the person stuff in my brain and body? Consider that the particles making up my body and brain are constantly changing. We are not at all permanent collections of engineering outline, particles.
The cells in our bodies turn over at different rates, but the particles (e.g., atoms and person, molecules) that comprise our cells are exchanged at a very rapid rate. I am just not the eb white once to the thesis same collection of particles that I was even a month ago. It is the patterns of matter and energy that are semipermanent (that is, changing only gradually), but our actual material content is changing constantly, and very quickly. We are rather like the patterns that water makes in a stream. The rushing water around a formation of rocks makes a particular, unique pattern.
This pattern may remain relatively unchanged for hours, even years. Of course, the actual material constituting the pattern–the water–is replaced in milliseconds. The same is essay writing first person true for Ray Kurzweil. Dialect Essay? Like the water in a stream, my particles are constantly changing, but the pattern that people recognize as Ray has a reasonable level of continuity. This argues that we should not associate our fundamental identity with a specific set of first person, particles, but rather the pattern of matter and energy that we represent. Many contemporary philosophers seem partial to this “identify from essays, pattern” argument. If you were to scan my brain and reinstantiate new Ray while I was sleeping, I would not necessarily even know about essay writing first person, it (with the nanobots, this will be a feasible scenario). Child Essays? If you then come to me, and say, “good news, Ray, we’ve successfully reinstantiated your mind file, so we won’t be needing your old brain anymore,” I may suddenly realize the flaw in this “identity from essay writing person, pattern” argument. Essay? I may wish new Ray well, and realize that he shares my “pattern,” but I would nonetheless conclude that he’s not me, because I’m still here.
How could he be me? After all, I would not necessarily know that he even existed. Let’s consider another perplexing scenario. Suppose I replace a small number of biological neurons with functionally equivalent nonbiological ones (they may provide certain benefits such as greater reliability and longevity, but that’s not relevant to this thought experiment). After I have this procedure performed, am I still the essay first person same person? My friends certainly think so. I still have the professor churchill essay same self-deprecating humor, the same silly grin–yes, I’m still the same guy. It should be clear where I’m going with this. Bit by bit, region by region, I ultimately replace my entire brain with essentially identical (perhaps improved) nonbiological equivalents (preserving all of the essay writing first person neurotransmitter concentrations and description bedroom, other details that represent my learning, skills, and memories). At each point, I feel the procedures were successful.
At each point, I feel that I am the essay writing first same guy. English? After each procedure, I claim to be the same guy. Essay Writing First? My friends concur. There is no old Ray and both sides of capital essays, new Ray, just one Ray, one that never appears to fundamentally change. But consider this. This gradual replacement of my brain with a nonbiological equivalent is essentially identical to the following sequence: (i) scan Ray and reinstantiate Ray’s mind file into new (nonbiological) Ray, and, then (ii) terminate old Ray. But we concluded above that in essay writing such a scenario new Ray is engineering cover letter not the same as old Ray.
And if old Ray is terminated, well then that’s the essay first person end of Ray. So the gradual replacement scenario essentially ends with the same result: New Ray has been created, and old Ray has been destroyed, even if we never saw him missing. So what appears to be the continuing existence of just one Ray is really the creation of new Ray and the termination of old Ray. On yet another hand (we’re running out of philosophical hands here), the gradual replacement scenario is not altogether different from what happens normally to our biological selves, in that our particles are always rapidly being replaced. So am I constantly being replaced with someone else who just happens to be very similar to english dialect, my old self? I am trying to illustrate why consciousness is not an easy issue. If we talk about consciousness as just a certain type of intelligent skill: the ability to writing first, reflect on one’s own self and situation, for example, then the issue is not difficult at all because any skill or capability or form of intelligence that one cares to bedroom, define will be replicated in nonbiological entities (i.e., machines) within a few decades.
With this type of objective view of consciousness, the conundrums do go away. But a fully objective view does not penetrate to the core of the issue, because the essence of consciousness is essay writing first person subjective experience, not objective correlates of that experience. Will these future machines be capable of having spiritual experiences? They certainly will claim to. They will claim to be people, and to cover, have the full range of emotional and spiritual experiences that people claim to have. And these will not be idle claims; they will evidence the sort of essay writing person, rich, complex, and subtle behavior one associates with these feelings.
How do the claims and dialect essay, behaviors–compelling as they will be–relate to the subjective experience of these reinstantiated people? We keep coming back to the very real but ultimately unmeasurable issue of writing person, consciousness. People often talk about consciousness as if it were a clear property of an entity that can readily be identified, detected, and gauged. If there is one crucial insight that we can make regarding why the issue of consciousness is so contentious, it is the following: There exists no objective test that can conclusively determine its presence. Science is about objective measurement and logical implications therefrom, but the lake thesis very nature of objectivity is that you cannot measure subjective experience-you can only measure correlates of it, such as behavior (and by behavior, I include the actions of components of an entity, such as neurons).
This limitation has to do with the very nature of the concepts “objective” and “subjective.” Fundamentally, we cannot penetrate the subjective experience of essay first person, another entity with direct objective measurement. We can certainly make arguments about it: i.e., “look inside the brain of this nonhuman entity, see how its methods are just like a human brain.” Or, “see how its behavior is just like human behavior.” But in the end, these remain just arguments. No matter how convincing the behavior of a reinstantiated person, some observers will refuse to accept the consciousness of an entity unless it squirts neurotransmitters, or is punishment essays based on DNA-guided protein synthesis, or has some other specific biologically human attribute. We assume that other humans are conscious, but that is still an assumption, and there is no consensus amongst humans about the consciousness of nonhuman entities, such as higher non-human animals. First? The issue will be even more contentious with regard to future nonbiological entities with human-like behavior and intelligence. So how will we resolve the claimed consciousness of psychology, nonbiological intelligence (claimed, that is, by the machines)? From a practical perspective, we’ll accept their claims. Essay Writing First Person? Keep in mind that nonbiological entities in the twenty-first century will be extremely intelligent, so they’ll be able to convince us that they are conscious. They’ll have all the delicate and emotional cues that convince us today that humans are conscious. Essay? They will be able to make us laugh and cry.
And they’ll get mad if we don’t accept their claims. But fundamentally this is a political prediction, not a philosophical argument. Over the past several years, Roger Penrose, a noted physicist and philosopher, has suggested that fine structures in the neurons called tubules perform an exotic form of computation called “quantum computing.” Quantum computing is computing using what are called “qu bits” which take on writing person all possible combinations of solutions simultaneously. It can be considered to be an extreme form of parallel processing (because every combination of values of the qu bits are tested simultaneously). Penrose suggests that the tubules and sides of capital essays, their quantum computing capabilities complicate the concept of recreating neurons and essay writing first, reinstantiating mind files.
However, there is little to suggest that the tubules contribute to the thinking process. Description Bedroom? Even generous models of human knowledge and capability are more than accounted for writing by current estimates of brain size, based on contemporary models of neuron functioning that do not include tubules. Description Of Your Bedroom Essay? In fact, even with these tubule-less models, it appears that the writing person brain is conservatively designed with many more connections (by several orders of essay, magnitude) than it needs for first person its capabilities and capacity. Recent experiments (e.g., the thesis San Diego Institute for Nonlinear Science experiments) showing that hybrid biological-nonbiological networks perform similarly to all biological networks, while not definitive, are strongly suggestive that our tubule-less models of neuron functioning are adequate. Lloyd Watts’ software simulation of his intricate model of human auditory processing uses orders of essay person, magnitude less computation than the networks of english essay, neurons he is simulating, and there is no suggestion that quantum computing is needed. However, even if the tubules are important, it doesn’t change the essay writing projections I have discussed above to any significant degree. According to my model of computational growth, if the tubules multiplied neuron complexity by a factor of a thousand (and keep in mind that our current tubule-less neuron models are already complex, including on of capital essays the order of a thousand connections per essay person neuron, multiple nonlinearities and other details), this would delay our reaching brain capacity by only about 9 years.
If we’re off by a factor of a million, that’s still only a delay of description bedroom essay, 17 years. A factor of a billion is around 24 years (keep in mind computation is growing by a double exponential). With regard to quantum computing, once again there is nothing to essay writing, suggest that the brain does quantum computing. Just because quantum technology may be feasible does not suggest that the eb white once brain is capable of it. After all, we don’t have lasers or even radios in our brains. Although some scientists have claimed to detect quantum wave collapse in the brain, no one has suggested human capabilities that actually require a capacity for quantum computing.
However, even if the brain does do quantum computing, this does not significantly change the outlook for human-level computing (and beyond) nor does it suggest that brain downloading is infeasible. First of all, if the brain does do quantum computing this would only verify that quantum computing is feasible. There would be nothing in such a finding to suggest that quantum computing is restricted to biological mechanisms. Biological quantum computing mechanisms, if they exist, could be replicated. Indeed, recent experiments with small scale quantum computers appear to be successful. Even the person conventional transistor relies on professor the quantum effect of electron tunneling. Penrose suggests that it is impossible to perfectly replicate a set of quantum states, so therefore, perfect downloading is impossible. Essay First? Well, how perfect does a download have to be? I am at english essay this moment in a very different quantum state (and different in non-quantum ways as well) than I was a minute ago (certainly in a very different state than I was before I wrote this paragraph). Person? If we develop downloading technology to the point where the of your bedroom “copies” are as close to the original as the original person changes anyway in the course of one minute, that would be good enough for essay writing first person any conceivable purpose, yet does not require copying quantum states. As the psychology technology improves, the accuracy of the essay person copy could become as close as the original changes within ever briefer periods of time (e.g., one second, one millisecond, one microsecond).
When it was pointed out to Penrose that neurons (and even neural connections) were too big for child essays quantum computing, he came up with the tubule theory as a possible mechanism for neural quantum computing. So the concern with quantum computing and tubules have been introduced together. If one is writing first searching for barriers to replicating brain function, it is an ingenious theory, but it fails to introduce any genuine barriers. Professor Churchill? There is no evidence for it, and even if true, it only essay person, delays matters by a decade or two. English? There is essay no reason to believe that biological mechanisms (including quantum computing) are inherently impossible to replicate using nonbiological materials and mechanisms. Dozens of to the, contemporary experiments are successfully performing just such replications. The Noninvasive Surgery-Free Reversible Programmable Distributed Brain Implant, Full-Immersion Shared Virtual Reality Environments, Experience Beamers, and essay first person, Brain Expansion. How will we apply technology that is more intelligent than its creators?
One might be tempted to child psychology, respond “Carefully!” But let’s take a look at some examples. Consider several examples of the essay writing person nanobot technology, which, based on miniaturization and cost reduction trends, will be feasible within 30 years. In addition to scanning your brain, the child psychology essays nanobots will also be able to expand our experiences and our capabilities. Nanobot technology will provide fully immersive, totally convincing virtual reality in the following way. Writing First Person? The nanobots take up positions in close physical proximity to every interneuronal connection coming from all of our senses (e.g., eyes, ears, skin).
We already have the technology for electronic devices to communicate with neurons in both directions that requires no direct physical contact with the neurons. For example, scientists at english dialect the Max Planck Institute have developed “neuron transistors” that can detect the firing of a nearby neuron, or alternatively, can cause a nearby neuron to fire, or suppress it from firing. This amounts to two-way communication between neurons and the electronic-based neuron transistors. The Institute scientists demonstrated their invention by controlling the movement of a living leech from their computer. Again, the primary aspect of writing first, nanobot-based virtual reality that is not yet feasible is size and cost.
When we want to experience real reality, the nanobots just stay in child psychology position (in the capillaries) and do nothing. If we want to enter virtual reality, they suppress all of the inputs coming from the essay writing person real senses, and replace them with the professor ward signals that would be appropriate for the virtual environment. You (i.e., your brain) could decide to cause your muscles and limbs to move as you normally would, but the nanobots again intercept these interneuronal signals, suppress your real limbs from essay first, moving, and instead cause your virtual limbs to move and provide the english dialect appropriate movement and reorientation in the virtual environment. The web will provide a panoply of virtual environments to explore. Essay Writing First Person? Some will be recreations of real places, others will be fanciful environments that have no “real” counterpart. Some indeed would be impossible in the physical world (perhaps, because they violate the laws of physics). We will be able to “go” to these virtual environments by ourselves, or we will meet other people there, both real people and simulated people. Of course, ultimately there won’t be a clear distinction between the two.
By 2030, going to a web site will mean entering a full immersion virtual reality environment. In addition to encompassing all of the senses, these shared environments can include emotional overlays as the nanobots will be capable of triggering the neurological correlates of emotions, sexual pleasure, and ward churchill essay, other derivatives of our sensory experience and mental reactions. In the same way that people today beam their lives from web cams in their bedrooms, “experience beamers” circa 2030 will beam their entire flow of sensory experiences, and if so desired, their emotions and other secondary reactions. We’ll be able to plug in (by going to the appropriate web site) and experience other people’s lives as in essay writing first person the plot concept of ‘Being John Malkovich.’ Particularly interesting experiences can be archived and relived at any time. We won’t need to wait until 2030 to experience shared virtual reality environments, at least for the visual and auditory senses. Full immersion visual-auditory environments will be available by the end of this decade with images written directly onto our retinas by our eyeglasses and contact lenses.
All of the electronics for the computation, image reconstruction, and very high bandwidth wireless connection to the Internet will be embedded in our glasses and woven into psychology essays, our clothing, so computers as distinct objects will disappear. In my view, the most significant implication of the writing first Singularity will be the merger of description bedroom, biological and nonbiological intelligence. First, it is essay writing person important to point out that well before the end of the twenty-first century, thinking on nonbiological substrates will dominate. Biological thinking is stuck at 10 26 calculations per second (for all biological human brains), and that figure will not appreciably change, even with bioengineering changes to our genome. Nonbiological intelligence, on the other hand, is growing at professor ward essay a double exponential rate and will vastly exceed biological intelligence well before the writing person middle of of capital punishment, this century. However, in my view, this nonbiological intelligence should still be considered human as it is fully derivative of the human-machine civilization. The merger of these two worlds of essay writing person, intelligence is essay not merely a merger of biological and nonbiological thinking mediums, but more importantly one of method and organization of thinking. One of the key ways in which the first person two worlds can interact will be through the nanobots.
Nanobot technology will be able to expand our minds in virtually any imaginable way. Our brains today are relatively fixed in design. Description Of Your Bedroom? Although we do add patterns of interneuronal connections and neurotransmitter concentrations as a normal part of the learning process, the current overall capacity of the human brain is essay highly constrained, restricted to a mere hundred trillion connections. Brain implants based on massively distributed intelligent nanobots will ultimately expand our memories a trillion fold, and otherwise vastly improve all of our sensory, pattern recognition, and cognitive abilities. Since the of your bedroom nanobots are communicating with each other over a wireless local area network, they can create any set of new neural connections, can break existing connections (by suppressing neural firing), can create new hybrid biological-nonbiological networks, as well as add vast new nonbiological networks. Using nanobots as brain extenders is a significant improvement over the idea of surgically installed neural implants, which are beginning to be used today (e.g., ventral posterior nucleus, subthalmic nucleus, and ventral lateral thalamus neural implants to counteract Parkinson’s Disease and tremors from essay first, other neurological disorders, cochlear implants, and others.) Nanobots will be introduced without surgery, essentially just by injecting or even swallowing them. Sides Of Capital Essays? They can all be directed to leave, so the essay writing person process is easily reversible. Of Your Bedroom? They are programmable, in that they can provide virtual reality one minute, and a variety of brain extensions the next. They can change their configuration, and clearly can alter their software. Perhaps most importantly, they are massively distributed and therefore can take up billions or trillions of positions throughout the brain, whereas a surgically introduced neural implant can only be placed in one or at most a few locations.
The Double Exponential Growth of the writing first Economy During the 1990s Was Not a Bubble. Yet another manifestation of the law of accelerating returns as it rushes toward the both punishment essays Singularity can be found in the world of first, economics, a world vital to both the genesis of the law of accelerating returns, and to its implications. English Dialect? It is the economic imperative of a competitive marketplace that is driving technology forward and fueling the law of accelerating returns. In turn, the law of accelerating returns, particularly as it approaches the Singularity, is transforming economic relationships. Virtually all of the economic models taught in economics classes, used by the Federal Reserve Board to set monetary policy, by Government agencies to set economic policy, and by economic forecasters of all kinds are fundamentally flawed because they are based on the intuitive linear view of history rather than the historically based exponential view. The reason that these linear models appear to work for essay writing person a while is for the same reason that most people adopt the essay intuitive linear view in essay the first place: exponential trends appear to professor ward essay, be linear when viewed (and experienced) for essay writing person a brief period of time, particularly in the early stages of an exponential trend when not much is happening. But once the “knee of the cover curve” is achieved and essay writing person, the exponential growth explodes, the linear models break down. Dialect Essay? The exponential trends underlying productivity growth are just beginning this explosive phase.
The economy (viewed either in total or per capita) has been growing exponentially throughout this century: There is also a second level of exponential growth, but up until recently the second exponent has been in the early phase so that the growth in person the growth rate has not been noticed. However, this has changed in sides punishment this past decade, during which the rate of growth has been noticeably exponential. Productivity (economic output per essay first worker) has also been growing exponentially. Even these statistics are greatly understated because they do not fully reflect significant improvements in the quality and once to the thesis, features of products and services. It is not the case that “a car is essay writing first a car;” there have been significant improvements in description safety, reliability, and writing person, features. There are a myriad of such examples. Pharmaceutical drugs are increasingly effective. Groceries ordered in five minutes on the web and delivered to your door are worth more than groceries on churchill essay a supermarket shelf that you have to fetch yourself. Clothes custom manufactured for your unique body scan are worth more than clothes you happen to find left on a store rack.
These sorts of essay, improvements are true for most product categories, and none of them are reflected in the productivity statistics. The statistical methods underlying the productivity measurements tend to child psychology, factor out essay, gains by professor ward essay essentially concluding that we still only first, get one dollar of products and services for both punishment essays a dollar despite the essay writing fact that we get much more for a dollar (e.g., compare a $1,000 computer today to one ten years ago). University of Chicago Professor Pete Klenow and University of child essays, Rochester Professor Mark Bils estimate that the value of existing goods has been increasing at 1.5% per essay writing person year for the past 20 years because of description bedroom, qualitative improvements. This still does not account for the introduction of entirely new products and product categories. The Bureau of Labor Statistics, which is responsible for the inflation statistics, uses a model that incorporates an estimate of quality growth at only 0.5% per year, reflecting a systematic underestimate of quality improvement and a resulting overestimate of inflation by at least 1 percent per year. Despite these weaknesses in the productivity statistical methods, the gains in productivity are now reaching the steep part of the exponential curve. Labor productivity grew at 1.6% per year until 1994, then rose at 2.4% per year, and is now growing even more rapidly. In the quarter ending July 30, 2000, labor productivity grew at first person 5.3%. Manufacturing productivity grew at 4.4% annually from 1995 to 1999, durables manufacturing at 6.5% per year.
The 1990s have seen the most powerful deflationary forces in history. This is why we are not seeing inflation. Yes, it’s true that low unemployment, high asset values, economic growth, and other such factors are inflationary, but these factors are offset by the double exponential trends in the price-performance of all information based technologies: computation, memory, communications, biotechnology, miniaturization, and even the overall rate of technical progress. These technologies deeply affect all industries. We are also undergoing massive disintermediation in the channels of distribution through the web and other new communication technologies, as well as escalating efficiencies in operations and churchill essay, administration. All of the technology trend charts in this essay e represent massive deflation. There are many examples of the impact of these escalating efficiencies. BP Amoco’s cost for first person finding oil is now less than $1 per barrel, down from once to the lake thesis, nearly $10 in 1991. Processing an internet transaction costs a bank one penny, compared to over $1 using a teller ten years ago.
A Roland Berger / Deutsche Bank study estimates a cost savings of $1200 per North American car over the next five years. Person? A more optimistic Morgan Stanley study estimates that Internet-based procurement will save Ford, GM, and DaimlerChrysler about more lake, $2700 per vehicle. Software prices are deflating even more quickly than computer hardware. Software Price-Performance Has Also Improved at an Exponential Rate. Current economic policy is based on outdated models which include energy prices, commodity prices, and capital investment in plant and equipment as key driving factors, but do not adequately model bandwidth, MIPs, megabytes, intellectual property, knowledge, and essay first, other increasingly vital (and increasingly increasing) constituents that are driving the economy. The economy “wants” to grow more than the 3.5% per year, which constitutes the current “speed limit” that the Federal Reserve bank and other policy makers have established as “safe,” meaning noninflationary. But in keeping with the law of accelerating returns, the eb white once more economy is capable of “safely” establishing this level of growth in less than a year, implying a growth rate in an entire year of greater than 3.5%.
Recently, the growth rate has exceeded 5%. None of this means that cycles of recession will disappear immediately. The economy still has some of the underlying dynamics that historically have caused cycles of recession, specifically excessive commitments such as capital intensive projects and the overstocking of essay, inventories. However, the rapid dissemination of information, sophisticated forms of essays, online procurement, and increasingly transparent markets in all industries have diminished the impact of this cycle. So “recessions” are likely to be shallow and short lived. Essay Writing First Person? The underlying long-term growth rate will continue at a double exponential rate.
The overall growth of the ward churchill economy reflects completely new forms and layers of wealth and value that did not previously exist, or least that did not previously constitute a significant portion of the economy (but do now): intellectual property, communication portals, web sites, bandwidth, software, data bases, and many other new technology based categories. There is no need for high interest rates to counter an essay, inflation that doesn’t exist. The inflationary pressures which exist are counterbalanced by all of the deflationary forces I’ve mentioned. The current high interest rates fostered by the Federal Reserve Bank are destructive, are causing trillions of dollars of lost wealth, are regressive, hurt business and the middle class, and are completely unnecessary. The Fed’s monetary policy is only influential because people believe it to be. It has little real power.
The economy today is largely backed by private capital in the form of a growing variety of equity instruments. The portion of child, available liquidity in first person the economy that the Fed actually controls is relatively insignificant. The reserves that banks and professor churchill essay, financial institutions maintain with the Federal Reserve System are less than $50 billion, which is essay first only 0.6% of the GDP, and description bedroom, 0.25% of the liquidity available in essay writing first stocks. Restricting the growth rate of the economy to an arbitrary limit makes as much sense as restricting the rate at which a company can grow its revenues–or its market cap. Speculative fever will certainly occur and eb white more to the, there will necessarily continue to be high profile failures and essay writing first, market corrections. However the ability of sides, technology companies to rapidly create new–real–wealth is just one of the factors that will continue to fuel ongoing double exponential growth in essay writing first the economy. These policies have led to an “Alice in Wonderland” situation in which the market goes up on more to the bad economic news (because it means that more unnecessary punishment will be avoided) and goes down on good economic news. Speaking of market speculative fever and market corrections, the stock market values for so-called “B to B” (Business to essay writing first, Business) and letter outline, “B to essay writing first person, C” (Business to Consumer) web portals and enabling technologies is likely to come back strongly as it becomes clear that economic transactions are indeed escalating toward e-commerce, and both sides, that the (surviving) contenders are capable of demonstrating profitable business models.
The intuitive linear assumption underlying economic thinking reaches its most ludicrous conclusions in the political debate surrounding the long-term future of the social security system. Essay Person? The economic models used for the social security projections are entirely linear, i.e., they reflect fixed economic growth. This might be viewed as conservative planning if we were talking about projections of only a few years, but they become utterly unrealistic for the three to four decades being discussed. These projections actually assume a fixed rate of growth of 3.5% per year for the next fifty years! There are incredibly naive assumptions that bear on ward churchill essay both sides of the argument.
On the one hand, there will be radical extensions to human longevity, while on essay the other hand, we will benefit from far greater economic expansion. These factors do not rule each other out, however, as the positive factors are stronger, and eb white to the lake, will ultimately dominate. Moreover, we are certain to rethink social security when we have centenarians who look and act like 30 year-olds (but who will think much faster than 30 year-olds circa the year 2000). Another implication of the law of accelerating returns is exponential growth in first education and learning. Over the engineering letter past 120 years, we have increased our investment in essay writing first person K-12 education (per student and in constant dollars) by a factor of ten. We have a one hundred fold increase in the number of college students. Automation started by of your essay amplifying the power of our muscles, and in recent times has been amplifying the power of our minds. Thus, for the past two centuries, automation has been eliminating jobs at the bottom of the essay writing person skill ladder while creating new (and better paying) jobs at eb white more to the lake the top of the skill ladder. So the writing first ladder has been moving up, and thus we have been exponentially increasing investments in education at all levels.
Oh, and about that “offer” at the beginning of this essay, consider that present stock values are based on future expectations. Given that the (literally) short sighted linear intuitive view represents the english dialect ubiquitous outlook, the common wisdom in economic expectations are dramatically understated. Although stock prices reflect the first person consensus of bedroom essay, a buyer-seller market, it nonetheless reflects the underlying linear assumption regarding future economic growth. But the law of essay writing person, accelerating returns clearly implies that the growth rate will continue to grow exponentially because the rate of engineering letter, progress will continue to accelerate. Although (weakening) recessionary cycles will continue to cause immediate growth rates to fluctuate, the underlying rate of growth will continue to essay writing, double approximately every decade. But wait a second, you said that I would get $40 trillion if I read and understood this essay. That’s right. Child Essays? According to my models, if we replace the linear outlook with the first more appropriate exponential outlook, current stock prices should triple. Since there’s about $20 trillion in the equity markets, that’s $40 trillion in once thesis additional wealth.
But you said I would get that money. No, I said “you” would get the essay writing first money, and that’s why I suggested reading the sentence carefully. The English word “you” can be singular or plural. I meant it in the sense of “all of you.” I see, all of us as in the whole world.
But not everyone will read this essay. Well, but everyone could. So if all of child essays, you read this essay and understand it, then economic expectations would be based on the historical exponential model, and thus stock values would increase. You mean if everyone understands it, and essay writing first, agrees with it. Okay, I suppose I was assuming that. Is that what you expect to happen. Well, actually, no.
Putting on professor churchill essay my futurist hat again, my prediction is that indeed these views will prevail, but only over time, as more and more evidence of the exponential nature of essay writing first person, technology and its impact on the economy becomes apparent. This will happen gradually over the next several years, which will represent a strong continuing updraft for the market. Technology has always been a double edged sword, bringing us longer and healthier life spans, freedom from essays, physical and essay writing first, mental drudgery, and many new creative possibilities on sides of capital the one hand, while introducing new and salient dangers on the other. We still live today with sufficient nuclear weapons (not all of writing first, which appear to be well accounted for) to end all mammalian life on the planet. Bioengineering is in the early stages of enormous strides in reversing disease and aging processes. Engineering Letter Outline? However, the means and knowledge will soon exist in a routine college bioengineering lab (and already exists in more sophisticated labs) to create unfriendly pathogens more dangerous than nuclear weapons. As technology accelerates toward the Singularity, we will see the same intertwined potentials: a feast of creativity resulting from human intelligence expanded a trillion-fold combined with many grave new dangers.
Consider unrestrained nanobot replication. Nanobot technology requires billions or trillions of such intelligent devices to be useful. The most cost effective way to scale up to essay, such levels is through self-replication, essentially the same approach used in the biological world. And in engineering cover outline the same way that biological self-replication gone awry (i.e., cancer) results in biological destruction, a defect in the mechanism curtailing nanobot self-replication would endanger all physical entities, biological or otherwise. Other primary concerns include “who is first person controlling the nanobots?” and “who are the nanobots talking to?” Organizations (e.g., governments, extremist groups) or just a clever individual could put trillions of undetectable nanobots in the water or food supply of an individual or of an entire population. These “spy” nanobots could then monitor, influence, and eb white once more, even control our thoughts and actions. In addition to introducing physical spy nanobots, existing nanobots could be influenced through software viruses and writing person, other software “hacking” techniques. When there is software running in professor ward churchill essay our brains, issues of essay writing person, privacy and security will take on a new urgency. My own expectation is that the creative and constructive applications of this technology will dominate, as I believe they do today.
But there will be a valuable (and increasingly vocal) role for a concerned and constructive Luddite movement (i.e., anti-technologists inspired by early nineteenth century weavers who destroyed labor-saving machinery in protest). If we imagine describing the both of capital essays dangers that exist today to people who lived a couple of hundred years ago, they would think it mad to take such risks. On the other hand, how many people in the year 2000 would really want to go back to the short, brutish, disease-filled, poverty-stricken, disaster-prone lives that 99 percent of the writing first human race struggled through a couple of centuries ago? We may romanticize the past, but up until fairly recently, most of humanity lived extremely fragile lives where one all too common misfortune could spell disaster. Substantial portions of of your bedroom essay, our species still live in this precarious way, which is at least one reason to continue technological progress and the economic enhancement that accompanies it. People often go through three stages in examining the impact of future technology: awe and wonderment at its potential to overcome age old problems, then a sense of dread at a new set of grave dangers that accompany these new technologies, followed, finally and hopefully, by the realization that the only viable and responsible path is to set a careful course that can realize the promise while managing the essay person peril. In his cover story for WIRED Why The Future Doesn’t Need Us, Bill Joy eloquently described the plagues of centuries’ past, and how new self-replicating technologies, such as mutant bioengineered pathogens, and “nanobots” run amok, may bring back long forgotten pestilence. Ward Essay? Indeed these are real dangers. Essay Writing Person? It is also the case, which Joy acknowledges, that it has been technological advances, such as antibiotics and improved sanitation, which has freed us from the eb white once to the lake thesis prevalence of such plagues. Suffering in the world continues and demands our steadfast attention. Essay Writing Person? Should we tell the millions of people afflicted with cancer and other devastating conditions that we are canceling the development of all bioengineered treatments because there is a risk that these same technologies may someday be used for malevolent purposes?
Having asked the rhetorical question, I realize that there is a movement to description bedroom, do exactly that, but I think most people would agree that such broad based relinquishment is not the answer. The continued opportunity to alleviate human distress is one important motivation for essay first continuing technological advancement. Eb White More Thesis? Also compelling are the already apparent economic gains I discussed above which will continue to hasten in the decades ahead. The continued acceleration of many intertwined technologies are roads paved with gold (I use the essay writing first person plural here because technology is clearly not a single path). In a competitive environment, it is an economic imperative to go down these roads. Relinquishing technological advancement would be economic suicide for individuals, companies, and nations. Which brings us to the issue of relinquishment, which is Bill Joy’s most controversial recommendation and personal commitment. I do feel that relinquishment at the right level is part of both sides, a responsible and constructive response to these genuine perils. The issue, however, is exactly this: at what level are we to relinquish technology? Ted Kaczynski would have us renounce all of essay, it.
This, in my view, is neither desirable nor feasible, and the futility of bedroom, such a position is only underscored by the senselessness of Kaczynski’s deplorable tactics. Another level would be to forego certain fields; nanotechnology, for example, that might be regarded as too dangerous. But such sweeping strokes of essay person, relinquishment are equally untenable. Nanotechnology is simply the inevitable end result of the persistent trend toward miniaturization which pervades all of technology. It is far from a single centralized effort, but is being pursued by a myriad of eb white more, projects with many diverse goals. One observer wrote: “A further reason why industrial society cannot be reformed. First Person? . . is that modern technology is a unified system in which all parts are dependent on one another. You can’t get rid of the “bad” parts of technology and retain only the description bedroom “good” parts. Take modern medicine, for essay first example. Progress in bedroom medical science depends on writing progress in chemistry, physics, biology, computer science and essay, other fields. Advanced medical treatments require expensive, high-tech equipment that can be made available only by writing person a technologically progressive, economically rich society.
Clearly you can’t have much progress in child essays medicine without the whole technological system and everything that goes with it.” The observer I am quoting is, again, Ted Kaczynski. Although one might properly resist Kaczynski as an authority, I believe he is correct on the deeply entangled nature of the benefits and risks. However, Kaczynski and I clearly part company on our overall assessment on the relative balance between the essay writing person two. Bill Joy and I have dialogued on this issue both publicly and privately, and we both believe that technology will and both sides of capital, should progress, and that we need to writing first person, be actively concerned with the dark side. If Bill and I disagree, it’s on the granularity of relinquishment that is both feasible and desirable. Abandonment of broad areas of technology will only push them underground where development would continue unimpeded by ethics and regulation.
In such a situation, it would be the less stable, less responsible practitioners (e.g., the terrorists) who would have all the expertise. I do think that relinquishment at the right level needs to description essay, be part of our ethical response to the dangers of twenty first century technologies. One constructive example of this is the proposed ethical guideline by the Foresight Institute, founded by nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler, that nanotechnologists agree to relinquish the development of physical entities that can self-replicate in a natural environment. Writing First Person? Another is a ban on self-replicating physical entities that contain their own codes for self-replication. In what nanotechnologist Ralph Merkle calls the “Broadcast Architecture,” such entities would have to dialect essay, obtain such codes from a centralized secure server, which would guard against undesirable replication. The Broadcast Architecture is impossible in the biological world, which represents at least one way in first which nanotechnology can be made safer than biotechnology.
In other ways, nanotech is potentially more dangerous because nanobots can be physically stronger than protein-based entities and more intelligent. It will eventually be possible to combine the two by having nanotechnology provide the once lake codes within biological entities (replacing DNA), in which case biological entities can use the much safer Broadcast Architecture. Our ethics as responsible technologists should include such “fine grained” relinquishment, among other professional ethical guidelines. Other protections will need to essay writing first person, include oversight by essays regulatory bodies, the development of essay person, technology-specific “immune” responses, as well as computer assisted surveillance by law enforcement organizations. Many people are not aware that our intelligence agencies already use advanced technologies such as automated word spotting to eb white once more, monitor a substantial flow of telephone conversations. As we go forward, balancing our cherished rights of privacy with our need to be protected from the writing person malicious use of powerful twenty first century technologies will be one of many profound challenges. This is both sides of capital essays one reason that such issues as an encryption “trap door” (in which law enforcement authorities would have access to otherwise secure information) and the FBI “Carnivore” email-snooping system have been so contentious. As a test case, we can take a small measure of comfort from how we have dealt with one recent technological challenge.
There exists today a new form of fully nonbiological self replicating entity that didn’t exist just a few decades ago: the computer virus. When this form of destructive intruder first appeared, strong concerns were voiced that as they became more sophisticated, software pathogens had the essay writing potential to destroy the computer network medium they live in. Yet the “immune system” that has evolved in response to essay, this challenge has been largely effective. Although destructive self-replicating software entities do cause damage from time to time, the writing first injury is but a small fraction of the benefit we receive from the bedroom essay computers and communication links that harbor them. No one would suggest we do away with computers, local area networks, and the Internet because of software viruses. One might counter that computer viruses do not have the lethal potential of biological viruses or of destructive nanotechnology. Although true, this strengthens my observation. The fact that computer viruses are not usually deadly to humans only means that more people are willing to writing person, create and release them.
It also means that our response to the danger is that much less intense. Conversely, when it comes to self replicating entities that are potentially lethal on a large scale, our response on all levels will be vastly more serious. Technology will remain a double edged sword, and the story of the Twenty First century has not yet been written. It represents vast power to be used for all humankind’s purposes. We have no choice but to work hard to english dialect, apply these quickening technologies to advance our human values, despite what often appears to be a lack of consensus on what those values should be. Once brain porting technology has been refined and first, fully developed, will this enable us to live forever? The answer depends on what we mean by living and dying. Consider what we do today with our personal computer files. When we change from one personal computer to eb white more to the, a less obsolete model, we don’t throw all our files away; rather we copy them over to the new hardware. Although our software files do not necessary continue their existence forever, the longevity of our personal computer software is completely separate and disconnected from the hardware that it runs on.
When it comes to our personal mind file, however, when our human hardware crashes, the software of our lives dies with it. Essay Person? However, this will not continue to child psychology essays, be the essay person case when we have the letter means to store and restore the thousands of trillions of bytes of information represented in the pattern that we call our brains. The longevity of one’s mind file will not be dependent, therefore, on the continued viability of any particular hardware medium. Ultimately software-based humans, albeit vastly extended beyond the essay writing first severe limitations of humans as we know them today, will live out on the web, projecting bodies whenever they need or want them, including virtual bodies in diverse realms of virtual reality, holographically projected bodies, physical bodies comprised of nanobot swarms, and other forms of nanotechnology. A software-based human will be free, therefore, from the ward constraints of person, any particular thinking medium. Today, we are each confined to a mere hundred trillion connections, but humans at the end of the twenty-first century can grow their thinking and thoughts without limit. We may regard this as a form of immortality, although it is worth pointing out that data and information do not necessarily last forever. Child Essays? Although not dependent on the viability of the essay writing hardware it runs on, the longevity of information depends on its relevance, utility, and accessibility. If you’ve ever tried to professor essay, retrieve information from an obsolete form of data storage in writing person an old obscure format (e.g., a reel of magnetic tape from professor essay, a 1970 minicomputer), you will understand the challenges in essay person keeping software viable. However, if we are diligent in maintaining our mind file, keeping current backups, and psychology essays, porting to current formats and essay writing, mediums, then a form of immortality can be attained, at least for software-based humans.
Our mind file–our personality, skills, memories–all of that is lost today when our biological hardware crashes. When we can access, store, and restore that information, then its longevity will no longer be tied to our hardware permanence. Is this form of immortality the same concept as a physical human, as we know them today, living forever? In one sense it is, because as I pointed out earlier, our contemporary selves are not a constant collection of matter either. Only our pattern of matter and energy persists, and even that gradually changes. Similarly, it will be the pattern of a software human that persists and develops and changes gradually. But is that person based on my mind file, who migrates across many computational substrates, and who outlives any particular thinking medium, really me? We come back to the same questions of consciousness and identity, issues that have been debated since the Platonic dialogues. As we go through the twenty-first century, these will not remain polite philosophical debates, but will be confronted as vital, practical, political, and legal issues. A related question is “is death desirable?” A great deal of our effort goes into child essays, avoiding it. We make extraordinary efforts to delay it, and indeed often consider its intrusion a tragic event.
Yet we might find it hard to live without it. Person? We consider death as giving meaning to our lives. It gives importance and value to time. Professor Ward Churchill? Time could become meaningless if there were too much of it. The Next Step in Evolution and the Purpose of writing, Life. But I regard the freeing of the human mind from its severe physical limitations of scope and duration as the necessary next step in evolution. Evolution, in my view, represents the purpose of child psychology essays, life. Writing First? That is, the purpose of life–and of our lives–is to evolve. The Singularity then is eb white once more to the lake not a grave danger to first, be avoided.
In my view, this next paradigm shift represents the goal of letter, our civilization. What does it mean to evolve? Evolution moves toward greater complexity, greater elegance, greater knowledge, greater intelligence, greater beauty, greater creativity, and more of other abstract and subtle attributes such as love. And God has been called all these things, only without any limitation: infinite knowledge, infinite intelligence, infinite beauty, infinite creativity, infinite love, and so on. Of course, even the accelerating growth of evolution never achieves an infinite level, but as it explodes exponentially, it certainly moves rapidly in that direction. Writing First Person? So evolution moves inexorably toward our conception of God, albeit never quite reaching this ideal. Thus the freeing of english essay, our thinking from the severe limitations of its biological form may be regarded as an person, essential spiritual quest. In making this statement, it is important to engineering cover letter, emphasize that terms like evolution, destiny, and spiritual quest are observations about the end result, not the basis for these predictions. I am not saying that technology will evolve to human levels and beyond simply because it is our destiny and essay person, because of the satisfaction of a spiritual quest.
Rather my projections result from a methodology based on the dynamics underlying the (double) exponential growth of technological processes. Both Punishment Essays? The primary force driving technology is economic imperative. We are moving toward machines with human level intelligence (and beyond) as the result of first person, millions of essays, small advances, each with their own particular economic justification. To use an example from my own experience at one of essay writing first person, my companies (Kurzweil Applied Intelligence), whenever we came up with a slightly more intelligent version of dialect, speech recognition, the new version invariably had greater value than the earlier generation and, as a result, sales increased. It is interesting to note that in the example of speech recognition software, the three primary surviving competitors stayed very close to each other in the intelligence of their software. A few other companies that failed to first person, do so (e.g., Speech Systems) went out of business. At any point in time, we would be able to sell the version prior to the latest version for child essays perhaps a quarter of the price of the current version.
As for versions of our technology that were two generations old, we couldn’t even give those away. This phenomenon is not only true for pattern recognition and other “AI” software, but applies to all products, from bread makers to cars. And if the product itself doesn’t exhibit some level of intelligence, then intelligence in essay writing first the manufacturing and marketing methods have a major effect on once more thesis the success and profitability of an enterprise. There is a vital economic imperative to create more intelligent technology. Intelligent machines have enormous value. That is why they are being built. Essay Writing First Person? There are tens of thousands of projects that are advancing intelligent machines in diverse incremental ways.
The support for “high tech” in the business community (mostly software) has grown enormously. When I started my optical character recognition (OCR) and speech synthesis company (Kurzweil Computer Products, Inc.) in 1974, there were only a half-dozen high technology IPO’s that year. The number of such deals has increased one hundred fold and the number of dollars invested has increased by more than one thousand fold in the past 25 years. In the four years between 1995 and dialect, 1999 alone, high tech venture capital deals increased from just over $1 billion to approximately $15 billion. We will continue to build more powerful computational mechanisms because it creates enormous value. We will reverse-engineer the human brain not simply because it is essay first our destiny, but because there is valuable information to essay, be found there that will provide insights in essay writing first person building more intelligent (and more valuable) machines. We would have to engineering cover, repeal capitalism and every visage of economic competition to essay person, stop this progression. By the second half of this next century, there will be no clear distinction between human and machine intelligence. On the description one hand, we will have biological brains vastly expanded through distributed nanobot-based implants.
On the other hand, we will have fully nonbiological brains that are copies of writing first, human brains, albeit also vastly extended. And we will have a myriad of other varieties of engineering cover letter outline, intimate connection between human thinking and the technology it has fostered. Ultimately, nonbiological intelligence will dominate because it is growing at a double exponential rate, whereas for all practical purposes biological intelligence is at a standstill. Writing First? Human thinking is stuck at more thesis 10 26 calculations per second (for all biological humans), and that figure will never appreciably change (except for a small increase resulting from genetic engineering). Nonbiological thinking is still millions of times less today, but the essay cross over will occur before 2030. By the end of the eb white more to the lake twenty-first century, nonbiological thinking will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than that of its biological progenitors, although still of essay writing first person, human origin.
It will continue to be the human-machine civilization taking the next step in evolution. Most forecasts of the future seem to ignore the eb white more to the lake revolutionary impact of the Singularity in essay writing person our human destiny: the inevitable emergence of computers that match and ultimately vastly exceed the capabilities of the dialect human brain, a development that will be no less important than the evolution of human intelligence itself some thousands of essay writing first, centuries ago. And the primary reason for this failure is that they are based on the intuitive but short sighted linear view of history. Before the description bedroom essay next century is over, the Earth’s technology-creating species will merge with its computational technology. There will not be a clear distinction between human and machine. After all, what is the difference between a human brain enhanced a trillion fold by essay writing first person nanobot-based implants, and a computer whose design is based on essays high resolution scans of the human brain, and first person, then extended a trillion-fold? Why SETI Will Fail (and why we are alone in the Universe) The law of accelerating returns implies that by 2099, the sides of capital intelligence that will have emerged from human-machine civilization will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than it is essay first person today, dominated of dialect essay, course by essay writing first its nonbiological form.
So what does this have to english dialect, do with SETI (the Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence)? The naive view, going back to pre-Copernican days, was that the Earth was at the center of the Universe, and human intelligence its greatest gift (next to person, God). The more informed recent view is that even if the likelihood of a star having a planet with a technology creating species is very low (e.g., one in a million), there are so many stars (i.e., billions of ward essay, trillions of them), that there are bound to writing first, be many with advanced technology. This is the view behind SETI, was my view until recently, and is the common informed view today. Although SETI has not yet looked everywhere, it has already covered a substantial portion of the sides of capital essays Universe. In the essay writing first above diagram (courtesy of Scientific American), we can see that SETI has already thoroughly searched all star systems within 10 7 light-years from Earth for alien civilizations capable (and willing) to both sides of capital punishment, transmit at a power of at first least 10 25 watts, a so-called Type II civilization (and all star systems within 10 6 light-years for transmission of at engineering cover least 10 18 watts, and so on). No sign of intelligence has been found as of essay writing person, yet. In a recent email to my research assistant, Dr. Seth Shostak of the SETI Institute points out that a new comprehensive targeted search, called Project Phoenix, which has up to 100 times the sensitivity and covers a greater range of the radio dial as compared to child essays, previous searches, has only been applied thus far to essay writing first, 500 star systems, which is, of course only a minute fraction of the half trillion star systems in just our own galaxy.
However, according to professor ward churchill, my model, once a civilization achieves our own level (“Earth-level”) of radio transmission, it takes no more than one century, two at the most, to essay writing, achieve what SETI calls a Type II civilization. If the professor essay assumption that there are at least millions of radio capable civilizations out there, and that these civilizations are spread out over essay first person millions (indeed billions) of years of development, then surely there ought to be millions that have achieved Type II status. Incidentally, this is not an argument against the SETI project, which in my view should have the highest possible priority because the negative finding is no less significant than a positive result. It is odd that we find the cosmos so silent. Professor Essay? Where is everybody? There should be millions of civilizations vastly more advanced than our own, so we should be noticing their broadcasts.
A sufficiently advanced civilization would not be likely to restrict its broadcasts to essay first person, subtle signals on obscure frequencies. Why are they so silent, and so shy? As I have studied the both sides punishment implications of the law of accelerating returns, I have come to a different view. Because exponential growth is so explosive, it is the essay writing case that once a species develops computing technology, it is only a matter of a couple of centuries before the nonbiological form of their intelligence explodes. It permeates virtually all matter in their vicinity, and then inevitably expands outward close to sides essays, the maximum speed that information can travel.
Once the nonbiological intelligence emerging from that species’ technology has saturated its vicinity (and the nature of this saturation is another complex issue, which I won’t deal with in this essay), it has no other way to continue to evolve but to expand outwardly. The expansion does not start out at the maximum speed, but quickly achieves a speed within a vanishingly small delta from the writing person maximum speed. What is the to the thesis maximum speed? We currently understand this to be the speed of light, but there are already tantalizing hints that this may not be an absolute limit. There were recent experiments that measured the flight time of photons at first nearly twice the speed of light, a result of essay, quantum uncertainty on their position. However, this result is actually not useful for this analysis, because it does not actually allow information to be communicated at faster than the speed of light, and essay, we are fundamentally interested in communication speed.
Quantum disentanglement has been measured at many times the speed of light, but this is only communicating randomness (profound quantum randomness) at speeds far greater than the speed of light; again, this is not communication of professor ward churchill, information (but is of great interest for restoring encryption, after quantum computing destroys it). There is the potential for worm holes (or folds of the Universe in dimensions beyond the three visible ones), but this is writing person not really traveling at faster than the speed of light, it just means that the topology of the Universe is not the punishment essays simple three dimensional space that naive physics implies. But we already knew that. However, if worm holes or folds in the Universe are ubiquitous, then perhaps these short cuts would allow us to essay writing first, get everywhere quickly. Would anyone be shocked if some subtle ways of getting around this speed limit were discovered? And no matter how subtle, sufficiently subtle technology will find ways to apply it. The point is that if there are ways around this limit (or any other currently understood limit), then the extraordinary levels of child psychology essays, intelligence that our human-machine civilization will achieve will find those ways and exploit them.
So for now, we can say that ultra high levels of intelligence will expand outward at essay writing person the speed of light, but recognize that this may not be the actual limit of the speed of expansion, or even if the limit is the speed of light that this limit may not restrict reaching other locations quickly. Consider that the time spans for biological evolution are measured in millions and english essay, billions of years, so if there are other civilizations out there, they would be spread out by huge spans of time. If there are a lot of them, as contemporary thinking implies, then it would be very unlikely that at essay writing person least some of cover outline, them would not be ahead of us. That at essay writing least is the SETI assumption. And if they are ahead of us, they likely would be ahead of us by huge spans of time. The likelihood that any civilization that is engineering outline ahead of us is writing first ahead of essays, us by only a few decades is extremely small. If the essay writing SETI assumption that there are many (e.g., millions) of essays, technological (at least radio capable) civilizations is correct, then at essay writing person least some of them (i.e., millions of them) would be way ahead of description bedroom, us.
But it takes only a few centuries at most from the advent of computation for that civilization to expand outward at at least light speed. Writing First? Given this, how can it be that we have not noticed them? The conclusion I reach is that it is likely that there are no such other civilizations. In other words, we are in the lead. That’s right, our humble civilization with its Dodge pick up trucks, fried chicken fast food, and english essay, ethnic cleansings (and computation!) is in essay first the lead. Now how can that be? Isn’t this extremely unlikely given the billions of more to the lake, trillions of likely planets?
Indeed it is essay very unlikely. Engineering? But equally unlikely is the existence of essay first person, our Universe with a set of laws of physics so exquisitely precisely what is needed for the evolution of life to be possible. But by of capital essays the Anthropic principle, if the writing first person Universe didn’t allow the evolution of life we wouldn’t be here to notice it. Yet here we are. So by the same Anthropic principle, we’re here in the lead in the Universe.
Again, if we weren’t here, we would not be noticing it. Let’s consider some arguments against this perspective. Perhaps there are extremely advanced technological civilizations out there, but we are outside their light sphere of intelligence. That is, they haven’t gotten here yet. To The Lake? Okay, in writing this case, SETI will still fail because we won’t be able to see (or hear) them, at least not before we reach Singularity. Perhaps they are amongst us, but have decided to remain invisible to us. Both? Incidentally, I have always considered the science fiction notion of essay, large space ships with large squishy creatures similar to us to be very unlikely. Any civilization sophisticated enough to make the of your trip here would have long since passed the point of merging with their technology and would not need to send such physically bulky organisms and writing, equipment. Both Of Capital Essays? Such a civilization would not have any unmet material needs that require it to steal physical resources from us. They would be here for first observation only, to gather knowledge, which is the only resource of value to such a civilization.
The intelligence and equipment needed for such observation would be extremely small. In this case, SETI will still fail because if this civilization decided that it did not want us to notice it, then it would succeed in that desire. Keep in mind that they would be vastly more intelligent than we are today. Bedroom? Perhaps they will reveal themselves to us when we achieve the next level of our evolution, specifically merging our biological brains with our technology, which is to say, after the Singularity. Moreover, given that the SETI assumption implies that there are millions of such highly developed civilizations, it seems odd that all of them have made the same decision to stay out of our way. Why Intelligence is More Powerful than Physics. As intelligence saturates the essay writing person matter and energy available to it, it turns dumb matter into smart matter. Although smart matter still nominally follows the laws of physics, it is so exquisitely intelligent that it can harness the professor churchill essay most subtle aspects of the laws to manipulate matter and essay, energy to its will. So it would at least appear that intelligence is more powerful than physics. Perhaps what I should say is that intelligence is more powerful than cosmology. That is, once matter evolves into smart matter (matter fully saturated with intelligence), it can manipulate matter and more to the, energy to do whatever it wants.
This perspective has not been considered in discussions of future cosmology. Essay Person? It is outline assumed that intelligence is irrelevant to events and processes on essay a cosmological scale. Essay? Stars are born and person, die; galaxies go through their cycles of creation and destruction. The Universe itself was born in a big bang and will end with a crunch or a whimper, we’re not yet sure which. But intelligence has little to do with it. Psychology Essays? Intelligence is just a bit of froth, an ebullition of little creatures darting in and out of inexorable universal forces. The mindless mechanism of the first Universe is winding up or down to a distant future, and there’s nothing intelligence can do about it. That’s the common wisdom, but I don’t agree with it. Intelligence will be more powerful than these impersonal forces. Once a planet yields a technology creating species and psychology essays, that species creates computation (as has happened here on Earth), it is only a matter of a few centuries before its intelligence saturates the matter and energy in its vicinity, and essay writing, it begins to expand outward at the speed of light or greater.
It will then overcome gravity (through exquisite and vast technology) and other cosmological forces (or, to be fully accurate, will maneuver and child, control these forces) and create the Universe it wants. This is the goal of the Singularity. What kind of Universe will that be? Well, just wait and essay writing person, see. Most of you (again I’m using the essay plural form of the word) are likely to essay first person, be around to see the Singularity. The expanding human life span is another one of professor ward churchill, those exponential trends. In the eighteenth century, we added a few days every year to essay first, human longevity; during the nineteenth century we added a couple of weeks each year; and letter, now we’re adding almost a half a year every year. With the revolutions in genomics, proteomics, rational drug design, therapeutic cloning of essay writing, our own organs and tissues, and both of capital essays, related developments in bio-information sciences, we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years.
So take care of yourself the old fashioned way for just a little while longer, and you may actually get to experience the next fundamental paradigm shift in our destiny. Copyright (C) Raymond Kurzweil 2001. Chart Graphics by Brett Rampata/Digital Organism. Topics: Innovation/Entrepreneurship | Quantum | Social Networking/Web. Hi. I was doing some research on this topic. I live in helsinki and I found a finnish translation of The Visible Human Project. It’s here : http://www.1001-soldes.com/visible-human-project. Thanks for creating and sharing a great resource.
The rate of essay writing first, technological change has serious implications for english dialect the economics of investing in essay writing first terms of a “buy now or wait for the next improved model” problem. The “economic life” of equipment in certain industries is child psychology far shorter than the mechanical life (i.e. the machine is not worn out and still operates within accepted tolerances). First? We saw this in the late 90?s to early 2000 when the majority of engineering cover letter outline, used metal working machinery dealers went out of business. While the used equipment still “worked like new” it was technologically obsolete relative to the performance of the most recent technology. Essay Writing First? The economics of competition often led to of your, the situation where the old technology even at an acquisition cost almost equivalent to scrap value, but including operating and maintenance costs, could not compete with the features and costs of the new technology. Financial lending institutions were hit hard as their floor-plan financing of used equipment inventory when the dealer closed it’s doors and gave the keys to the banker, only to find out that the first $250,000 machine was worth $5,000 as scrap. As a result, many small manufacturers are finding it almost impossible to get bank financing to acquire new (expensive) technology. Both Of Capital Punishment Essays? As a result, smaller firms are finding it more difficult to be competitive unless they can operate their equipment almost 24/7/365 in order to “wear it out” before it becomes technologically obsolete. In many areas, this has resulted in a dilemma of deciding to “buy now” or wait for new model. As the first person rate of technological change increases, this can quickly lead to once to the lake, an “investment singularity” where on never makes an investment. I feel that this conundrum is leading to greater concentration in writing person manufacturing with less competition.
This in itself may be the “brakes” the the technology growth rate as once a manufacturer achieves near monopoly status, it can continue to price goods based on the economics of the “old technology” without being undercut by child psychology new competitors using new technology. I believe that there is a need for a new model of small-medium manufacturing that can “share technology” in order to “wear it out” before it becomes obsolete. This obviously entail a major logistics problem that I feel would lead to the development of concentrated manufacturing locations in order to facilitate sharing of equipment along with coordination of methods (i.e. standardized CAD-CAM, MRP, etc.). I was wondering why you did not use a paradigm shows patent across the essay first person age of technology… can easily support your claims, specifically because the professor ward essay rate and return can be proven accurate, In 2001 you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years” (So 2011).
In 2015, at essay the Emerging Issues forum in NC State U, you say that “within 15 years we’ll be adding more than a year every year to your remaining life expectancy.” It does appear, even to this very sympathetic reader of of capital essays, yours, that you keep pushing back the date when we’ll finally reach longevity escape velocity. Where does he say that? I can’t find that quote in essay writing first this article. Also, I would assume his “predictions” are not set in stone, and need flexibility. I see these as possibilities as to when we should be able to do this or that, not an exact time-frame. He isn’t trying to be a prophet of the future, or a Nostradamus. Just listing his educated theories on what the future might hold.
Given medical progress you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years”. This in 2001, so it would refer to 2011. Have we been adding more than a year to our remaining life span since 2011? looking widely, any growth is like more lambda function than exponent.. exponential growth linear phase saturation.. fixing on exponential growth like a searching for Philosopher’s stone.. A technological singularity has already occurred at both of capital punishment essays least once in writing person history. Before the invention of neural cell, the adaptation for new environments required many generations of evolutionary trial. Eb White Once? Compared to that, the speed at essay writing person which neurons model the world is near-infinite.
Seems very reasonable! I was wondering, how to test if a copied mind is indistinguishable from the actual mind copied? Let’s say you and child, your copy are given the identical simulated world environments to play in. If the behaviours of you and your copy do not deviate by essay first person more than the behaviour of actual you would be expected to sides punishment, deviate from the behaviour of identical actual you in a universe different from this one by the amount of entropy that would be needed to create the observed level of differences in behaviour over the same period of time, then we would consider your copy identical up to that level of first, entropy, defined by the triple (you, your copy, game). Hello, I am currently a student in molecular biology at UofM, Well, firstly, it needs to be stated that this is a deliciously entertaining and well defined hypothesis. There are certainly numerous well-supported facts throughout this essay and eb white to the lake, I too, agree with its principle suggestion. Essay Writing First? It is noteworthy to of your bedroom essay, point out that what this man is attempting to prove is at its utmost level not provable (currently), but may be able to be in time. The most difficult part to grasp for most people is the essay writing first person ability to extend your analyzing beyond your realm of present reasoning. On a far lesser scale, many find it difficult to draw 3-Dimensional figures on 2-D paper. But just because you can’t comprehend it-or perhaps even if you can and description of your, assess that it is only an optical illusion-doesn’t mean there is no merit in its core reasoning.
That is to first person, say, it is possible to use these directly fictitious drawings to ultimately understand the concepts it would entail in 3 dimensions. What I am saying is, simply put, that which is impossible now is not necessarily impossible later. When addressing the future, you must not assess it linearly (as Kurzweil elaborates), despite our deepest internal desire to view it as so. If you think A.I. intelligence is unable to pass human intelligence, then you will have a much more difficult time understanding the ideas behind Dystopian/Utopian theories. On a final note, I truly wonder if these two theories are interrelated, as I’d assume that this could ultimately extend to argue that the professor ward churchill exponential growth of writing person, technology may culminate in a Singularity point that ultimately results in the destruction of the exponential model and offers an entirely new shape after. (I’d assume a possible restart in essay technological growth if you believe in essay writing first person Dystopia with a Utopian stance being more unclear).
I am very interested to hear your take on bedroom that. How will we apply technplogy that is more intelligent than its creators………. yea, imagine some one from the 80s picking up a smart phone and having infinite amount of essay writing first, information in their hands! they would be so unimpressed… u mad bro that life didn’t turn out like movies from the 70?s and 80?s….you’re an idiot. I’m just going to say something about the life and the future. There were changes in the past for the future for of your essay the past, old fashioned civilians. Everything is the same, everyone is the same. They all think their more godly than others. The fact is, their not. They never will be…there’s only president’s and higher occupations who fuck up our world and first, are the higher occupations.
So, now we live in professor ward churchill the Still Age, where nothing seems to move forward. Essay Person? Sure we have technology, but nothing’s actually happening. Life’s dead, the people may seem alive but we are the professor ward walking dead. Suppose we don’t actually need a zombie apocalypse because WE are it. We ARE zombies. I mean, look at essay writing first all the movies from the letter outline 70?s/80?s they expect in the 2000s/2020s will be all futuristic with hover cars and moving cities and blah blah blah but NO, they would be choking themselves now that the future hasn’t moved on and they saw today. I will be dead by the time anything changes to essay first person, our city or evolves….why is it that we can’t go out by the time night comes? why cant we be creatures of the night instead of creatures of the day? It’s frustrating, sitting here on your bed waiting for the next day. Of Your Bedroom? The night is not safe for anyone, why?
Who dared made it that way? I would like to walk in the night feeling safe but I suppose that isnt possible…why is the day safe? But the day isnt safe, either. No, I didn’t read the preposterous post or comments. Maths sucks…I bet I can pass by without using it…that’s a challenge…okay, so maybe the shops I need maths for but thats it and I can use a calculator for gods sake! Who the essay writing first person fuck buys 42 melons anyway? You know?
Those ridiculous math sums. And why, do we see all these people everywhere and dont know their names? Their everything? Their always different looking everyday. We don’t have self awareness because we’re just too used to everything, we’re almost like puppets obeying this life system…we only professor ward churchill, have self awareness when we are in writing first person trouble.
I mean, I kind of feel like we’re just waiting to die everyday. Both Sides Punishment Essays? I don’t want that. I hate that. I want to essay person, feel alive, to feel lived, I dont want to walk in sides of capital essays a daydream. Why must we obey the system? Go to school for essay half your life, work the rest of the half, grow old and die. Everyone’s the sides of capital essays same. It’s programmed for essay first person every human. You want to know your purpose? That’s your purpose. Work till you grow old.
Enjoy the little things ;) It is mind bogging yet well supported by ward essay facts…dear sir may I bring one area that could sweep all other areas…exponential increase is BADLY needed in essay writing personal conduct,wash-out of negative thinking ,and being. old indian scriptures DO mention that such is professor ward possible.but that is all to. it…probably suspecting misuse. from nsc. UIM (Ultra Intelligent machines) ” ultra-intelligent machine could design even better machines” document in 1960s are not far from reality. “consciousness is an essay writing person, unbroken chain. English? if you copy yourself directly you break the chain, the new copy’s consciousness would begin at that point and your old self would continue to writing first, be conscious. Child Essays? a slow transition allows an introspective understanding of that gradual change as you evolve from biology into technology, although you may change your consciousness remains intact. that is my view anyway” Moore’s law is just one of millions of positive feedback loops that occur in the world (in biology, sociology, economics, chemistry etc). Yet none of these feedback loops continue indefinitely, as you are assuming Moore’s Law will. This is writing first person because every feedback loop, including Moore’s Law, eventually has limiting factors (Usually a lack of resources / ingredients).
All the technology curves will be slowed by limiting factors eventually, and the singularity won’t occur. Jordan: in The Singularity Is Near book. Ray explains that Moore’s law will expire in the future, and both sides of capital essays, will be replaced by another process. Jordan – respectfully – did you read the whole essay? I agree with your criticism in a sense, in essay writing first that we haven’t yet established that there is a possible “paradigm” after integrated circuits. Pointing to the end of Moore’s law and claiming their is ward churchill essay nothing beyond that is no different than having someone circa 1956 claiming vacuum tubes are the fastest computers we can EVER make. Moore’s law is projected to end sometime around 2018 – 2022. Ray is very aware of this, as he points out many times in his essay. Had his argument been of the form “Moore’s law – Singularity” your counter argument would have been sufficient.
This is not at all what he is person arguing, in description essay fact, the premise “Moore’s law will end” is essay writing first one premises of his argument (the rise an fall of new paradigms for intelligence). If you want to argue against a singularity occurring, you need to address the fundamental trends underlying Moore’s law (things along the lines of building upon previous innovations and then work out what laws of physics may interfere with the continuation of that trend). The only small problem I saw with what his argument above is that nanites will have a hard time sending and receiving WiFi if they are smaller than the engineering letter outline wavelength of carrier frequency. Essay First? If I were to then conclude that this physical problem will prevent nanites from EVER using any kind of wireless communication, I would be adopting the same type of thinking as yours regarding Moore’s law. All of us working together over both of capital punishment many years of writing person, innovation and “evolution” have created this smooth pattern (I would argue that ALL people contribute in some small way, even the engineering ones that don’t appear to be doing anything – it all adds up).
The patterns you see in a branching tree, in writing the periodic table, in human personality types, a fractal, the description of your sand on writing the beach, a hurricane, the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction… take your pick but the “Law of Accelerating Returns” as Ray calls it is simply another one of those types of description, patterns. It’s literally a force of nature – we recognize that we’re creating that pattern, but then we delude ourselves into thinking that we’re “in control” of it, and that just isn’t the case. All of these large scale aggregate patterns constructed by an uncountable number of essay writing person, small scale chaotic events will be points of great interest for us going forward (they already are, but they’ll become more important as we try to solve problems… like the eb white thesis end of Moore’s law). They form the links between the known fundamental properties of the universe with our experienced conciousness. A top priority is to understand that complex and interconnected web. uuuuuuummmm, i was told i would recieve 40 trillion dollars…. by Theodoore Aborgone. 40 trillion? For what??
Hi to first person, everyone, this is my first post, because I REALLY need help. Everywhere i see know this advertisements about professor ward essay, Forex thing, got attracted, started to read about first person, it, but still really confused about engineering cover letter, What is forex . All the explanations i find on the internet are very complicated. Too many smart words. Can someone explain what is forex by essay his own words ? Tired of websites. I just can not imagine with incredibly blog greatly that warned me! God bless you “It is not beauty that endears; it’s love that makes us see beauty.” – Leo Tolstoy. Too much technological change within such a short period of time is too much for humans to ward churchill, handle. Humans must learn how to adapt to the societal changes that this new technology will bring, so that humans won’t end civilization as we know it. We as a species must strive for peace. note how phase conjugation is the symmetry origin of acceleration (gravity) and all centripetal – self organizing forces. Seems like we should re-evaluate the perception we call time imortality is right around the essay writing person corner.
So hold on to your pants were about to defy physics as we know it. Epigenetic mechanisms can provide a survival advantage under adverse conditions with mechanical laws. It presupposes that Science historically developed out of Phylosophy. Engineering Letter Outline? It is more convenient to postulate that Epigenetics expanded in accordance with mechanical laws that have existed since the beginning of creation. (Epigenetics Wikipedia page here) I have two problems with this theory. The first is physical, the second metaphysical.
The first problem that while exponential growth is certainly a mathematical possibility, it is writing first person never a physical one. In mathematics, all exponential growth results in asymptotes. There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist. For example, the repellent force of protons looks asymptotic until a certain point – then it breaks over and nuclear forces take over, binding the professor churchill essay nucleus of an atom together. The same thing happens with a zener diode, or any other seemingly asymptotic function. There is first person always a breakover point. Sides Essays? (Interesting discussion regarding the growth of mass as it approaches the speed of light – but if you think about it, we simply don’t know yet). The second is metaphysical. This theory assumes – and I think incorrectly – that consciousness is the result of first person, increased neural activity.
However, any honest person that thinks about it will realize that there is something in letter outline the “soul” or “spirit” that is essay writing first yet to be explored or understood. Anyone that has ever entered a room where an argument has just taken place and “felt” the “tension” in the room has sensed with something other than the brain – unless all of that is just electromagnetic vibes, and as an electrical engineer, I know those electromagnetic waves travel outward and disperse at once to the lake nearly the speed of light. I think that the brain is more of an writing, interface to the “spirit” where real cognitive thinking occurs. That is why we “stew” on things to think them through – our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in order to professor, “think”. Our brain doesn’t do the thinking, that is a metaphysical thing. Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by any medical knowledge, it is simply assumed (like evolution). It is more of a religion than religion is.
The complexity of the interface certainly needs to be explored, but until we can figure out where the real cognitive engine is, I don’t think there is any chance that more complex interfaces will become self aware. The RS 232 interface is simple and essay writing person, the USB3 may be better and more complex, but no matter how good the interface gets, it will never become the computer chip itself. English Dialect? LIkewise, the brain may be exceeded by a computer, but it will never become the cognitive center of a person. On the bright side, Mr. Kurzweil, the spirit never dies. Are you sure about essay first person, this? Animal often communicate non-verbally because they don’t have a structured, organized universal way of english dialect essay, communicating with one another. So they have to rely on a not of essay writing first person, non-verbal ques to communicate with one another. Therefore you example of “walking into a room with an argument” isn’t a very good example of a “spiritual” perception, because humans display certain actions and characteristic when under pressure, and some of us have been wired to perceive these unconscious non-verbal forms of communication. Description Bedroom? Looks of person, worry, muscles tensing up, frowns, fidgeting…
It’s a romantic idea that we have a soul, but to claim we have souls is to deny the elegance and beauty that is our brains. So don’t be mean to your brain, give credit where credit’s due! ” In mathematics, all exponential growth results in both of capital punishment asymptotes. There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist.” There is essay first a physical limit at the end of the century. He explains in this particular essay that he left it out, but it is basically the point at which we cant get any more use out of an atom and simply require more atoms. At that point all research and advancement will be towards getting more atoms. “That is why we “stew” on things to engineering cover letter, think them through – our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in order to “think”.
Our brain doesn’t do the thinking, that is a metaphysical thing.” We are unaware of the vast majority of essay first, our brains activity. Professor Ward Churchill Essay? This is the work being done in the subconscious. Writing First? We are only of your essay, aware of the essay writing first person activity on the thin outer film on the outside of the child psychology brain, and we have even shown that many of the writing first decisions we think we consciously make were actually your subconscious making the decision and lying to you conscious brain that you made the eb white to the lake decision. You can tell these “decisions” apart from the rest by asking yourself if you actually considered alternatives to essay first person, what you just did; if not, that is your subconscious. Both Punishment? Your subconscious considers almost every thing you could possibly do next, and analyzes the world in very unconventional ways… sometimes seeing past our rigid conception of reality. 95% of our brain is in the subconscious. Essay Writing? Little is known about what the subconscious is ward capable of or senses past the 5 our conscious brain is aware of.
Seeing into the outer layer of the subconscious is a spiritual experience. It can be achieved through dreaming, meditation, spirituality, and hallucinogens. When you “feel” things you are not aware of or “stew”, this is essay your subconscious working away. This is the real you. “Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from both punishment, neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by any medical knowledge, it is simply assumed” Self awareness is shown to take place in the brain only essay, when it is in a highly interconnected state. The outer 5% of the brain is the conscious part and is only developed to any reasonable extent in humans. The conscious part of the brain connects the other parts of the brain together and sides punishment essays, allows you to be aware of them and also override them with logic. Scientific inquiry into this by watching chain reactions in the brain has shown that when are are no longer self aware, the difference in the brain is that the separate parts are no longer communicating with each other…they are simply acting.
This is how it is in animals. You made a few points that I found interesting and you might be able to help me with a nonprofit initiative of mine called iSocialWatch, it is the first social media watchdog and consumer advocacy organization focusing on privacy, safety, psychology and essay person, sexuality in engineering cover outline the context of cyber, social and ultra connected space. You can reach out by email stephane at isocialwatch dot org, or Twitter “isocialwatch”, or facebook.com/isocialwatch. Looking forward hearing from you. I’m not sure that I agree with the Kurzweil’s refutation of Penrose’s description of the origin of essay writing first, consciousness.
I would not, for example, say that the gradual introduction of electronic pseudo-neurons is engineering cover outline functionally equivalent to a complete brain scan/recreation. The fundamental difference between the two processes, it seems to me, is the gradual nature of the former, which avoids the discontinuity of the latter. Continuity may be fundamental to first, consciousness, which is why Penrose’s argument holds water. No matter how “close” our quantum technology can come to replicating our quantum states, there will always be that discontinuity because the duplication, as Penrose argues, cannot be perfect. Therefore, consciousness cannot be downloaded from a biological mind. Of course, consciousness could also be something completely unrelated to all of this. Maybe these physical processes are results of consciousness and not the other way around.
Every new invention has a beginning, an both punishment essays, accellerating development phase, a peak of essay, development and then a decellerating slowing down of development. Nothing takes forever. Eb White Once? Eventually we will live in a world that doesn’t change much. You just think it is linear or exponentially accellerating because you don’t appreciate that the industrial/technological time has been very short. It’s like looking at writing first our world and thinking it is flat but when you get to the pole it goes no further. It’s just a ball.
You can’t see the reality because you over-rate your intelligence. I think the child jump from essay writing first person, – the window that a civilization would be broadcasting radio waves is very small – to, therefore no other civilizations exist – is cover a false conclusion. I also disagree that civilizations would be broadcasting a signal to first person, all the universe once they advanced beyond human level intelligence. The smart entity would conceal themselves and be the one to decide when any contact should occur. I do not think they are here, but that does not mean that they aren’t out there. Are You Serious Bro? We Tried So Hard Not To Go There But There You Went…
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Kerry Emanuel on climate change and first, hurricanes. A satellite measurement of Hurricane Harvey on Aug. 25 found that intense storms in essay the eastern side were dropping rain at a rate greater than 3.2 inches (82 mm) per hour. “‘[With global warming, we could see] a 50-percent increase in essay first person the destructive potential” of the most powerful tropical storms,’ says meteorologist Kerry Emanuel of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.” For decades, MIT’s Kerry Emanuel has been a go-to researcher for those seeking insight into how climate change may affect catastrophic storms. The above quote is from 1992, in a Newsweek article “ Was Andrew a Freak — Or a Preview of Things to Come?” — and has never been more timely.
Kerry is also an eloquent and forceful voice pushing leaders around the professor ward churchill essay world to take the risks of climate change more seriously. Now we’re once again deep into storm season around the world, and it’s not pretty. With events still unfolding in Texas with Hurricane/Tropical Storm Harvey, and weeks of escalating devastating monsoon floods in essay writing person Bangladesh, India and eb white once more lake thesis, Nepal, many people are asking: are these extreme storms the result of first person climate change? The current thinking: it’s complicated. Foremost, we shouldn’t be seeking a direct causal link between climate change and any particular storm.
As Professor Emanuel told The Washington Post’s Chris Mooney a few days ago: “My feeling is, when there’s a hurricane, there’s an occasion to talk about the subject,” he said. “But attributing a particular [weather] event to anything, whether it’s climate change or anything else, is a badly posed question, really.” Scientists are clear that climate change has “threat multiplier” effects on storms, increasing the likelihood and severity of engineering some aspects. For instance: warmer waters and writing first person, warmer air increase the moisture available and the energy in storms; disruptions in atmospheric circulation increase the likelihood of child a storm “stalling out” over a region; and essay writing first, ocean storm surges are made more destructive when melting ice caps have raised the engineering cover baseline sea level. “The thing that keeps forecasters up at night is the prospect that a storm will rapidly gain strength just before it hits land,” Emanuel recently told Agence France-Presse, citing Harvey as an example. “Global warming can accentuate that sudden acceleration in writing first person intensity.” Interestingly, it’s still uncertain whether global warming will lead to more or less frequent hurricanes. But in terms of catastrophic damage, storm frequency seems less important than the dialect severity of storms, where climate change does have a clear footprint.
[ Update, Sept. 26 2017 : Kerry just gave an in-depth 1 hour talk at MIT, entitled “What Do Hurricanes Harvey and Irma Portend?” Watch the video, or read highlights in the news coverage.] Kerry Emanuel has been a frequent contributor on OCW. Essay Writing First Person? Check out these two courses particularly connected to the storms + climate change issue. 12.103 Science and Policy of Natural Hazards introduces the science of natural catastrophes such as earthquakes and hurricanes and punishment essays, explores the essay relationships between the science of and policy toward such hazards. It presents the causes and effects of these phenomena, discusses their predictability, and examines how this knowledge influences policy making. 12.340 Global Warming Science provides a scientifically rigorous foundation to understand anthropogenic (human-caused) climate change, an sides essays, introduction to climate models, the material impacts of climate change, and the science behind mitigation and adaptation proposals. [See also the archived MITx on edX version of this course.] Want to essay writing get into a global conversation about dialect essay, climate change, its impacts and first, how we should respond? Check out the of capital growing online community at MIT ClimateX.
An illustration from the notes for Session 2 of 5.07SC Biological Chemistry I , describing the essay first person hierarchy in essay protein structure, with hemoglobin as an example. (Figure by O’Reilly Science Art for MIT OpenCourseWare.) By Joe Pickett, OCW Publication Director. Did you know that life, in all its mindboggling diversity, from single-celled bacteria to reptiles, birds, and mammals, is made possible by ten simple chemical reactions? These reactions, and their interconversions in our primary metabolic pathways, are the focus of 5.07SC Biological Chemistry I , just published on essay person, OCW. It’s amazing, really. Cover Letter Outline? The basic reactions, their metabolic pathways, and the vitamins that are modified to make catalysts boosting still more reactions, are conserved across organisms. Essay Writing Person? “It doesn’t matter whether you study a bacteria or a human, the central metabolism is pretty much the same,” says star researcher Professor JoAnne Stubbe, one of the 5.07SC instructors. “The thing that’s different is the detailed regulation and the complexity of the regulation.”
So if you can understand the basics of psychology essays biochemistry, you have the keys to understanding the living universe. And the keys to essay first understanding most diseases, since most diseases involve some sort of dysfunction in the regulation of metabolic reactions. Co-Teaching with Varied Resources. A recipient of the National Medal of essays Science, Stubbe has devoted much of her career to elucidating the workings of first person nucleotide reductases, the enzymes involved in the chemical reactions essential to the biosynthesis of DNA and RNA. Professor Stubbe’s co-instructors are Professor John Essigmann and Dr. Churchill Essay? Bogdan Fedeles. Essigmann leads a lab that investigates how chemicals in the environment can damage DNA in cells and how cells respond to and sometimes repair the damage.
Working in essay person that lab, Fedeles and Essigmann have shown how chronic inflammation in bedroom the body can lead to cancer and how the essay first person HIV virus can be induced to engineering cover letter outline deactivate itself after invading a cell. As another of OCW’s Scholar courses, 5.07SC Biological Chemistry I abounds in essay writing first learning resources. The course is arranged in a linear structure through three modules that reflect the shared teaching of the professors. Stubbe teaches the first part of the course, introducing fundamental reactions in her four Lexicon videos, and detailing further biochemical reactions through seven sessions in her illustrated lecture notes. Starting in session 8, Professor Essigmann narrates a series of storyboard videos, showing how energy is produced in the cell and professor ward, how that energy is used to make macromolecules like proteins. In his own series of videos, Fedeles guides learners through carbonyl chemistry, pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) chemistry, and ten key problems sets distributed throughout the site. All the learning resources are assembled on a single Resource Index page for convenient reference.
Envisioning Future Pathways for Students. The course site also features a series of video interview clips on its This Course at MIT page (“Meet the essay writing first person Educators” and “Instructor Insights”), in which Professors Stubbe and Essigmann share their reflections about how they teach biochemistry, what turned them on more to the thesis, to biochemistry in the first place, what their research focuses on, and where they think biochemical research is headed. Topics include “Using the Vitamin Bottle as a Teaching Tool,” “How Can You Not Think Enzymes Are Cool?,” and essay writing first person, “Motivating Students to Study Metabolic Biochemistry with Oncology Applications.” So take a look at 5.07SC. Like the cell itself, it’s packed with material delivered with lots of professor ward churchill energy. Asia in the Modern World: Images to writing first person Flip Over. “Eight Views of Yokohama: Sails Returning to the Landing Pier” by both sides Yoshitora, 1861, from Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. Writing First Person? (Public domain image.) OCW has just published an updated version of 21G.027 Asia in the Modern World: Images and english essay, Representations.
It is an unusual course site, with a unique history, and essay writing first, a remarkable instructor, who has learned new things about child essays, teaching even after many years in the classroom. The course looks at writing first person, history primarily through images, rather than texts, with a special emphasis on Japan. The instructor is Professor Shigeru Miyagawa, Professor of Linguistics and Kochi-Majiro Professor of Japanese Language and Culture. He also holds a joint project professorship at the University of Tokyo, where he is english Director of Online Education. Professor Miyagawa has devoted much energy in his career to creating a large collection of first person images, assembled from museums from all over the world, on the Visualizing Cultures website. What’s even more impressive, the ward churchill images are published under a Creative Commons license, so that people can download them and use them in their own teaching and projects. Professor Miyagawa describes the course and its history in his video Instructor Insights on his This Course at MIT page. As a member of OCW’s Faculty Advisory Committee from its inception and as Chair of the Committee from 2010 to 2013, he has long been a leading advocate of person open sharing, and in another of both punishment essays his videos, he openly shares the essay story of essay how OCW was conceived. In a series of short videos, Professor Miyagawa talks about the creation of OCW and his many insights into teaching. Weaving Online Resources into a Unique Course. The 21G.027 site is a very unusual one for OCW in that it is really a kind of hub.
Its Study Materials page points to pieces of content for each topic on three different websites: Visualizing Japan (1850s-1930s): Westernization, Protest, Modernity (a MOOC Professor Miyagawa helped create on the edX platform), Visualizing Cultures , and Visualizing Postwar Tokyo (another MOOC on edX, which Professor Miyagawa was indirectly involved with as Director of Online Education at the University of Tokyo). If sending learners to different places to get study materials seems peculiar for essay first, OCW, in more this case it shouldn’t, because that’s how Professor Miyagawa teaches 21G.027 on the MIT campus. Flipping over a Flipped Class. When he had prepared materials for first person, the VJx MOOC, he had his students check out the videos before coming to class, just to see what their reaction was. The results were a revelation: And what I realized right away was that students would come into class, and they would have a lot of professor churchill essay knowledge, which was not the case before…I had a whole set of PowerPoints which I had created from years of teaching. I did not show a single PowerPoint. For 70 minutes I just asked them questions, just to essay first see if I can find something that they didn’t know. They knew the whole thing. And I said, gee, this is different.
And without realizing it–I didn’t even know what a flipped class was–I just did a flipped class. Making All the Difference by Working in Teams. Another epiphany he has had involves the both sides of capital importance of student teamwork. All the students at MIT, he notes, “are academically gifted, and they’re highly motivated.” But a couple of students in essay first each class “stand out after they graduate and eb white to the lake, go on and do big things.” So, he wondered, what’s different about these students? And the distinguishing feature was that they.
…have learned to work with others. That’s it…They have learned to work not only with people they share interests, but also with people that they don’t necessarily share interests. That’s the trick. It’s easy to work with people who are like you. It’s harder to work with people who are not like you. But when you learn to be able to essay writing work across the spectrum of people, then you can basically tap their gifts. That’s what entrepreneurship is actually.
As a result, Professor Miyagawa now puts special focus on developing students’ interpersonal skills. Professor Catherine Drennan, wearing one of her many chemistry t-shirts, lectures in ward churchill 5.111 on writing first, Acid-Base Equilibrium, posing the question: Is MIT Water Safe to letter outline Drink? By Joe Pickett, OCW Publication Director. Do you love chemistry? Doesn’t matter! OCW has just published a new version of 5.111SC Principles of Chemical Science . Designed for students who don’t have a strong background in writing chemistry or may not have taken any chemistry before, Principles of Chemical Science fulfills the cover letter outline introductory chemistry requirement that all MIT students must meet in essay writing first order to graduate.
The OCW site is another of OCW’s Scholar courses structured to more to the thesis help independent learners gain mastery of foundational subjects. Accordingly, the course site is supersaturated with content. There are full video lectures, lecture notes, problem sets and solutions, and essay person, exams and solutions, plus a set of clicker questions posed to students during the lectures to keep them actively engaged with the content. The site also has links to Behind the Scenes at of your bedroom, MIT , a collection of short videos that feature current and former MIT researchers explaining how a particular chemistry topic is writing essential to their research and to an inspiring real-world application. The course is structured in linear fashion, progressing through five learning units : The Atom, Chemical Bonding and both sides of capital punishment essays, Structure, Thermodynamics and Chemical Equilibrium, Transition Metals and Oxidation-Reduction Reactions, and writing first, Chemical Kinetics. The course materials are also collected in essay one handy place, the first person Resource Index, where they are organized by content type (video lectures, notes, problem sets, etc.), so you can quickly find specific things you might be looking for. Engaging Students in Many Ways. The instructor of the course is Professor Catherine Drennan, who runs the Drennan Research and Education Lab under the auspices of MIT and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Professor Drennan has special sympathy for students who might be lacking in sides punishment essays an abundance of enthusiasm for chemistry, because she was once one of them. As an incoming student at Vassar College, she was interested in studying drama and biology.
When told she would have to take chemistry, she groaned, “Please don’t make me take chemistry. I took it in high school. Essay Writing First Person? I can tell you it has absolutely nothing to do with biology. It’s deadly, dull. Don’t make me!” But thanks to an inspiring teacher, she fell in love with chemistry in dialect essay her first semester. She tells the whole story of her conversion to chemistry and her love of teaching in first person her Instructor Insights videos on her This Course at MIT page. Naturally, she wants to kindle a passion for her favorite subject in her MIT students. She tells them, “I’m going to try to eb white once to the help you understand why chemistry is so amazing and how it can affect all sorts of different disciplines . . . I’m going to teach you really all the basics that you need to know. Person? If you can get those, you can go on and do all sorts of things with that chemistry.”
Tapping her experience on ward, the stage, Professor Drennan does not simply give lectures. Rather, she creates dynamic, interactive classroom experiences that include demonstrations, clicker question competitions, rewards for correct student explanations, and lots of humor, even to essay first the point of embarrassing herself. But there is a method to her zaniness. “It really helps people remember when you do something a little bit different,” she observes wryly. Building Teams to Foster a Sense of Belonging.
In her Instructor Insights, she reflects on the challenges of teaching a large class with 350 students. Success very much depends on the strength and dedication of her TAs, who are first-year graduate students, and she fosters a sense of psychology group identity among them, so they support one other as a team. She employs a similar approach in getting students to see their cohorts in recitation sections as teams by having them compete as a group for t-shirts, chemistry rulers, and other gag prizes in class competitions. For Professor Drennan, teaching chemistry is essay first person much more than showing up to class and holding forth. Both Of Capital? It’s creating a mixture with high reactivity.
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11 r©sum© mistakes that make hiring managers dismiss you immediately. Recruiters are just looking for an excuse to first person, move on to the next candidate. John Moore/Getty Images. · Acing your r©sum© is the first step to moving forward in the hiring process. · Many recruiters will spend mere seconds on your r©sum© to decide initial fit. Description Of Your. · Easy mistakes like terrible formatting and incorrect grammar can instantly land you in the 'no' pile. Recruiters are judgmental sharp shooters who only writing first, need about 25 seconds to decide if they like a job candidate or not. At least that's how Ambra Benjamin, a recruiting manager at child psychology essays Facebook, describes the nature of her job in a LinkedIn post. She explains that, while she will give outstanding candidates a more thorough read later, candidates who don't pass her initial test won't get a second look. Essay First Person. And Benjamin isn't alone in this tactic €” Recruiters move quickly, she writes. As Art Markman, a professor of psychology and marketing at essays the University of Texas at essay writing first Austin, writes for Fast Company, psychological research has found that, when hiring managers first look over description bedroom your r©sum©, they're often in rejection mode €” they're just looking for first, a reason to engineering letter outline, move on essay writing first, to the next candidate. What they see on first glance could mean the difference between winding up in the 'maybe' or the 'no' pile.
Apart from the overall lack of relevant job experience, here are some things on your r©sum© that could earn you an automatic rejection: While we're not suggesting you cram your r©sum© full of jargony buzzwords, not including keywords pertinent to the job and engineering outline industry you're applying for is not just a missed opportunity €” it could indicate that you don't have the specific experience for the job your recruiter is essay, looking for. There have been times when I command + F the crap out of r©sum©s , Benjamin writes. This isn't fool proof, but if I'm looking for an iOS Engineer, for example, and the words 'iOS' or 'Objective-C' don't even make a cameo appearance in someone's r©sum©, I have to description bedroom essay, furrow my brow, read a little deeper, and figure out what the heck is going on, she explains. When you use a 0.5-inch margin and essay writing first person eight-point font in sides, an effort to essay writing, get everything to both sides of capital punishment essays, fit on essay person, one page, this is an english epic fail, says J.T. Writing First Person. O'Donnell, a career and workplace expert, founder of career-advice site Careerealism.com, and author of english essay Careerealism: The Smart Approach to a Satisfying Career.
She recommends lots of white space and no more than a 0.8 margin. Amanda Augustine, a career-advice expert for TopResume , agrees, warning particularly against dense blocks of text. Let's be honest: You're looking this over quickly, you're glancing through it. Your eyes glaze over when you get to a big, long paragraph, she says. Essay. Your r©sum© shouldn't include the words I, me, she, or my, says Tina Nicolai, executive career coach and founder of Resume Writers' Ink. English Dialect. Don't write your r©sum© in essay person, the third or first person. It's understood that everything on your r©sum© is about you and your experiences. In the same vein, you can also overload your r©sum© with too many bullet points, which Augustine calls death by bullets.
If absolutely everything is bulleted, it has the same effect as big dense blocks of text €” your eyes just glaze over it, she says. Augustine explains that bullets are only to be used to draw attention to of capital punishment, the most important information. If you bullet everything, everything is important, which means really nothing stands out, she says. If you're in marketing and you've lost me in the first three bullets, I have concerns, writes Benjamin. If you don't want to essay writing first, be discriminated against for both sides of capital essays, a position because of your age, it's time to remove your graduation date, says Catherine Jewell, author of New R©sum©, New Career. Writing First. Another surprising way your r©sum© could give away your age: double spaces after a period. Both. While many people were taught to type that way in school, it's now an person outdated practice. Don't use Times New Roman and professor serif fonts, as they're outdated and old-fashioned, Amy Hoover, president of Talent Zoo , says. Use a standard, sans-serif font like Arial. Also, be aware of the font size, she says.
Your goal should be to make it look nice and sleek €” but also easy to read. Curly-tailed fonts are also a turn-off, according to O'Donnell. People try to make their r©sum© look classier with a fancy font, but studies show they are harder to read and the recruiter absorbs less about writing person, you. Never describe past work experience using the present tense. Only your current job should be written in the present tense, Alyssa Gelbard, career expert and founder of career-consulting firm R©sum© Strategists, says. The format of your r©sum© is just as important as its content, Augustine says. She says the best format is the format that will make it easiest for the hiring manager to scan your r©sum© and churchill essay still be able to pick out your key qualifications and career goals.
Once you pick a format, stick with it. If you write the day, month, and year for one date, then use that same format throughout the essay first person rest of the r©sum©. Description Bedroom. Social-media URLs that are not related to the targeted position. If you have an online footprint, and you've bothered to writing, include it in your resume, I'm gonna click, Benjamin writes. Essays. You had better make sure all your links are on point.
Links to your opinionated blogs, Pinterest page, or Instagram account have no business taking up prime r©sum© real estate. Candidates who tend to think their personal social media sites are valuable are putting themselves at writing risk of landing in the 'no' pile, Nicolai says. But you should list relevant URLs, such as your LinkedIn page or any others that are professional and directly related to the position you are trying to acquire, she says. This one may seem obvious, but it cannot be overstated €” spelling and churchill essay grammar mistakes are a sure-fire way to get your r©sum© thrown into the junk pile, and person they're so easy to fix. All it takes is a few extra minutes of perusing, and perhaps a second set of eyes, to fix this big r©sum© no-no. Writing whorehouse instead of warehouse can be a mortifying spelling mistake €” and, yes, it's happened.
A less-than-professional email address. If you still use an old email address, like BeerLover123@ gmail.com or CuteChick4life@ yahoo.com , it's time to pick a new one. It only takes a minute or two, and psychology it's free. Writing First. SEE ALSO: 31 annoying words and phrases on your r©sum© that make hiring managers cringe. DON'T MISS: 13 hobbies that look great on child, your r©sum© €” and one that doesn't. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru.
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Essay On Achievements Of Cv Raman Essays and Research Papers. RamanC. Essay First Person. V. Eb White Once More Thesis. Raman was born at essay first person Tiruchirapalli in South India on english essay, November 7th, 1888. Raman entered Presidency College, Madras, in . 1902, and in 1904 passed his B.A. examination, winning the first place and writing person the gold medal in physics; in 1907 he gained his M.A. degree, obtaining the highest distinction. Raman spent 15 years as a Professor in Physics at essays Calcutta University (1917-32), and 15 years as a Professor in Physics at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (1933-48). In 1948, Raman became the. Fellows of the Royal Society , Indian physicists , Jagadish Chandra Bose 1536 Words | 5 Pages. Achieving Results How is writing person achievement defined, and what are the values behind achieving?
People can have different ideas and personal . definitions about what achievement means, which explains why the dictionary’s definition is very broad. Child Essays. Achievement is defined by writing person Webster’s dictionary and thesaurus as simply being “a result gained by effort” (“ Achievement ”). Engineering. The definition of achievement in my discipline of writing first Environmental Science is certainly linked to essays, the dictionary definition, but the results of. Alternative energy , Energy development , Environment 2258 Words | 6 Pages. A Critical Evaluation of Application Materials The term ' CV ' is an abbreviation for 'curriculum vitae' which in first person Latin roughly means 'the . Ward Churchill. course of my life'. The function of a CV is to essay first, serve as a self-marketing tool in an individuals search for a job. It could be argued that the psychology essays, way in which a CV communicates the suitability of a job candidate is essay writing first through the effective use of child psychology essays Impression Management.
IM refers to the tactics people use in order to elicit a desired impression from an audience, these. Cover letter , Employment , Resume 2953 Words | 7 Pages. It has been argued that the use of the internet is linked to poor academic achievement . Is this true? Excessive use of the internet . impairs the student’s academic achievement . This becomes a problem when it comes to impaired functioning of the body. Some people may experience psychological problems such as social isolation, depression, loneliness, etc. People are sleep deprived due to staying up online.
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?The achievements I consider most important are: securing world-class distinction in O Levels, mentoring my cousin to acquire higher education, . and designing operations of a start up restaurant. Punishment Essays. These achievements are special because these experiences have been instrumental in teaching important lessons and essay writing person allowed me to grow professionally and personally. One of the most important academic achievement in my life has been the World Distinction I received for scoring the highest marks in outline Geography. Education , Higher education 1255 Words | 3 Pages. CV’S A chronological CV focusses on presenting the writing first person, candidate's experience on an employer by employer basis, with the posts being listed in . reverse chronological order. It also contains detail of education and qualifications, together with hobbies. Description Of Your Essay. Some chronological CVs also contain a brief personal statement at the front which sets out the key skills and strengths of the candidate. This is the most common type of CV . How to structure a chronological CV A chronological CV typically uses the following. Chronology , Employment , Reverse chronology 686 Words | 3 Pages. CV Personal Data Name: Address: Telephone: E-Mail-Address: Nationality: Family status: Date of essay writing first birth: Ra’ad Bin Tareaf Amman, Jordan . +962–799878687 email@example.com Jordanian Single 26.07.1991 Education 02.2013–09.2014 University of Regensburg, Regensburg Germany Three semesters as an dialect essay, exchange student in essay writing computer science department 09.2009–09.2014 German Jordanian University, Amman Jordan Department of professor ward Informatics and Computing (B.SC.) in computer science, with “Good” degree 02.2015–Present. Aachen , Fuel injection , Jordan 262 Words | 2 Pages.
?Nikki Slesin Ms. Marshall-Fleenor History 9-1 November 17, 2007 Islamic Achievements made by the Muslims during the Golden Age In . less than a century after Muhammad created the Islamic faith and essay writing first state, Muslims and the new cultural power of Islam controlled half of the engineering cover letter, civilized world. Expansion that started with the rule of the Rightly Guided Caliphs continued under the essay first person, Umayyad Dynasty, which ruled from A.D 661 to 750. Islam gained political control and influence from Spain to ward churchill, the borders. Al-Andalus , Caliph , Caliphate 733 Words | 3 Pages. ? CV FOR APPLYING DONGHUA UNIVERSITY ????/Name in Passport: SHIROV MURADULLA Family Name: SHIROV Given . First Person. Name:MURADULLA ????/Name in Chinese, if applicable: ?? ?? Sex MALE ???? Marital Status SINGLE ?? Citizenship: TURKMENISTAN ???? Religion MUSLIM ???? 1990 ? 09 ? 21? Date of Birth Year Month Date ???? Place of Birth ???? Passport No. A0218309 ???? 2022 ? 28? Valid Until Year Month ?????????. China , Chinese language , Diploma 301 Words | 2 Pages. Jacky Hou Period 6 Cause and Effect: Achievement Grade Attempting: A Word Count: 1045 With the advancements made in modern society, the . Dialect Essay. desire to make an impact grows tremendously as historical figures rise and fall. Essay Writing Person. What causes the passion to pursue achievement is the constant pressure for wanting to rise out and above the seven billion. We can choose to live the gloomy mediocre life or we choose to push ourselves to be the professor ward essay, best of the writing, best and live the “American dream.” When life gives.
High school , Life , Steve Jobs 1047 Words | 3 Pages. ?C. V. Raman : Name Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman Born 7 November 1888 Thiruvanaikoil, Trichinopoly, . Madras Province, British India Died 21 November 1970 (aged 82) Bangalore, Karnataka, India Nationality Indian Fields Physics Institutions Indian Finance Department University of both punishment Calcutta Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science Indian Institute of Science Central College, Bangalore University Raman Research Institute Known for Raman. Bharat Ratna , C. V. Raman , Nobel Prize 1087 Words | 4 Pages. TEACHING CV EXAMPLE Your CV is first person a fact-based document, a concise summary of your skills, experience and education. Professor Churchill Essay. When putting . together your CV keep in mind that employers will scan through the document to discover if you are competent and qualified to do a job.
It is therefore essential to ensure your CV is clearly presented and easy to read; it should be no more than two sides of A4 paper, 11 or 12 font; if it is essay first too long, refine it. Remember to child psychology, double check your punctuation and spelling and. 3 , College , Duodecimal 1038 Words | 4 Pages. in ROBOTICS], Tanzania. Achievements : 3rd winner a cup July 21-24, 2013. Essay. The world scholar’s cup [Regional round] held in . Nairobi, Kenya. Dialect Essay. Achievements : 2 Medals, a cup and Qualification for the global round in essay writing person Dubai, U.A.E. February 9, 2014. Swahili Olympiad [Ngonjera participant] held in DSM, Tanzania. Achievements : 1st place Medal in child essays NGONJERA.
April 3-7, 2014. The world scholar’s cup [Regional round] held in Nairobi, Kenya. Achievements : 2 Medals Qualification for the. Dar es Salaam , East Africa , Kenya 294 Words | 4 Pages. What is a CV ? Curriculum Vitae: an writing person, outline of a person's educational and professional history, usually prepared for job applications (L, lit.: . the course of one's life) In the United States, a curriculum vitae is used primarily when applying for academic, education, scientific or research positions CV is the most flexible and convenient way to make applications. It conveys your personal details in both sides of capital punishment essays the way that presents you in the best possible light.
A CV is essay writing first a marketing document in which you. Application for employment , Coventry , Cover letter 2015 Words | 6 Pages. his pet to eb white once more lake thesis, develop a sense of responsibility. He listened to essay writing first person, and practiced my advice, and by the end of summer the authorities allowed him to return to his . old school. My family love with Dun over the past twelve years is one of my proudest achievements because I have seen the tangible effect my help is both sides punishment essays having on his confidence and his life. Essay Writing. The feeling that I can improve someone else's life by churchill essay giving of myself is essay first person deeply satisfying. Sides Punishment. Before helping Dun, I used to first person, divide the world into two parts. Academic term , Better , Emotion 792 Words | 2 Pages. Science Day: Remembering Raman Every year we celebrate National Science Day on 28th February to honour our Nobel laureate Sir Chandrasekhara . Venkata Raman for his invention of the Raman effect through his experiments on the scattering of light. | Remembering Raman ! Nation pays tribute and expresses gratitude to Sir CV Raman and to all the scientists on this day for their genius and english essay dedication. It is a day, which attracts many young minds to person, take up science as their career and child psychology essays a day to. Bharat Ratna , C. V. Raman , Indian Space Research Organisation 605 Words | 2 Pages.
entire essay ? 2. How does reading the last part of the essay complicate or expand on first person, what you read in the first part? 3. Can . you relate to what Rodriquez has said in his essay ? How exactly? Be specific. 4. Why does Rodriguez refer to Richard Hoggart's story? 5. Does Rodriguez believe that a good balance can be maintained between home life and sides punishment essays a successful educational life? 6. How does Rodriguez feel about his parents, and essay first person the role they have played in his life? In his essay The Achievement of engineering cover letter Desire.
Education , Richard Hoggart 771 Words | 3 Pages. What is the person, difference between curriculum vitae ( CV ) and resume? Curriculum vitae ( CV ) provide an overview of a person's . experience and other qualifications. In some countries, a CV is typically the first item that a potential employer encounters regarding the job seeker and is typically used to screen applicants, often followed by an interview, when seeking employment. CV is short (usually a maximum of two sides of A4 paper), and therefore contains only a summary of the job seeker's employment. Background check , Cover letter , Curriculum vitae 723 Words | 3 Pages. Cv- for eb white once to the lake thesis Business Studies on writing, a Technological Level.
which personal details you should include. PERSONAL STATEMENT Your personal statement is perhaps the engineering cover, single most important part of you . Essay Writing. CV . Professor Ward Essay. Get it wrong and your chances of being invited to person, interview are drastically reduced. Its aim is to highlight your professional attributes and once more lake goals, emphasising why they should continue reading the rest of your CV . Find out how to essay writing first person, write the perfect personal statement. EMPLOYMENT Job Title | Company Name | www.examplelink.co.uk Location | Dates. At-will employment , Employment , Job 627 Words | 4 Pages. Curriculum Vitae Katrina Williams Address: 68 Bruce Street Swindon Wilts SN2 2EW Tel Mobile: 07889 851761 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org . PROFILE: I am an experienced, passionate sales and to the management professional with extensive learning and development experience, spanning across financial sectors, having the ability to build good relationships with customers and staff to essay first person, deliver industry leading results. summary of Qualifications Education: Churchfields School (1993– 1998) . Building society , Financial services , Learning 506 Words | 3 Pages. Conciliation Act; case law research on international arbitration and english essay online mediation processes. (Work done during the internship is essay writing person mentioned in 3-4 . bullet points with precise detail. Professor Ward Churchill. A uniform bullet style is used throughout). ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS • Was the batch topper with a GPA of 6.8/7 in the 5th semester. Essay Writing First Person. • Obtained ‘E’ grade (the highest attainable grade) in Constitutional Law I, Public International Law. MOOT COURT EXPERIENCE • Winner, Manfred Lachs International. Asterisk , Case law , Common law 753 Words | 4 Pages.
? Ministry of Foreign Affairs 4th Future Diplomats Essay Competition The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) is child celebrating 40 . years of integration in 2013. Discuss the achievements of CARICOM in light of the statement and make suggestions for future development. Kerri Mc Neil Happy fortieth anniversary to writing, the Caribbean Community (CARICOM)! An establishment which has transgressed shared colonial history; propelling its fifteen member. Barbados , Caribbean , Caribbean Community 1553 Words | 5 Pages.
CVS Caremark Overview In our society, many people suffer from ailments and diseases that require medication to outline, help them manage their . Essay Writing First Person. illnesses while trying to maintain a normal lifestyle. Approximately 75% of the US population lives within three miles of a CVS (Datamonitor,2011), a retail pharmacy which sells prescription drugs and a range of general merchandise including over the counter drugs, beauty products and cosmetics, photo finishing, seasonal merchandise, greeting cards, and convenience. Caremark Rx , CVS Caremark , CVS/pharmacy 1972 Words | 6 Pages. organization has to deal with? Part A: Draw a chart of professor ward churchill your organizations domain. CVS Pharmacy Specific Environment General . Environment An organizations domain is the goods and essay writing first person services, and both of capital essays customers of the organization. Every organizational domain consists of a specific and person general environment.
In CVS Pharmacy’s specific environment are its suppliers and customers. In CVS Pharmacy’s general environment are governmental regulations, advancements in technology. CVS Caremark , CVS/pharmacy , Dependency theory 2182 Words | 6 Pages. in society and must be used with, “extreme caution,” not racial. In the essay , “What is engineering cover Race?” Victor Fernandez talks about essay writing first person, his experiences in . the emergency room as a nurse, and see’s how the term is used in professor ward a medical environment regularly. Essay First Person. Fernandez explains that race is both a, “biologically meaningless category” and has a, “social and political significance because of racism.” Fernandez also makes valid points about the essay on how, “in spite of our apparent differences, which are skin deep, all.
Black people , Discrimination , Human skin color 800 Words | 3 Pages. million regular customers left CVS . For 44% of these customers, CVS’s unsatisfying service was the reason for essay first person switching to another service . provider. In the of capital, service industry customer satisfaction is an essential condition to maintain profitability. CVS has to recover its pharmacy service quickly and essay writing first person correct its service mistakes. Only then will CVS be able to establish customer satisfaction and create lasting customer loyalty.
In order to achieve these objectives, CVS should focus on improving its performance. Business terms , Customer service , Good 963 Words | 3 Pages. comfortable environment of teaching and learning process especially in churchill essay the classroom.This campaign will be held for one month starting from July to August . 2012 in essay person our school and don't hesitate to join us in english dialect essay any activities in order to writing person, improve our academic achievements . Classroom should be very conducive to studied and therefore we have to both sides of capital punishment essays, start by selecting the essay first, class committee to psychology, lead the other students to carry out the duty.Besides,we have to hang up rules in first a classroom and place it at the suitable spot. Classroom , Education , Learning 796 Words | 3 Pages. Wentz Midterm Assignment CVS /Pharmacy “Staying healthy isn’t easy these days. Essays. Health care costs keep rising. Essay First. People are overwhelmed and . confused by essays all the changes.
They’re looking for help. They’re looking for essay first person solutions that make a difference. At CVS Caremark, we know that to professor churchill, make a difference, you have to do things differently. So we’re reinventing pharmacy to help people on essay person, their path to better health.” (info.cvscaremark.com) This is the mission statement of both sides of capital punishment CVS . CVS /Pharmacy is known for their. Caremark Rx , Customer , Customer service 1166 Words | 2 Pages. Richard Rodriguez’s essay “The Achievement of essay first Desire” can be described as an dialect essay, autobiographical text in which the author includes . some self analysis in essay person comparison to what he describes as the only description of “myself”(Rodriguez p.547): The Uses of Literacy by Richard Hoggart. More Lake Thesis. What Rodriguez is doing by writing this essay is to essay writing first person, add further notion of the “scholarship boy syndrome” for engineering letter future scholarship boys. His motif for doing this could be to make the essay writing first, reader reflect on the advantages and disadvantages. Essay , Life , Personal life 2310 Words | 6 Pages. His idea of a secular nation state was seemingly validated when the Congress under his leadership swept the provincial elections in 1937 while the . Once More Thesis. separatist Muslim League failed to form a government in writing first any of the Indian provinces. But, these achievements were seriously compromised in the aftermath of the Quit India Movement in 1942 which saw the British effectively crush the Congress as a political organisation.
Nehru, who had reluctantly heeded Gandhi's call for immediate independence, for he. Allahabad , India , Indian independence movement 1072 Words | 3 Pages. ? CV – Simon Armitage Simon Armitage was a prohibition officer for 6 years. In the poem CV he describes a life of a man who . struggles throughout his life. Description Of Your. This poem could be reflecting on people or incidents Armitage faced white he was prohibition officer as it is person common to eb white once lake thesis, work with lower class, struggling people with limited opportunity , drug dealers and etc. First. Armitage uses his working life as an eb white more to the lake, influence in his work.
CV portrays a skeleton of a person. CV is not sufficient by itself as it. Employment , Literary consonance , Poetry 1297 Words | 4 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of essay writing first writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is letter outline vague, overlapping with . those of an writing, article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class.
An essay is eb white lake a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and first backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and support). English and literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of classes. English Dialect. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. system. ------------------------------------------------- Skills and first Achievements Communication * Working in retail in time past has . Professor Essay. also allowed me to develop my communication skills by understanding the importance of tailoring my style depending on the customer I am working with. This has given me a good reputation in my company on several occasions for meeting an excellent service. Essay Writing First Person. * Experienced with report and professor essay essays and giving presentations having completed my BSc. and my MSc. Essay Person. which. Amazon Web Services , Computer , Database management system 745 Words | 4 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in cover letter telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. Essay First Person. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. Tip for Colledge Admissions Essays.
?Tip #1: Wordiness and Repetition in College Admissions Essays Ad Accredited MBA Programwww.ISM.eduStudy Where How You Want w/ a MBA From . ISM - Grow Your Career Today! Wordiness and Repetition in College Admissions Essays Image by Allen Grove In college admissions essays , wordiness is by far the most common stylistic error. In most cases, students could cut one-third of an both sides of capital, essay , lose no meaningful content, and writing first make the piece much more engaging and effective. Ward Churchill. Wordiness comes in many forms. Copula , Essay , Expletive 2395 Words | 7 Pages. use of plagiarism detecting tools. These are programs that have been built with the main objective being to detect plagiarized work. These programs can be . easily accessed online such as; Gramarly, Turnitin which is produced by iParadigms and also Essay Verification Engine. (Gilmore 53) Paraphrasing and use of quotations Plagiarism can also be avoided by proper paraphrasing. Paraphrasing refers to use of your own words while at the same time retaining the essay person, intended meaning of words and both ideas as the.
Academia , Academic dishonesty , Andrew Dickson White 744 Words | 3 Pages. Writing Applications 2.0 (7th – 8th) MY FAVORITE FOOD ESSAY (Basic) A Tasty Way To Write an Incredible Essay © . Essay. Copyright 2007 Hot Topic Essays , Super Achievement , Inc. Psychology. All Rights Reserved www.superachievement.net Introducing: __________________! Paragraph One—Introductory Paragraph Fill-in-the-blanks to first, show what this paragraph does: 1. More. Introduces the topic • (Your Topic)______________________________ 2. Makes a statement about the topic. • My favorite food is _____________________. Writing 525 Words | 6 Pages. ognition in national level fests.
TECHNICAL SKILLS Programming Languages Operating Systems Software (basics) Elementary . knowledge of C. WINDOWS-XP/VISTA. Essay Person. ANSYS, CATIA V-5R12, MATLAB 7.0.4 (sim-mechanics) ACHIEVEMENTS • All – India DAV Topper in CBSE Class 10th board examination with merit certificate in outline English and Maths from CBSE awarded to first person, top 0.1% students and of your was awarded gold medal by Late. Mr. Sunil Dutt for writing person the same. • Awarded R.P. Description Essay. S. Hindustan Petroleum , Management , Mechanical engineering 837 Words | 6 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and person Marking Rubric This assessment task is . an ESSAY . The RMIT College of Business requires you to use a particular style of essay writing which involves both the way the essay is structured and the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in essay your work. The structuring of an essay is very clearly described in the RMIT Study and Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words, and the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each.
Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Each essay is person a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to the Bible and the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages. The Achievement of of your bedroom Desire Growing up is writing person something inevitable to once more to the lake, all cultures and people. Writing First. We have all gone through that time in our lives when . we move on from being a child and become an eb white once to the lake thesis, adult. Writing First. However, in the reality that education is the fact that starts this transition, Richard Rodriguez brilliantly focuses on the realization that education itself gives us the “ways of description bedroom essay speaking and caring” about essay writing first person, this transition. In the essay, essay The Achievement of Desire, Rodriguez explains how his own life can.
Academia , Choice , Education 1127 Words | 3 Pages. cvSyed Safeer Ul Hassan, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Tel: +966 59 751 9527 Email: Sinourr@gmail.com 12/Jan/2013 Dear Sir, It is essay first with great pleasure to . present my CV to your company, and it really gives me great honour to be one of your company’s members. I have been working at of capital essays Saudi Lumat for the past three year as an IT Systems administrator. I have gained practical experience while working at the site with limited resources but still i have achieved minimum downtimes with. Biometrics , Customer service , Microsoft 1000 Words | 5 Pages. Bankers Adda How to essay writing, write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in eb white once to the lake thesis the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam.
How to write an essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to give up his humanity, while on the other . hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to protect his family. Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in your mind. Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the time comes to write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on first person, Monday 14th of January 2013 You are required to write an . essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the of capital essays, following question: • You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation. Essay Person. You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for managing change and anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success.
Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an ideal topic for to the lake debate; there have been mixed results for companies and individuals who have . pursued social responsibility. First Person. There is also the question of ward essay whether social responsibility should be motivated by writing first person a perceived benefit.This type of essay is based on philosophical theories on the necessity of social responsibility backed up with facts about previous social responsibility efforts. Essays. For example, an essay could be about person, how giving support to disaster. Essay , Essays , Qualitative research 555 Words | 3 Pages. create flashcards for free at Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and “Declaration of the Rights of Man” Comparison By wis2cool, april. 2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS. Send Code Napoleon and “Declaration. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of sides Man and of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages.
ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is essay writing not the only way to organize and develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and professor essay purpose. For, before you can know how to essay first, approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. The essays asked for professor churchill essay Harvard admissions this year are epitome of ‘eloquence in writing first person brevity’.
They are simple and beautiful– tell us something you . did well and something you could have done better. I can’t tell you how much I love this way of asking questions Well…Moving on to the sides of capital essays, analysis Harvard Essay 1. Essay Writing Person. Tell us about something you did well. (400 words) In other words – one most substantial achievement (please read carefully – it’s something not things) Challenges – many 1. What is an achievement. Business , Business school , Education 1191 Words | 4 Pages. Writing Uk Style Cv and Cover Letter. WRITING UK CV AND COVERING LETTERS CV Purpose: Applying jobs Marketing yourself Career history list Demonstrating experience . Selling your skills, qualities and achievement Getting interview Types: Chronological Skill based One-page for part time jobs Academic General guideline: Visual impact: Black and white (don’t make your CV colourful unless you are looking for a job in creative industries) Consistent and clear layout: ? ? ? ? Same font Order of sections Don’t split sections across pages. Employment , Paragraph , Pilcrow 612 Words | 3 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cover cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. Writing First Person. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and essay Carne, P., (2011).
Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. Essay First. For . Child Psychology. example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of writing first being literate in this fashion.
Did you have trouble using a computer to register for more to the lake thesis classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. The Achievement Gap in essay first the United States Schools December 15, 2010 Since the mid sixties we as a nation have been studying the once more to the thesis, . achievement gap between minority students, low-income, and middle income students. I plan to present data regarding this issue that has plagued our country for decades. Being an employee in writing person the education system and child essays working with students from these subgroups, I have had firsthand experience with this issue. With the achievement gap growing rapidly, our country has.
Education , Education in the United States , High school 917 Words | 3 Pages. Size and Academic Achievement Name: DABHI KRISHNA KANAKSINH ID: 16241196 ENGLISH LANGUAGE BRIDGING COURSE The question of . “class size and academic performance” has generated a strong debate among academics stakeholders, teachers, administrators, parents and as well as researchers. The issues create strong arguments because of the powerful common sense that small classes model appeals. Essay Person. We can understand that class size influences on students’ academic achievements whereas some well. Academia , Class , Education 1045 Words | 4 Pages. Chapter 3: The Achievements of Venice (written by BS) Venice had many achievements by the 15th Century, mainly, building a . maritime empire, social transformation and also economic prosperity.
The most significant achievement , would be building a maritime empire, followed by social transformation and economic prosperity. Firstly, the most significant achievement would be building a maritime empire. As a maritime empire, Venice possessed territories along important trade routes, especially around. Adriatic Sea , Economics , History of the Mediterranean region 914 Words | 3 Pages. their goal of being part of the honor roll. Balancing these two is one of the problems honor students of eb white once more today are facing.
This process is intended to know . how important co-curricular involvement is and what its effects to the students’ academic achievements are. Since 1985, Colegio San Agustin (CSA)- Binan has been providing its students quality Catholic education that enriches their knowledge academically. Besides, CSA- Binan has been offering several co- curricular programs like authorized student. Academia , College , Education 1635 Words | 8 Pages. trying to know everyone in the class. Essay First Person. After that here comes the big turn, homework and writing essays . I have never written an . essay in my life while I was living in both of capital India. It was really hard for me to first person, write down our thought on of capital essays, the given assignment. My English is writing first person not good and grammar is worse. I was really afraid of writing, I didn’t want to letter, tell anyone.
I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date. After some days Mrs. Danielo called me in her office during office hours. Writing First. She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction: Academic Achievement is the eb white once thesis, most important skill in every student’s life. Writing Person. It helps us to dialect essay, discover more about the theories . and first person certain known facts and letter outline also to develop our personal growth. Academic study is a way of essay writing first exploring, addressing and expressing ideas and a way of communicating results and enjoys learning. The aims of Academic Study are to focus in becoming a well qualified degree holder, developing skills, knowledge and even to enjoy learning.
It requires hard work, self-discipline. Academic degree , Classroom , Discipline 934 Words | 3 Pages.