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Boarding Schools in questions the United States. Essay And Healthy Food. On this page we cover boarding schools and outline the means for teacher essay questions applying to study in the US. For a complete guide to both of capital punishment essays, boarding, including information about teacher interview, admissions, please see our introductory guide. Example Of Outline Research Paper. Chamberlain International School St. Stanislaus College Prep New Mexico Military Institute American Hebrew Academy Randolph-Macon Academy Southwestern Academy THINK Global School Heritage Hampshire Country School Army and interview questions, Navy Academy St. Deffinition. Francis High School Buffalo Seminary Alpine Academy Foxcroft Academy Fork Union Military Academy The Gow School Leman Manhattan Preparatory School North Broward Preparatory School. Middleboro, Massachusetts 6 to 12 (Coed) Day school (25 students) Boarding school (98 students) Bay Saint Louis, Mississippi 7 to 12 (Boys) Day school (315 students) Boarding school (72 students) Roswell, New Mexico 9 to teacher, 12 (Coed) Boarding school (843 students) Greensboro, North Carolina 9 to reference page for research paper apa, 12 (Coed) Day school (20 students) Boarding school (120 students) Front Royal, Virginia 6 to teacher interview essay, 12 (Coed) Day school (56 students) Boarding school (269 students) San Marino, California 6 to 12 (Coed) Day school (34 students) Boarding school (110 students) New York, New York 10 to 12 (Coed) Boarding school (46 students) Provo, Utah 7 to essay structure tutorial, 12 (Boys) Boarding school (115 students) Rindge, New Hampshire 3 to interview questions, 12 (Boys) Boarding school (22 students) Carlsbad, California 7 to structure tutorial, 12 (Boys) Day school Boarding school. Hamburg, New York 9 to 12 (Boys) Day school (500 students) Boarding school (26 students) Buffalo, New York 9 to teacher essay, 12 (Girls) Day school Boarding school.
Erda, Utah 7 to essay fast food food, 12 (Girls) Boarding school (70 students) Dover-Foxcroft, Maine 9 to 12 (Coed) Day school (352 students) Boarding school (98 students) Fork Union, Virginia 7 to teacher essay, 12 (Boys) Day school (30 students) Boarding school (400 students) South Wales, New York 6 to 12 (Coed) Day school (15 students) Boarding school (135 students) New York, New York Preschool to essay structure, 12 (Coed) Day school (635 students) Boarding school (115 students) Traditional International Baccalaureate. Coconut Creek, Florida Preschool to 12 (Coed) Day school (900 students) Boarding school (330 students) Liberal Arts International Baccalaureate. Our boarding school guide has advice specific to finding boarding schools. For insights that are more general (on how to teacher questions, evaluate school options) we recommend you review our hub on choosing a school. Private school expos are ideal launching pads for your school-finding journey. Thesis. All expos are held in the fall at a number of centres across Canada. Teacher Essay. There are three expos hosted in structure Ontario, one in Toronto, one in Halton-Peel, and interview essay questions, one in sides of capital essays Ottawa. Expos are also held each fall in teacher interview essay Vancouver, Montreal, and Calgary. Structure Tutorial. All are opportunities to speak with administrators from leading boarding schools within the teacher essay, regions in which the about fast food, expos are held. Teacher Interview. Word-of-mouth is fast another powerful tool in your school-finding arsenal.
The Our Kids private school discussion forum allows you to discuss your options and debate topics around gifted education. You can use our community of essay questions parents, educational experts, alumni, and schools to reference page paper apa, help answer your questions and stimulate your thinking. Attending open houses is obviously a great way to learn more about a school and get a feel for teacher questions the environment. For some advice on engineering cover letter outline, open house visits, go here. For questions to teacher interview essay, ask that are specific to boarding programs, refer to our main boarding school hub. 205 Bidwell Parkway Buffalo New York 14222.
Day school (20 students) Boarding school (120 students) 4334 Hobbs Road Greensboro North Carolina 27410. Example Of Outline. Day school (20 students) Boarding school (120 students) 4334 Hobbs Road Greensboro North Carolina 27410. Broadly speaking, the cost of boarding reflects the teacher interview questions, cost private school tuition in general, though with premiums added to thesis deffinition, cover housing and meals. Many schools offer financial aid, including scholarships and bursaries. Financial aid is needs-based, and interview essay, financial aid programs are created as a means of broadening the student base and essay structure tutorial, attracting students, independent of interview means, who will contribute most to structure, the culture of the teacher essay, school. Deffinition. Generally speaking, the teacher interview essay questions, larger and cover letter outline, more expensive schools provide the teacher essay questions, most aid. You can read more about both of capital, financial aid and scholarships in our dedicated guide. Below you#39;ll find the range of teacher interview essay costs at United States boarding schools: Day school (315 students) Boarding school (72 students) Day school (20 students) Boarding school (120 students) Day school (34 students) Boarding school (110 students) Boarding school (46 students) Day school (352 students) Boarding school (98 students) Day school (15 students) Boarding school (135 students) Day school (25 students) Boarding school (98 students) Day school (315 students) Boarding school (72 students) Boarding school (843 students) Day school (20 students) Boarding school (120 students) Day school (56 students) Boarding school (269 students) Day school (34 students) Boarding school (110 students) Boarding school (46 students) Boarding school (115 students)
$138,000 to page for research, $138,000 style=color:#c00;Heritage. Boarding school (22 students) Day school (500 students) Boarding school (26 students) Boarding school (70 students) Day school (352 students) Boarding school (98 students) Day school (30 students) Boarding school (400 students) Day school (15 students) Boarding school (135 students) Day school (635 students) Boarding school (115 students) Day school (900 students) Boarding school (330 students) Day school (25 students) Boarding school (98 students) Day school (315 students) Boarding school (72 students) Boarding school (843 students) Day school (20 students) Boarding school (120 students) Day school (56 students) Boarding school (269 students) Day school (34 students) Boarding school (110 students) Boarding school (46 students) Boarding school (115 students) $138,000 to $138,000 style=color:#c00;Heritage. Teacher Interview Essay. Boarding school (22 students) Day school (500 students) Boarding school (26 students) Boarding school (70 students) Day school (352 students) Boarding school (98 students) Day school (30 students) Boarding school (400 students) Day school (15 students) Boarding school (135 students) Day school (635 students) Boarding school (115 students) Day school (900 students) Boarding school (330 students) Auditory processing disorder. Language processing disorder. Non-verbal learning disorders. Visual motor deficit.
Oppositional defiant disorder. Thesis. Day school (25 students) Boarding school (98 students) Day school (315 students) Boarding school (72 students) Boarding school (843 students) Day school (20 students) Boarding school (120 students) Day school (56 students) Boarding school (269 students) Day school (34 students) Boarding school (110 students) Boarding school (46 students) Boarding school (115 students) $138,000 to $138,000 style=color:#c00;Heritage. Boarding school (22 students) Day school (500 students) Boarding school (26 students) Boarding school (70 students) Day school (352 students) Boarding school (98 students) Day school (30 students) Boarding school (400 students) Day school (15 students) Boarding school (135 students) Day school (635 students) Boarding school (115 students) Day school (900 students) Boarding school (330 students) Day school (25 students) Boarding school (98 students) Day school (315 students) Boarding school (72 students) Boarding school (843 students) Day school (20 students) Boarding school (120 students) Day school (56 students) Boarding school (269 students) Day school (34 students) Boarding school (110 students) Boarding school (46 students) Boarding school (115 students) $138,000 to essay, $138,000 style=color:#c00;Heritage. Boarding school (22 students) Day school (500 students) Boarding school (26 students) Boarding school (70 students)
Day school (352 students) Boarding school (98 students) Day school (30 students) Boarding school (400 students) Day school (15 students) Boarding school (135 students) Day school (635 students) Boarding school (115 students) Day school (900 students) Boarding school (330 students) Entry years and acceptance rates for essay tutorial day students. Day school (25 students) Boarding school (98 students) Day school (315 students) Boarding school (72 students) Day school (20 students) Boarding school (120 students) Day school (56 students) Boarding school (269 students) Day school (34 students) Boarding school (110 students) Day school (500 students) Boarding school (26 students) Day school (352 students) Boarding school (98 students) Day school (30 students) Boarding school (400 students) Day school (15 students) Boarding school (135 students) Day school (900 students) Boarding school (330 students) Entry years and acceptance rates for boarding students. Day school (25 students) Boarding school (98 students) Day school (315 students) Boarding school (72 students) Boarding school (843 students) Day school (20 students) Boarding school (120 students) Day school (56 students) Boarding school (269 students) Day school (34 students) Boarding school (110 students) Boarding school (46 students) Boarding school (115 students) $138,000 to $138,000 style=color:#c00;Heritage. Boarding school (22 students) Day school (500 students) Boarding school (26 students) Boarding school (70 students) Day school (352 students) Boarding school (98 students) Day school (30 students) Boarding school (400 students) Day school (15 students) Boarding school (135 students) Day school (635 students) Boarding school (115 students) Day school (900 students) Boarding school (330 students) Day school (25 students) Boarding school (98 students) Day school (315 students) Boarding school (72 students) Boarding school (843 students) Day school (20 students) Boarding school (120 students)
Day school (56 students) Boarding school (269 students) Day school (34 students) Boarding school (110 students) Boarding school (46 students) Boarding school (115 students) $138,000 to questions, $138,000 style=color:#c00;Heritage. Boarding school (22 students) Day school (500 students) Boarding school (26 students) Boarding school (70 students) Day school (352 students) Boarding school (98 students) Day school (30 students) Boarding school (400 students) Day school (15 students) Boarding school (135 students) Day school (635 students) Boarding school (115 students) Day school (900 students) Boarding school (330 students) Day school (25 students) Boarding school (98 students) Day school (315 students) Boarding school (72 students) Day school (20 students) Boarding school (120 students) Day school (56 students) Boarding school (269 students) Day school (34 students) Boarding school (110 students) Boarding school (46 students) Boarding school (115 students) $138,000 to $138,000 style=color:#c00;Heritage. Boarding school (22 students) Day school (500 students) Boarding school (26 students) Boarding school (70 students) Day school (352 students) Boarding school (98 students) Day school (30 students) Boarding school (400 students) Day school (15 students) Boarding school (135 students) Day school (635 students) Boarding school (115 students) Day school (900 students) Boarding school (330 students)
Extracurricular sports (competitive) Day school (25 students) Boarding school (98 students) Day school (315 students) Boarding school (72 students) Day school (20 students) Boarding school (120 students) Day school (56 students) Boarding school (269 students) Day school (34 students) Boarding school (110 students) Boarding school (46 students) Boarding school (115 students) $138,000 to $138,000 style=color:#c00;Heritage. Both Of Capital. Boarding school (22 students) Day school (500 students) Boarding school (26 students) Boarding school (70 students) Day school (352 students) Boarding school (98 students) Day school (30 students) Boarding school (400 students) Day school (15 students) Boarding school (135 students) Day school (635 students) Boarding school (115 students) Day school (900 students) Boarding school (330 students) The United States is home to essay, some of the oldest and both punishment essays, most respected boarding schools on the continent, as well as some of the interview essay, most progressive schools in the world. All participate in a robust, world-class academic tradition that, in reference for research many ways, is essay questions second to none. The US is both punishment also home to a greater variety of quality boarding options than you#39;ll find in any other part of the world. Included are preeminent schools in the arts, athletics, and military training, as well as schools renowned as pioneers in academic development and special needs. When it comes to boarding options, if you can#39;t find it here, it#39;s very likely that you can#39;t find it anywhere.
Graduation requirements, as well as the teacher interview questions, degrees offered, can vary between schools based on focus, curriculum, and about fast and healthy food, affiliation. Often, international students who board in the US will work toward the fulfillment of an International Baccalaureate Diploma. Interview Questions. The International Baccalaureate Diploma Program. The International Baccalaureate is a two-year advanced secondary school curriculum that was founded in 1968 and example research, is now taught in schools in more than 140 countries, including many alternative institutions in Canada. The IB curriculum was created for students aged 16 to 19. It is intended to provide a well-rounded, high quality, advanced course of teacher interview essay study that delivers the basics of high school education while challenging students to essay food food, apply their knowledge and teacher interview questions, skills through collaboration, discussion, and example for a research, communication. In order to essay, earn an IB diploma students complete a course of study in six core subject areas (language and literature, language acquisition, individuals and societies, sciences, mathematics, and the arts) an essay of up to 4000 words, and sit standard, externally assessed exams. In addition to engineering, course work, students are also required to essay questions, complete two formal projects and a minimum of 50 hours of cover community service. University recognition of the IBDP. Teacher Questions. Each of example of outline research Canada#39;s universities is free to sets its own admissions standards and to assess each candidate based on their own internal criteria.
There is no national university entrance exam or governing body overseeing university admissions. As a result, admission criteria can vary widely, even between universities within Canada. Students are required to contact colleges or universities directly to find a list of admission requirements and teacher essay questions, deadlines, and to submit transcripts in support of structure tutorial their application. Interview. While the specific details of recognition can vary between universitiesor, in some cases, even between faculty within a universitythe IB diploma is widely accepted as an of capital essays, admission credential if scores earned meet certain targets. Questions. In some instances, IB courses and example of outline research, exams are recognized for transfer credit within an teacher interview questions, institution, used in engineering letter fulfillment of teacher university degree requirements and/or fulfilling course prerequisite requirements. NOTE: This is not a legal document, and tutorial, is intended only to provide a very general overview of the process required of Canadians when applying to teacher essay questions, study in the United States.
For up-to-date information, please refer to letter, the US Department of essay Homeland Security “Study in page paper the States” guidelines. Interview. Canadians attending high school in the US, including boarding schools, need to enter the apa, country with an F-1 student visa. The visa can be obtained by interview essay following these steps: apply to reference for research paper apa, and be accepted by teacher interview a school that has been approved by the Student and Exchange Visitor Program (SEVP). (If you would like to deffinition, check if the questions, school you are applying to statement, is SEVP approved, click here.) complete the Form I-20, Certificate of interview questions Eligibility for Nonimmigrant Status. The school will give you this form along with your acceptance notification. If you are applying to more than one school, each school will send a separate I-20 form. Use only the form for essay structure the school you will be attending. Teacher Essay. The I-20 is proof that you have been registered with the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS).
Check your I-20 form against your passport to confirm that your name is spelled correctly, and that it shows your correct date of cover birth. Essay Questions. If not, contact the of outline for a research, school and ask that they send you a corrected I-20. Pay the I-901 SEVIS fee and keep a copy of the teacher interview essay, receipt. You can pay it online. Print out of outline paper a copy of the teacher, receipt as you’ll need to be able to show that the statement deffinition, fee has been paid when you appear for interview your visa interview. Complete form DS 160, the online nonimmigrant visa application. Make an appointment for a visa interview at a US embassy or consulate. Essay Structure. To find the nearest office to you, click here. At the interview you’ll be asked to demonstrate that you: have been accepted by teacher a school in the US are able to pay the tuition and travel costs, are prepared for the program you’ve been accepted to don’t intend to remain permanently in the US Be sure to essay structure, take the following with you when you attend your visa pplication interview: Form I20 I901 SEVIS fee payment receipt printout of your DS-160 confirmation page visa application fee payment receipt passport valid for at least 6 months after you plan to enter the US a Two-inch by two-inch photo of yourself Receive your F-1 visa and teacher interview essay questions, get ready to reference apa, go! You can enter the interview essay, US up to 30 days before the first day of school.
When you enter you’ll be asked to show all your documentation, at fast food which point you’ll be given a Form I-94, your arrival/departure record. Teacher Interview Essay Questions. The Essential Parent Guide to Private Education. e-Newsletter to get news straight to your inbox. Sides Of Capital. Sign up to questions, receive our exclusive eNews twice a month. You can withdraw consent by for research apa unsubscribing anytime.
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Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria, An Essay on Crimes and Punishments  Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria , An Essay on Crimes and Punishments. By the Marquis Beccaria of Milan. With a Commentary by M. de Voltaire. A New Edition Corrected. (Albany: W.C. Teacher Interview Questions! Little Co., 1872). http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2193. An extremely influential Enlightenment treatise on legal reform in which Beccaria advocates the ending of engineering cover letter outline, torture and the death penalty. The book also contains a lengthy commentary by Voltaire which is an indication of high highly French enlightened thinkers regarded the work. The text is in interview questions the public domain. This material is put online to further the statement deffinition educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc.
Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes. It may not be used in any way for profit. In rebus quibuscunque difficilioribus non expectandum, ut quis simul, serat, metat, sed pr#xE6;paratione opus est, ut per gradus maturescant. Bacon. Penal Laws, so considerable a part of every system of legislation, and of so great importance to the happiness, peace and security of every member of society, are still so imperfect, and are attended with so many unnecessary circumstances of cruelty in all nations, that an attempt to reduce them to teacher the standard of reason must be interesting to all mankind. It is not surprising then, that this little book hath engaged the attention of all ranks of page for research paper, people in teacher interview every part of Europe. Example Research! It is now about eighteen months since the first publication; in which time it hath passed no less than six editions in the original language; the third of which was printed within six months after its first appearance. Teacher! It hath been translated Edition: current; Page: [ 4 ] into French; that translation hath also been several times reprinted, and perhaps no book, on paper, any subject, was ever received with more avidity, more generally read, or more universally applauded. The author is the Marquis Beccaria, of Milan.
Upon considering the nature of the religion and government under which he lives, the reasons for concealing his name are obvious. The whole was read, at different times, in a society of learned men in that city, and was published at their desire. As to the translation, I have preserved the order of the original, except in a paragraph or two, which I have taken the liberty to restore to the chapters to which they evidently belong, and from which they must have been accidentally detached. The French translator hath gone much farther; he hath not only essay questions transposed every chapter, but every paragraph in the whole book. But in this, I conceive he hath assumed a right which belongs not to any translator, and which cannot be justified. His disposition may appear more systematical, but certainly the author has as undoubted a right to the arrangement of his own ideas as to the ideas themselves; and therefore to destroy that arrangement, is to pervert his meaning, if he had any meaning in his plan, the contrary to which can hardly be supposed. Edition: current; Page: [ 5 ] With regard to the Commentary, attributed to Mons. de Voltaire, my only authority for supposing it his, is the voice of the public, which indeed is the essay structure only authority we have for most of his works.
Let those who are acquainted with the peculiarity of his manner judge for teacher interview themselves. The facts above mentioned would preclude all apology for this translation, if any apology were necessary, for translating into our language a work, which, from the nature of the subject, must be interesting to reference page paper apa every nation; but must be particularly acceptable to the English, from the eloquent and forcible manner in teacher essay which the author pleads the cause of liberty, benevolence and humanity. It may however be objected, that a treatise of this kind is useless in England, where, from the excellence of our laws and government, no examples of cruelty or oppression are to be found. Reference! But it must also be allowed, that much is still wanting to perfect our system of legislation; the confinement of debtors, the filth and teacher essay, horror of our prisons, the cruelty of statement deffinition, jailors, and interview essay, the extortion of the thesis statement deffinition petty officers of justice, to teacher all which may be added the melancholy reflection, that the number of criminals put to death in England is of outline research paper, much greater than in any other part of Europe, are considerations which will sufficiently Edition: current; Page: [ 6 ] answer every objection. These are my only reasons for endeavouring to diffuse the knowledge of the useful truths contained in teacher essay questions this little essay; and I say, with my author, that if I can be instrumental in rescuing a single victim from the of outline for a hand of tyranny or ignorance, his transports will sufficiently console me for the contempt of all mankind. Introduction . . . . . . . . . Teacher Essay Questions! . . . . . . And Healthy! . . . . . . . . . . . . Interview! . Of Outline Research Paper! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page. 11 Chap.
I. Of the Origin of Punishments . . . . . . . . Interview Essay Questions! . . . . Structure Tutorial! . . . . . . . . 15 II. Of the Right to Punish . . . . Teacher Questions! . Thesis Statement! . . . Questions! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Outline! . 17 III. Consequences of the teacher foregoing Principles . . . . . . . . . 19 IV. About Fast Food! Of the teacher interview essay questions Interpretation of Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . Cover Letter Outline! . . Teacher! . . . . 21 V. Of the Obscurity of Laws . . Cover Outline! . Teacher Questions! . . . . . . Sides Of Capital! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 VI. Of the Proportion between Crimes and Punishments, 28 VII. Of estimating the Degree of Crimes . . . . . . . . Interview Questions! . Reference For Research! . Teacher Interview Essay! . . . . 33 VIII.
Of the Division of Crimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 IX. Of Honor . . . . . . . . . . . Cover Outline! . . Interview! . . . . . Thesis! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teacher! . . 39 X. Of Duelling . . . Example Of Outline Research Paper! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interview Essay! . . . . . . 42 XI. Structure! Of Crimes which disturb the public Tranquillity . Teacher Essay! . . 44 XII. Essay About Fast Food! Of the Intent of Punishments . . . . . . . Interview Questions! . . . . . . . . . . . 46 XIII. Structure Tutorial! Of the Credibility of Witnesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 XIV. Of Evidence and the Proofs of a Crime, and of the Form of Judgment . . . . . . . . . . Teacher! . . . . . . . . . . Essay About And Healthy! . . . . . . . Teacher Questions! 51 XV. Of secret Accusations . . . . . Engineering Cover Outline! . Teacher Interview Essay! . . . . Essay Structure Tutorial! . . . . . . . Interview Essay Questions! . . . . . . Essay Tutorial! . . . 55 XVI. Questions! Of Torture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letter! . . . . . . . . . . . 58 XVII.
Of Pecuniary Punishments . Teacher Interview Questions! . . . Essay Food! . . . . . Teacher! . . . . . . . . . 68 XVIII. Of Oaths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Both Sides Essays! . . . Interview Essay Questions! . . Thesis! . . . . . Teacher! . . Thesis Statement! . . . . Interview Essay Questions! . 71 XIX. Of the Advantage of immediate Punishment . . . . . 73 XX. Of Acts of Violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering Letter Outline! . 77 XXI. Of the Punishment of the Nobles . . . . . . . . . . Teacher Interview Questions! . Fast Food Food! . . . Teacher Essay! 78 Edition: current; Page: [ 8 ] XXII. Both Sides Of Capital Punishment! Of Robbery . . . . Teacher Interview Questions! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example For A Paper! . . . . . . . . . . . 81 XXIII. Teacher Interview Questions! Of Infamy, considered as a Punishment . . . . . . Of Outline For A Research Paper! 82 XXIV.
Of Idleness . . . . . Interview! . . . . . . . . Paper Apa! . . . . . . Teacher Questions! . . Engineering Cover Letter Outline! . . . . . . Interview! . . . . . 85 XXV. Of Banishment and Confiscation . . . . . . . Both Sides Of Capital Essays! . . . . . . . 86 XXVI. Of the Spirit of Family in States . . . . . . Interview Essay! . Cover Letter! . . . . . 89 XXVII. Of the Mildness of Punishments . . . Interview Essay! . . . . . . . . . 93 XXVIII. Of the Punishment of Death . . . . . . . Structure! . . . . . . . . 97 XXIX. Of Imprisonment . . . . . . Teacher Questions! . . . . . . . . . . Page Paper Apa! . Teacher Interview Essay! . . . . . . . Page! . . . 108 XXX. Of Prosecution and teacher interview questions, Prescription . . . . . . Deffinition! . Teacher! . . . Both Of Capital Essays! . . . . 111 XXXI.
Of Crimes of difficult Proof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 XXXII. Of Suicide . . . . Interview Questions! . For A! . . Teacher! . Essay About Food And Healthy! . . . . Interview! . . . . . . . . . Of Capital Essays! . . . . Interview Essay Questions! . . . . . . 121 XXXIII. Of Smuggling . Essay About Fast And Healthy Food! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teacher! . . 126 XXXIV. Of Bankrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . About Food Food! . . . . . . . . Questions! . . . 129 XXXV. Statement Deffinition! Of Sanctuaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teacher Interview Questions! . . . . Engineering Cover Letter! . . Teacher Interview Questions! . . . . Of Outline! . . . 133 XXXVI. Of Rewards for apprehending or killing Criminals . . . . . . . . . . . Teacher Interview Essay! . . . Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interview Questions! . . . . . . . . . . Reference For Research Apa! . Teacher Interview Essay Questions! . . . . 135 XXXVII.
Of Attempts, Accomplices, and Pardon . . . . . 137 XXXVIII. Of suggestive Interrogations . . Sides Of Capital Punishment! . . . Teacher Interview! . . Essay Structure! . . Essay! . . . . . Cover! 141 XXXIX. Of a particular Kind of teacher interview, Crimes . . . . Page For Research Paper Apa! . . Interview Essay! . . . . . . 143 XL. Of false Ideas of Utility . Food And Healthy Food! . Essay Questions! . . . . . . . . Fast Food And Healthy Food! . . Essay! . . . . Structure Tutorial! . Teacher Interview! . . . . . 145 XLI. Of the Means of preventing Crimes . . . . . . . . . . . . For Research Paper! . 148 XLII. Of the Sciences . . Questions! . . . . . . . . Example For A Research! . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teacher Essay! . . . . . . . 150 XLIII. Engineering Cover! Of Magistrates . Interview! . Cover Outline! . Interview! . . . Research! . . . . . . . Teacher Interview Essay Questions! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 XLIV. Of Rewards . . . . . Page! . . . . Teacher Interview Essay! . . . . Thesis! . . . . . . . Teacher Interview! . . . . . . . . . Reference Page For Research Apa! . . . Teacher Essay Questions! 156 XLV.
Of Education . Engineering Cover Outline! . . . . . . . . . . . Interview Essay! . . . . . . . . Essay Structure! . . . . . . . Interview Questions! . Page Paper Apa! . . Teacher Interview! . Thesis! 157 XLVI. Of Pardons . . . . . Teacher Interview Essay Questions! . Structure Tutorial! . . . . . . Teacher Interview! . Structure! . . Teacher Essay! . Fast Food And Healthy Food! . . . . . Teacher Interview! . . Page For Research! . . . Essay! . . . . . . 158 XLVII. Both Sides Punishment! Conclusion . . . . . . . Questions! . . . . . . . . . Both Sides Of Capital Essays! . . . . . Teacher Interview Questions! . . . . . . . . . . . 160 A Commentary on the Book of Crimes and Punishments. Chap. I. The Occasion of this Commentary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference For Research Apa! . 163 II. Of Punishments . . Interview Essay! . . . . . . . . . Thesis Statement! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teacher Essay! . Cover Outline! 166 III.
On the Punishment of Heretics . . . . . . Interview Questions! . . . . . . . . . . . 167 IV. On the Extirpation of Heresy . . Example For A Paper! . . . . . . Teacher Interview Essay Questions! . . . . . Essay About Food And Healthy! . . . . Teacher! . 172 V. Of Profanation . . . . . . Page For Research Paper! . . . . . . . . Essay Questions! . . Essay! . . Teacher Essay! . . Both Punishment Essays! . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 VI. Of the Indulgence of the interview questions Romans in Matters of Religion . . Sides Of Capital Essays! . Interview! . . . . . . . . Of Outline! . . Teacher Essay Questions! . Essay Food And Healthy Food! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Essay Questions! . . . . . Fast And Healthy! . . . . . . . . 180 VII. Interview! Of the Crime of Preaching; and of Anthony . . . . 183 VIII. The History of Simon Morin . . . . . . . . . Sides Essays! . . . . . . . . . 187 IX.
Of Witches . . . . Teacher Essay Questions! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . For Research! . Teacher Interview Essay! . . . . . . . . . Of Capital! . . Interview Essay Questions! . Reference Page For Research Paper Apa! . . 190 X. On the Punishment of Death . . . Interview Essay Questions! . . . . . . . Both Sides Of Capital Punishment Essays! . . . . . . . Teacher Interview! . . Essay Structure Tutorial! . 193 Edition: current; Page: [ 9 ] XI. On Death Warrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teacher Essay! . . . . . . . . 195 XII. On Torture . . Essay Fast Food! . . . . . Essay Questions! . . . . Both Sides Of Capital Punishment! . . . Teacher Interview Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 XIII. Of certain sanguinary Tribunals . . . . . . . . . Statement Deffinition! . . . . . 199 XIV. On the Difference between Political and Natural Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teacher Interview! . . . . . . . . Structure Tutorial! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 XV. On the Crime of High Treason, on Titus Oates, and on the Death of Augustin de Thou . . . . . . . . . . Teacher Interview Essay Questions! . . . 204 XVI. On Religious Confession . . And Healthy! . . . . . . Teacher Questions! . . . . . . . Both Sides Of Capital! . . . . . . . 209 XVII. Of false Money . . . . . . . . Interview Essay! . Essay About And Healthy Food! . . . Interview Essay Questions! . . . . . . . . Essay About Fast Food And Healthy Food! . . . Teacher Essay! . . . . . . 214 XVIII.
On domestic Theft . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letter! . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 XIX. On Suicide . . . . . . . Questions! . . . . . . . . . . . . Statement Deffinition! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 XX. On a certain Species of Mutilation . Teacher Essay! . . . . . . Example For A Research Paper! . . Teacher Interview Essay Questions! . . . . . 219 XXI. On Confiscation . . . . . . . . . Statement! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 XXII. On criminal Procedure, and other Forms . . . . . . 224 XXIII.
The Idea of Reformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228. In every human society, there is an effort continually tending to confer on teacher essay questions, one part the paper apa height of power and happiness, and to reduce the other to interview essay the extreme of weakness and misery. The intent of good laws is to oppose this effort, and to diffuse their influence universally and equally. But men generally abandon the for a research care of their most important concerns to the uncertain prudence and discretion of those, whose interest it is to reject the best and wisest institutions; and it is not till they have been led into a thousand mistakes, in matters the most essential to their lives and liberties, and essay questions, are weary of suffering, that they can be induced to apply a remedy to the evils with which Edition: current; Page: [ 12 ] they are oppressed. It is thesis statement, then they begin to conceive, and acknowledge the most palpable truths, which, from their very simplicity, commonly escape vulgar minds, incapable of teacher essay questions, analysing objects, accustomed to receive impressions without distinction, and to be determined rather by thesis statement deffinition, the opinions of others, than by the result of their own examination. If we look into history we shall find that laws which are, or ought to be, conventions between men in a state of freedom, have been, for the most part, the work of the passions of a few, or the consequences of a fortuitous or temporary necessity; not dictated by interview essay questions, a cool examiner of human nature, who knew how to thesis statement deffinition collect in one point the teacher actions of a multitude, and had this only end in view, the greatest happiness of the greatest number.
Happy are those few nations who have not waited till the slow succession of human vicissitudes should, from the extremity of evil, produce a transition to good; but, by prudent laws, have facilitated the progress from one to the other! And how great are the obligations due from mankind to that philosopher, who, from the obscurity of his closet, had the courage to scatter among the page apa multitude the seeds of useful truths, so long unfruitful! Edition: current; Page: [ 13 ] The art of printing has diffused the knowledge of those philosophical truths, by which the relations between sovereigns and their subjects, and between nations, are discovered. By this knowledge commerce is animated, and there has sprung up a spirit of emulation and industry worthy of rational beings. These are the produce of this enlightened age; but the teacher essay questions cruelty of punishments, and the irregularity of proceeding in criminal cases, so principal a part of the legislation, and so much neglected throughout Europe, has hardly ever been called in question. Errors, accumulated through many centuries, have never been exposed by ascending to general principles; nor has the force of acknowledged truths been ever opposed to the unbounded licentiousness of page for research paper, ill-directed power, which has continually produced so many authorized examples of the most unfeeling barbarity. Surely, the groans of the weak, sacrificed to the cruel ignorance and interview questions, indolence of the powerful; the barbarous torments lavished and multiplied with useless severity, for crimes either not proved, or in reference their nature impossible; the filth and horrors of a prison, increased by the most cruel tormentor of the miserable, uncertainty, ought to have roused the attention of those, whose business is to direct the opinions of teacher, mankind. Edition: current; Page: [ 14 ] The immortal Montesquieu has but slightly touched on this subject. Truth, which is essay about and healthy, eternally the same, has obliged me to follow the steps of that great man; but the studious part of mankind, for whom I write, will easily distinguish the superstructure from the foundation. I shall be happy, if, with him, I can obtain the secret thanks of the obscure and peaceful disciples of reason and philosophy, and excite that tender emotion, in interview questions which sensible minds sympathise with him who pleads the both sides essays cause of humanity. AN ESSAY ON CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS.
CHAPTER I.: OF THE ORIGIN OF PUNISHMENTS. Laws are the conditions under which men, naturally independent, united themselves in society. Teacher Interview Essay! Weary of living in a continual state of war, and of enjoying a liberty which became of little value, from the engineering cover uncertainty of its duration, they sacrificed one part of teacher essay, it to enjoy the rest in peace and security. The sum of all these portions of the liberty of each individual constituted the sovereignty Edition: current; Page: [ 16 ] of a nation; and was deposited in the hands of the sovereign, as the lawful administrator. But it was not sufficient only to establish this deposit; it was also necessary to defend it from the usurpation of fast and healthy food, each individual, who will always endeavour to take away from the mass, not only his own portion, but to encroach on that of others. Some motives, therefore, that strike the senses, were necessary to prevent the despotism of each individual from plunging society into its former chaos. Such motives are the teacher interview essay questions punishment established against the infractors of the laws. I say that motives of this kind are necessary; because experience shews that, the multitude adopt no established rules of conduct; and because, society is prevented from approaching to that dissolution (to which, as well as all other parts of the physical and moral world, it naturally tends) only by motives that are the immediate objects of sense, and which, being continually presented to the mind, are sufficient to cover outline counterbalance the effects of the passions of the individual which oppose the general good.
Neither the power of questions, eloquence, nor the sublimest truths, are sufficient to restrain, for any length of time, those passions which are excited by the lively impression of present objects. CHAPTER II.: OF THE RIGHT TO PUNISH. Every punishment which does not arise from absolute necessity, says the great Montesquieu, is tyrannical. A proposition which may be made more general, thus. Every act of authority of one man over another, for which there is not an absolute necessity, is tyrannical. Both Sides Of Capital Punishment Essays! It is upon teacher interview questions, this, then, that the sovereign#x2019;s right to punish crimes is founded; that is, upon the necessity of thesis deffinition, defending the public liberty, intrusted to his care, from the usurpation of individuals; and punishments are just in proportion as the questions liberty, preserved by the sovereign, is sacred and valuable. Let us consult the human heart, and there we shall find the foundation of the sovereign#x2019;s right to punish; for no advantage in moral policy can be lasting, which is not founded on the indeliable sentiments of the heart of man. Whatever law deviates from this principle will always meet with a resistance, which will destroy it in thesis statement deffinition the end; for the smallest force, continually applied, Edition: current; Page: [ 18 ] will overcome the most violent motion communicated to bodies.
No man ever gave up his liberty merely for the good of the public. Such a chimera exists only in romances. Every individual wishes, if possible, to be exempt from the compacts that bind the rest of mankind. The multiplication of mankind, though slow, being too great for the means which the earth, in its natural state, offered to satisfy necessities, which every day became more numerous, obliged men to separate again, and form new societies. These naturally opposed the first, and a state of war was transferred from individuals to teacher essay questions nations.
Thus it was necessity that forced men to give up a part of their liberty; it is certain, then, that every individual would chuse to put into the public stock the smallest portion possible; as much only as was sufficient to essay fast and healthy engage others to defend it. The aggregate of these, the smallest portions possible, forms the right of questions, punishing: all that extends beyond this is abuse, not justice. Observe, that by engineering letter outline, justice I understand nothing more than that bond, which is necessary to keep the interest of individuals united; without which, men would return to the original state of barbarity. All punishments, which exceed the necessity of Edition: current; Page: [ 19 ] preserving this bond, are in their nature unjust. We should be cautious how we associate with the word justice, an idea of anything real, such as a physical power, or a being that actually exists. Questions! I do not, by any means, speak of the justice of God, which is thesis statement, of another kind, and refers immediately to rewards and punishments in a life to come. CHAPTER III.: CONSEQUENCES OF THE FOREGOING PRINCIPLES. The laws only can determine the punishment of crimes; and the authority of making penal laws can only reside with the legislator, who represents the whole society united by the social compact. No magistrate then, (as he is one of the society,) can, with justice, inflict on any other member of the same society, punishment that is questions, not ordained by the laws.
But as a punishment, increased beyond the degree fixed by the law, is the about food just punishment, with the interview essay addition of another; it follows, that no magistrate, even under a pretence Edition: current; Page: [ 20 ] of zeal, or the example for a paper public good, should increase the punishment already determined by the laws. If every individual be bound to society, society is equally bound to him by a contract, which, from teacher interview essay, its nature, equally binds both parties. This obligation, which descends from the throne to the cottage, and equally binds the highest and lowest of mankind, signifies nothing more, than that it is the both sides essays interest of all, that conventions, which are useful to the greatest number, should be punctually observed. Teacher Interview Essay! The violation of this compact by engineering cover outline, any individual, is an introduction to anarchy. The sovereign, who represents the society itself, can only make general laws to bind the members; but it belongs not to him to judge whether any individual has violated the social compact, or incurred the punishment in consequence. For in this case there are two parties, one represented by the sovereign, who insists upon the violation of the contract, and the other is the person accused, who denies it. It is necessary then that there should be a third person to decide this contest; that is to say, a judge, or magistrate, from whose determination there should be no appeal; and this determination should consist of a simple affirmation, or negation of fact. Edition: current; Page: [ 21 ] If it can only be proved, that the severity of punishments, though not immediately contrary to the public good, or to the end for which they were intended, viz., to prevent crimes, be useless; then such severity would be contrary to those beneficent virtues, which are the consequence of enlightened reason, which instructs the sovereign to essay wish rather to govern men in a state of freedom and page for research paper, happiness, than of slavery. It would also be contrary to interview essay justice, and the social compact. CHAPTER IV.: OF THE INTERPRETATION OF LAWS.
Judges, in outline criminal cases, have no right to interpret the penal laws, because they are not legislators. They have not received the teacher interview laws from cover outline, our ancestors as a domestic tradition, or as the will of a testator, which his heirs and executors are to obey; but they receive them from teacher interview, a society actually existing, or from the sovereign, its representative. Even the authority of the laws is not Edition: current; Page: [ 22 ] founded on any pretended obligation, or ancient convention; which must be null, as it cannot bind those who did not exist at the time of its institution; and unjust, as it would reduce men, in the ages following, to a herd of brutes, without any power of judging or acting. The laws receive their force and authority from an oath of fidelity, either tacit or expressed, which living subjects have sworn to their sovereign, in order to restrain the intestine fermentation of the private interests of individuals. From hence springs their true and natural authority.
Who then is their lawful interpreter? The sovereign, that is, the representative of society, and not the judge, whose office is only to examine, if a man have or have not, committed an action contrary to the laws. In every criminal cause the judge should reason syllogistically. The major should be the general law; the minor the conformity of the action, or its opposition to the laws; the punishment essays conclusion, liberty or punishment. If the judge be obliged by the imperfection of the laws, or chuses to make any other, or more syllogisms than this, it will be an introduction to uncertainty.
There is nothing more dangerous than the common axiom: the spirit of the laws is to be considered. To adopt it is to give way to the torrent of opinions. Edition: current; Page: [ 23 ] This may seem a paradox to vulgar minds, which are more strongly affected by the smallest disorder before their eyes, than by the most pernicious, though remote, consequences produced by one false principle adopted by a nation. Our knowledge is in proportion to the number of our ideas. The more complex these are, the greater is the variety of positions in which they may be considered. Every man hath his own particular point of view, and at different times sees the interview essay same objects in very different lights. The spirit of the laws will then be the result of the good or bad logic of the judge; and this will depend on his good or bad digestion; on the violence of his passions; on the rank and condition of the abused, or on his connections with the judge; and on all those circumstances which change the appearance of objects in the fluctuating mind of man. Hence we see the thesis deffinition fate of a delinquent changed many times in passing through the different courts of judicature, and his life and liberty victims to the false ideas or ill humour of the judge; who mistakes the vague result of his own confused reasoning, for teacher interview questions the just interpretation of the laws.
We see the same crimes punished in a different manner at different times in the same tribunals; the consequence of not Edition: current; Page: [ 24 ] having consulted the constant and structure, invariable voice of the laws, but the essay questions erring instability of arbitrary interpretation. The disorders that may arise from engineering letter outline, a rigorous observance of the letter of penal laws, are not to be compared with those produced by the interpretation of them. The first are temporary inconveniencies, which will oblige the legislator to correct the letter of the law, the want of preciseness and uncertainty of which has occasioned these disorders; and this will put a stop to the fatal liberty of explaining; the source of arbitrary and venal declamations. When the code of teacher questions, laws is once fixed, it should be observed in the literal sense, and for a, nothing more is left to the judge than to determine, whether an action be, or be not, conformable to the written law. When the rule of teacher interview essay, right, which ought to structure direct the interview essay questions actions of the philosopher as well as the ignorant, is a matter of controversy, not of fact, the example for a people are slaves to the magistrates. The despotism of this multitude of tyrants is more insupportable, the less the distance is between the oppressor and the oppressed; more fatal than that of one, for teacher interview the tyranny of many is not to be shaken off, but by having recourse to that of one alone.
It is more cruel, as it meets with more opposition, and the Edition: current; Page: [ 25 ] cruelty of a tyrant is not in proportion to his strength, but to the obstacles that oppose him. These are the means by which security of person and property is engineering, best obtained; which is just, as it is the purpose of uniting in society; and it is useful, as each person may calculate exactly the inconveniencies attending every crime. Essay Questions! By these means subjects will acquire a spirit of independence and liberty; however it may appear to those who dare to call the weakness of submitting blindly to their capricious and interested opinions by both sides, the sacred name of teacher, virtue. These principles will displease those who have made it a rule with themselves, to transmit to their inferiors the tyranny they suffer from their superiors. I should have every thing to fear, if tyrants were to read my book; but tyrants never read. CHAPTER V.: OF THE OBSCURITY OF LAWS.
If the power of interpreting laws be an evil, obscurity in them must be another, as the former is the consequence of the latter. This evil will be still greater, if the laws be written in a language unknown to both sides essays the people; who, being ignorant of the consequences of their own actions, become necessarily dependent on a few, who are interpreters of the laws, which, instead of teacher interview essay, being public and general, are thus rendered private and particular. What must we think of mankind when we reflect, that such is the example of outline research established custom of the greatest part of our polished and enlightened Europe? Crimes will be less frequent, in proportion as the code of laws is more universally read, and interview questions, understood; for there is no doubt, but that the of outline for a research eloquence of the passions is teacher questions, greatly assisted by the ignorance and uncertainty of punishments. Hence it follows, that without written laws, no society will ever acquire a fixed form of government, Edition: current; Page: [ 27 ] in which the power is vested in the whole, and not in any part of the society; and in which the laws are not to be altered but by the will of the whole, nor corrupted by the force of tutorial, private interest. Experience and reason shew us, that the probability of human traditions diminishes in proportion as they are distant from their sources.
How then can laws resist the inevitable force of time, if there be not a lasting monument of the teacher interview social compact? Hence we see the use of printing, which alone makes the public, and paper apa, not a few individuals, the guardians and defenders of the interview essay laws. About Food! It is teacher interview, this art which, by diffusing literature, has gradually dissipated the gloomy spirit of cabal and intrigue. To this art it is owing, that the atrocious crimes of our ancestors, who were alternately slaves and tyrants, are become less frequent. Those who are acquainted with the essay history of the two or three last centuries, may observe, how from the lap of luxury and effeminacy have sprung the most tender virtues, humanity, benevolence, and toleration of human errors. They may contemplate the effects of, what was so improperly called, ancient simplicity and good faith; humanity groaning under implacable superstition; the avarice and ambition of a few, staining with Edition: current; Page: [ 28 ] human blood the thrones and palaces of kings; secret treasons and public massacres; every noble a tyrant over the people; and the ministers of the gospel of Christ bathing their hands in blood, in the name of the God of all mercy. We may talk as we please of the corruption and degeneracy of the present age, but happily we see no such horrid examples of cruelty and teacher interview, oppression.
CHAPTER VI.: OF THE PROPORTION BETWEEN CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS. It is not only the common interest of mankind that crimes should not be committed, but that crimes of every kind should be less frequent, in proportion to the evil they produce to society Therefore, the means made use of by the legislature to prevent crimes, should be more powerful, in proportion as they are destructive of the public safety and example for a paper, happiness, and as the inducements to commit them are stronger. Therefore there Edition: current; Page: [ 29 ] ought to be a fixed proportion between crimes and punishments. It is impossible to prevent entirely all the interview questions disorders which the passions of mankind cause in society. Engineering Cover Letter! These disorders increase in proportion to the number of people, and the opposition of private interests.
If we consult history, we shall find them increasing, in every state, with the extent of interview, dominion. In political arithmetic, it is necessary to sides of capital punishment substitute a calculation of probabilities to mathematical exactness. That force which continually impels us to our own private interest, like gravity, acts incessantly, unless it meets with an obstacle to oppose it. The effects of this force are the confused series of human actions. Punishments, which I would call political obstacles, prevent the fatal effects of private interest, without destroying the impelling cause, which is that sensibility inseparable from man. The legislator acts, in this case, like a skilful architect, who endeavours to counteract the force of gravity by combining the circumstances which may contribute to the strength of his edifice. The necessity of uniting in society being granted, together with the conventions, which the opposite interests of teacher, individuals must necessarily require, a scale of crimes may be formed, Edition: current; Page: [ 30 ] of which the first degree should consist of those which immediately tend to the dissolution of society, and the last, of the smallest possible injustice done to a private member of that society. Between these extremes will be comprehended, all actions contrary to the public good, which are called criminal, and page for research paper, which descend by insensible degrees, decreasing from the highest to the lowest.
If mathematical calculation could be applied to the obscure and infinite combinations of human actions, there might be a corresponding scale of punishments, descending from the greatest to the least; but it will be sufficient that the wise legislator mark the principal divisions, without disturbing the order, lest to crimes of the first degree, be assigned punishments of the last. Teacher Interview Questions! If there were an exact and tutorial, universal scale of crimes and punishments, we should then have a common measure of the degree of liberty and slavery, humanity and cruelty, of different nations. Any action, which is not comprehended in the above mentioned scale, will not be called a crime, or punished as such, except by those who have an interest in the denomination. The uncertainty of the extreme points of this scale, hath produced a system of morality which contradicts the laws; Edition: current; Page: [ 31 ] a multitude of interview essay, laws that contradict each other; and many which expose the best men to of capital punishment the severest punishments, rendering the ideas of vice and teacher interview questions, virtue vague and fluctuating, and essay fast food and healthy, even their existence doubtful. Hence that fatal lethargy of political bodies, which terminates in teacher essay their destruction. Whoever reads, with a philosophic eye, the history of both sides essays, nations, and their laws, will generally find, that the ideas of virtue and vice, of a good or a bad citizen, change with the revolution of ages; not in proportion to the alteration of circumstances, and consequently conformable to the common good; but in proportion to the passions and errors by teacher, which the thesis statement different lawgivers were successively influenced.
He will frequently observe, that the passions and vices of one age, are the foundation of the morality of the following; that violent passion, the offspring of fanaticism and enthusiasm, being weakened by time, which reduces all the phenomena of the natural and moral world to an equality, become, by degrees, the prudence of the age, and an useful instrument in the hands of the powerful or artful politician. Hence the uncertainty of questions, our notions of honour and virtue; an uncertainty which will ever remain, because they change with the engineering cover outline revolutions of time, Edition: current; Page: [ 32 ] and names survive the things they originally signified; they change with the boundaries of states, which are often the same both in physical and moral geography. Pleasure and pain are the only springs of action in beings endowed with sensibility. Even among the motives which incite men to acts of religion, the teacher questions invisible Legislator has ordained rewards and for a paper, punishments. From a partial distribution of these will arise that contradiction, so little observed, because so common; I mean, that of punishing by the laws the crimes which the laws have occasioned. If an equal punishment be ordained for two crimes that injure society in different degrees, there is nothing to deter men from committing the questions greater, as often as it is structure, attended with greater advantage. CHAPTER VII.: OF ESTIMATING THE DEGREE OF CRIMES. The foregoing reflections authorise me to assert, that crimes are only to be measured by the injury done to society. They err, therefore, who imagine that a crime is teacher interview essay, greater, or less, according to the intention of the person by whom it is both sides of capital punishment, committed; for this will depend on the actual impression of objects on the senses, and on the previous disposition of the mind; both which will vary in different persons, and even in the same person at different times, according to the succession of ideas, passions, and circumstances. Upon that system, it would be necessary to form, not only a particular code for every individual, but a new penal law for every crime. Men, often with the best intention, do the greatest injury to society, and with the worst, do it the most essential services.
Others have estimated crimes rather by the dignity of the person offended, than by their consequences to society. If this were the true standard, Edition: current; Page: [ 34 ] the smallest irreverence to the divine Being ought to be punished with infinitely more severity, than the assassination of a monarch. In short, others have imagined, that the teacher interview greatness of the statement sin should aggravate the crime. But the fallacy of teacher interview essay questions, this opinion will appear on the slightest consideration of the relations between man and man, and between God and man. The relations between man and man are relations of equality. Necessity alone hath produced, from the opposition of private passions and interests, the idea of public utility, which is the foundation of human justice. The other are relations of dependence, between an imperfect creature and his Creator, the most perfect of beings, who has reserved to himself the sole right of being both lawgiver and judge; for he alone can, without injustice, be, at the same time, both one and example of outline for a paper, the other. If he hath decreed eternal punishments for those who disobey his will, shall an insect dare to put himself in the place of divine justice, to pretend to punish for the Almighty, who is himself all-sufficient; who cannot receive impressions of pleasure or pain, and essay questions, who alone, of of outline for a paper, all other beings, acts without being acted upon? The degree of interview, sin depends on the malignity of the heart, which is impenetrable to finite being. How Edition: current; Page: [ 35 ] then can the engineering cover degree of sin serve as a standard to determine the degree of crimes?
If that were admitted, men may punish when God pardons, and pardon when God condemns; and thus act in opposition to the Supreme Being. CHAPTER VIII.: OF THE DIVISION OF CRIMES. We have proved, then, that crimes are to be estimated by essay questions, the injury done to society. This is one of those palpable truths, which, though evident to the meanest capacity, yet, by a combination of circumstances, are only known to a few thinking men in essay food and healthy every nation, and in every age. But opinions, worthy only of the despotism of teacher interview essay questions, Asia, and passions armed with power and authority, have, generally by insensible and sometimes by violent impressions on the timid credulity of men, effaced those simple ideas which perhaps constituted the first philosophy of infant society. Happily the philosophy of the present enlightened Edition: current; Page: [ 36 ] age seems again to conduct us to the same principles, and with that degree of certainty which is obtained by a rational examination, and structure, repeated experience. A scrupulous adherence to order would require, that we should now examine and distinguish the different species of interview questions, crimes, and the modes of punishment; but they are so variable in their nature, from the different circumstances of ages and countries, that the detail would be tiresome and endless. It will be sufficient for my purpose, to essay about fast food food point out the most general principles, and the most common and dangerous errors, in order to undeceive, as well those who, from a mistaken zeal for teacher questions liberty, would introduce anarchy and confusion, as those who pretend to reduce society in general to the regularity of a convent. Some crimes are immediately destructive of society, or its representative; others attack the private security of the life, property or honour of individuals; and a third class consists of reference apa, such actions as are contrary to the laws which relate to the general good of the community. The first, which are of the highest degree, as they are most destructive to society, are called crimes of Leze-majesty. * Tyranny and ignorance, Edition: current; Page: [ 37 ] which have confounded the clearest terms and ideas, have given this appellation to crimes of a different nature, and consequently have established the same punishment for each; and on this occasion, as on a thousand others, men have been sacrificed victims to a word.
Every crime, even of the most private nature, injures society; but every crime does not threaten its immediate destruction. Moral, as well as physical actions, have their sphere of activity differently circumscribed, like all the movements of nature, by teacher interview essay questions, time and space; it is therefore a sophistical interpretation, the common philosophy of slaves, that would confound the limits of engineering cover letter, things established by eternal truth. To these succeed crimes which are destructive of the teacher essay security of engineering letter, individuals. This security being the principal end of all society, and to which every citizen hath an undoubted right, it becomes indispensably necessary, that to these crimes the greatest of interview questions, punishments should be assigned. The opinion, that every member of society has a right to both sides of capital essays do anything that is not contrary to the laws, without fearing any other inconveniencies than those which are the natural consequences of the action itself, is teacher essay questions, a political dogma, which Edition: current; Page: [ 38 ] should be defended by the laws, inculcated by the magistrates, and believed by the people; a sacred dogma, without which there can be no lawful society; a just recompence for our sacrifice of cover letter outline, that universal liberty of action, common to teacher questions all sensible beings, and example of outline for a research, only limited by our natural powers. By this principle, our minds become free, active and vigorous; by this alone we are inspired with that virtue which knows no fear, so different from that pliant prudence worthy of those only who can bear a precarious existence. Attempts, therefore, against teacher interview questions, the life and liberty of a citizen, are crimes of the highest nature. Under this head we comprehend not only page for research paper assassinations and robberies committed by the populace, but by teacher interview, grandees and magistrates; whose example acts with more force, and at a greater distance, destroying the ideas of justice and duty among the fast food food subjects, and teacher, substituting that of the right of the strongest, equally dangerous to reference page for research apa those who exercise it, and to those who suffer. There is a remarkable difference between the civil laws, those jealous guardians of life and property, and the laws of, what is teacher questions, called, honour, which particularly respects the opinion of others. Honour is a term which has been the foundation of for a research paper, many long and brilliant reasonings, without annexing to it any precise or fixed idea. How miserable is the condition of the human mind, to teacher questions which the both punishment essays most distant and least essential matters, the questions revolution of the heavenly bodies, are more distinctly known, than the most interesting truths of morality, which are always confused and fluctuating, as they happen to be driven by the gales of passion, or received and transmitted by both essays, ignorance!
But this will cease to appear strange, if it be considered, that as objects, when too near the eye, appear confused, so the too great vicinity of the ideas of morality, is the reason why the simple ideas, of which they are composed, are easily confounded; but which must be separated, before Edition: current; Page: [ 40 ] we can investigate the phenomena of human sensibility; and the intelligent observer of human nature will cease to be surprised, that so many ties, and such an apparatus of morality are necessary to the security and happiness of mankind. Honour, then, is one of teacher interview essay, those complex ideas, which are an aggregate not only of simple ones, but of example of outline, others so complicated, that, in their various modes of affecsing the human mind, they sometimes exclude part of the elements of which they are composed; retaining only some few of the most common, as many algebraic quantities admit one common divisor. To find this common divisor of the different ideas attached to the word honour, it will be necessary to go back to the original formation of society. The first laws, and the first magistrates, owed their existence to teacher interview essay questions the necessity of preventing the disorders, which the natural despotism of individuals would unavoidably produce. This was the object of the establishment of society, and was either in reality or in appearance, the principal design of all codes of essay food food, laws, even the most pernicious.
But the more intimate connections of men, and the progress of their knowledge, gave rise to an infinite number of necessities, and teacher questions, mutual acts of friendship, between the members Edition: current; Page: [ 41 ] of society. These necessities were not foreseen by the laws, and could not be satisfied by the actual power of each individual. At this epocha began to be established the despotism of of outline research paper, opinion, as being the only means of obtaining those benefits which the law could not procure, and of removing those evils against which the teacher laws were no security. It is opinion, that tormentor of the wise and the ignorant, that has exalted the appearance of virtue above virtue itself. Hence the esteem of men becomes not only useful, but necessary, to essay about food and healthy every one, to prevent his sinking below the interview essay common level. The ambitious man grasps at it, as being necessary to his designs; the vain man sues for statement deffinition it, as a testimony of his merit; the honest man demands it as his due; and the most men consider it as necessary to their existence. Honour, being produced after the formation of questions, society, could not be a part of the common deposite, and both sides of capital punishment, therefore, whilst we act under its influence, we return, for that instant, to a state of teacher questions, nature, and withdraw ourselves from the laws, which in this case are insufficient for our protection. Hence it follows, that in extreme political liberty, and in absolute despotism, all ideas of honour disappear, or are confounded with others.
In the page first case, reputation becomes useless from Edition: current; Page: [ 42 ] the despotism of the interview questions laws; and in the second the despotism of one man, annulling civil existence, reduces the rest to a precarious and temporary personality. Honour, then, is one of the fundamental principles of those monarchies, which are a limited despotism, and in structure tutorial these, like revolutions in despotic states, it is a momentary return to a state of nature, and original equality. From the necessity of the esteem of others, have arisen single combats, and they have been established by the anarchy of the laws. They are thought to have been unknown to teacher interview essay the ancients; perhaps because they did not assemble in their temples, in their theatres, or with their friends, suspiciously armed with swords; and, perhaps, because single combats were a common spectacle, exhibited to the people by gladiators, who were slaves, and whom freemen disdained to imitate. Edition: current; Page: [ 43 ] In vain have the laws endeavoured to abolish this custom, by punishing the offenders with death.
A man of honour, deprived of the esteem of page, others, foresees that he must be reduced, either to a solitary existence, insupportable to a social creature, or become the object of interview, perpetual insult; considerations sufficient to overcome the fear of death. What is the reason that duels are not so frequent among the common people, as amongst the great? Not only because they do not wear swords, but because to men of that class reputation is of less importance than it is to thesis statement deffinition those of a higher rank, who commonly regard each other with distrust and jealousy. It may not be without its use to repeat here, what has been mentioned by other writers, viz., that the best method of preventing this crime is to punish the aggressor, that is, the person who gave occasion to the duel, and to acquit him, who, without any fault on his side, is obliged to defend that, which is not sufficiently secured to him by the laws. CHAPTER XI.: OF CRIMES WHICH DISTURB THE PUBLIC TRANQUILLITY. Another class of crimes are those which disturb the public tranquillity and the quiet of the citizens; such as tumults and interview questions, riots in the public streets, which are intended for commerce and the passage of the inhabitants; the discourses of fanatics, which rouse the passions of the curious multitude, and both sides essays, gain strength from the number of their hearers, who, though deaf to calm and solid reasoning, are always affected by obscure and mysterious enthusiasm. The illumination of the streets, during the teacher essay questions night, at the public expense; guards stationed in different quarters of the city; the plain and moral discourses of religion, reserved for the silence and tranquillity of about fast food, churches, and protected by authority; and harangues in interview essay questions support of the interest of the public, delivered only at the general meetings of the nation, in parliament, or where the sovereign resides; are all means to prevent the dangerous effects of the misguided passions of the people Edition: current; Page: [ 45 ] These should be the apa principal objects of the vigilance of a magistrate, and which the French call Police; but if this magistrate should act in an arbitrary manner, and not in conformity to the code of laws, which ought to be in the hand of every member of the interview community, he opens a door to tyranny, which always surrounds the confines of political liberty. I do not know of any exception to this general axiom, that Every member of the society should know when he is criminal, and when innocent. If censors, and, in general, arbitrary magistrates, be necessary in any government, it proceeds from some fault in the constitution. The uncertainty of crimes hath sacrificed more victims to secret tyranny, than have ever suffered by engineering letter, public and solemn cruelty.
What are, in general, the proper punishments for crimes? Is the punishment of interview essay questions, death, really useful, or necessary for the safety or good order of thesis statement, society? Are tortures and torments consistent with justice, or do they answer the end proposed by the laws? Which is the best method of preventing crimes? Are the same punishments equally useful at all times? What influence have they on manners? These problems should be solved with that geometrical precision which the mist of Edition: current; Page: [ 46 ] sophistry, the seduction of eloquence, and the timidity of doubt are unable to teacher interview resist.
If I have no other merit than that of having first presented to my country, with a greater degree of evidence, what other nations have written, and are beginning to practise, I shall account myself fortunate; but if, by supporting the rights of paper, mankind and of invincible truth, I shall contribute to save from the essay questions agonies of death one unfortunate victim of tyranny, or of thesis statement deffinition, ignorance, equally fatal; his blessings, and tears of transport, will be a sufficient consolation to me for the contempt of all mankind. CHAPTER XII.: OF THE INTENT OF PUNISHMENTS. From the foregoing considerations it is evident, that the intent of punishments is not to torment a sensible being, nor to undo a crime already committed. Is it possible that torments, and interview essay, useless cruelty, the instruments of furious fanaticism, or Edition: current; Page: [ 47 ] of impotency of tyrants, can be authorized by a political body? which, so far from being influenced by passion, should be the cool moderator of the passions of individuals. Can the groans of a tortured wretch recal the time past, or reverse the crime he has committed? The end of punishment, therefore, is no other, than to prevent others from committing the like offence. Such punishments, therefore, and such a mode of inflicting them, ought to be chosen, as will make strongest and most lasting impressions on the minds of others, with the least torment to the body of the criminal.
CHAPTER XIII.: OF THE CREDIBILITY OF WITNESSES. To determine exactly the letter outline credibility of a witness, and the force of evidence, is an important point in every good legislation. Every man of common sense, that is, every one whose ideas have some connexion with each other, and whose sensations Edition: current; Page: [ 48 ] are conformable to interview essay questions those of outline, other men, may be a witness; but the credibility of questions, his evidence will be in proportion as he is essay, interested in declaring or concealing the truth. Hence it appears, how frivolous is the reasoning of those, who reject the testimony of women on account of their weakness; how puerile it is, not to admit the evidence of those who are under sentence of death, because they are dead in law; and how irrational, to exclude persons branded with infamy: for in all these cases they ought to be credited, when they have no interest in giving false testimony. The credibility of a witness, then, should only diminish in proportion to teacher questions the hatred, friendship, or connexions subsisting between him and example research paper, the delinquent. One witness is not sufficient; for whilst the accused denies what the other affirms, truth remains suspended, and the right that every one has to be believed innocent, turns the balance in teacher essay questions his favour. The credibility of a witness is the less, as the atrociousness of the crime is greater, from the improbability of statement, its having been committed; as in cases of witchcraft, and acts of teacher interview essay questions, wanton cruelty.
The writers on penal laws have adopted a contrary principle, viz., that the credibility of a witness is greater, as the crime is both sides of capital, more atrocious. Behold Edition: current; Page: [ 49 ] their inhuman maxim, dictated by the most cruel imbecility. In atrocissimis, leviores conjectur#xE6; sufficiunt, licet judici jura transgredi. Let us translate this sentence, that mankind may see one of the many unreasonable principles to which they are ignorantly subject. In the most atrocious crimes the slightest conjectures are sufficient, and teacher interview, the judge is allowed to exceed the limits of the law. The absurd practices of legislators are often the effect of thesis deffinition, timidity, which is a principal source of the contradictions of mankind. The legislators, (or rather lawyers, whose opinions, when alive, were interested and venal, but which after their death become of decisive authority, and are sovereign arbiters of the lives and fortunes of men), terrified by the condemnation of some innocent person, have burdened the law with pompous and useless formalities, the scrupulous observance of which will place anarchical impunity on the throne of justice; at other times, perplexed by atrocious crimes of difficult proof, they imagined themselves under a necessity of essay, superseding the very formalities established by themselves; and thus, at one time, with despotic impatience, and at another with feminine timidity, they transform their solemn judgments into a game of hazard. But to return.
In the case of witchcraft, it Edition: current; Page: [ 50 ] is much more probable, that a number of men should be deceived, than that any person should exercise a power which God hath refused to every created being. In like manner, in cases of wanton cruelty, the reference page presumption is always against the accuser, without some motive of fear or hate. There are no spontaneous or superfluous sentiments in essay questions the heart of man; they are all the result of impressions on essay and healthy food, the senses. The credibility of a witness may also be diminished, by his being a member of a private society, whose customs and teacher, principles of conduct are either not known, or are different from those of the public. Such a man has not only his own passions, but those of the society of which he is a member. Finally, the credibility of a witness is null, when the question relates to sides punishment the words of a criminal; for the tone of voice, the gesture, all that precedes, accompanies and follows the different ideas which men annex to teacher interview essay questions the same words, may so alter and modify a man#x2019;s discourse, that it is almost impossible to repeat them precisely in the manner in which they were spoken. Besides, violent and uncommon actions, such as real crimes, leave a trace in the multitude of circumstances that attend them, and in their effects; but words Edition: current; Page: [ 51 ] remain only in the memory of the hearers, who are commonly negligent or prejudiced. About Food And Healthy! It is infinitely easier then to found an accusation on interview questions, the words, than on the actions of cover outline, a man; for in these, the teacher essay number of circumstances, urged against the accused, afford him variety of means of justification. CHAPTER XIV.: OF EVIDENCE AND THE PROOFS OF A CRIME, AND OF THE FORM OF JUDGMENT. The following general theorem is deffinition, of great use in determining the certainty of fact. When the proofs of a crime are dependent on each other, that is, when the evidence of each witness, taken separately, proves nothing; or when all the proofs are dependent upon one, the number of proofs neither increase nor diminish the probability of the fact; for the force of the whole is no greater than the force of that on which they depend; and if this fails, they all fall to the ground.
When the proofs are independent on each other, Edition: current; Page: [ 52 ] the probability of the interview essay questions fact increases in proportion to the number of proofs; for the falsehood of one does not diminish the veracity of another. It may seem extraordinary that I speak of probability with regard to crimes, which, to deserve a punishment, must be certain. But this paradox will vanish, when it is considered, that, strictly speaking, moral certainty is only probability; but which is called a certainty, because every man in his senses assents to it from an habit produced by the necessity of acting, and which is anterior to all speculation. That certainty which is necessary to decide that the accused is guilty, is the essay structure tutorial very same which determines every man in the most important transactions of his life. The proofs of a crime may be divided into two classes, perfect and imperfect. I call those perfect which exclude the possibility of innocence; imperfect, those which do not exclude this possibility. Of the first, one only is sufficient for condemnation; of the second, as many are required as form a perfect proof: that is to say, that though each of these, separately taken, does not exclude the possibility of innocence, it is nevertheless excluded by teacher questions, their union. It should be also observed, that the imperfect proofs of Edition: current; Page: [ 53 ] which the accused, if innocent, might clear himself, and does not, become perfect.
But it is much easier to feel this moral certainty of letter outline, proofs, than to define it exactly. For this reason, I think it an excellent law which establishes assistants to the principal judge, and those chosen by lot; for that ignorance, which judges by its feelings, is less subject to error, than the knowledge of the laws which judges by opinion. Teacher Questions! Where the laws are clear and precise, the office of the judge is merely to ascertain the fact. If, in reference paper examining the proofs of a crime, acuteness and interview questions, dexterity be required; if clearness and precision be necessary in summing up the result; to judge of the result itself, nothing is wanting but plain and ordinary good sense, a less fallacious guide than the knowledge of a judge accustomed to find guilty, and to reduce all things to an artificial system, borrowed from his studies. Happy the deffinition nation, where the teacher interview knowledge of the law is not a science! It is an admirable law which ordains, that every man shall be tried by his peers; for when life, liberty and fortune are in question, the sentiments, which a difference of rank and fortune inspire, should be silent; that superiority with which the fortunate look upon of outline research paper, the unfortunate, and that Edition: current; Page: [ 54 ] envy with which the inferior regard their superiors, should have no influence. Teacher Interview Essay Questions! But when the crime is an offence against a fellow-subject, one half of the paper apa judges should be peers to questions the accused, and the other peers to the person offended. So that all private interest, which, in spite of ourselves, modifies the appearance of objects, even in the eyes of the most equitable, is counteracted, and nothing remains to turn aside the example of outline research paper direction of truth and the laws. It is also just, that the accused should have the liberty of excluding a certain number of his judges. Where this liberty is enjoyed for teacher essay questions a long time, without any instance to the contrary, the criminal seems to condemn himself. All trials should be public, that opinion, which is the best, or, perhaps, the only cement of society, may curb the authority of the powerful, and the passions of the judge; and that the thesis deffinition people may say, #x201C;We are protected by the laws; we are not slaves;#x201D; a sentiment which inspires courage, and which is the best tribute to a sovereign who knows his real interest.
I shall not enter into particulars. There may be some persons who expect that I should say all that can be said upon this subject; to such, what I have already written must be unintelligible. Secret accusations are a manifest abuse, but consecrated by custom in many nations, where, from the weakness of the government, they are necessary. This custom makes men false and treacherous. Interview! Whoever suspects another to be an informer, beholds in him an enemy; and, from essay fast food, thence, mankind are accustomed to disguise their real sentiments; and teacher questions, from the habit of concealing them from others, they at last even hide them from themselves. Example Research! Unhappy are those, who have arrived at this point! Without any certain and fixed principles to interview essay questions guide them, they fluctuate in the vast sea of opinion, and example for a, are busied only in escaping the monsters which surround them; to those, the present is always embittered by the uncertainty of the future; deprived of the pleasures of tranquillity and security, some fleeting moments of happiness, scattered thinly through their wretched lives, console them for the misery of existing. Teacher Essay Questions! Shall we, amongst such men, find Edition: current; Page: [ 56 ] intrepid soldiers to defend their king and country?
Amongst such men shall we find incorruptible magistrates, who, with the spirit of freedom and patriotic eloquence, will support and explain the true interest of their sovereign; who, with the tributes, offer up at the throne the love and blessing of the tutorial people, and thus bestow on the palaces of the great, and essay, the humble cottage, peace and security; and to the industrious a prospect of bettering their lot, that useful ferment and vital principle of states? Who can defend himself from calumny, armed with that impenetrable shield of fast food and healthy, tyranny, secrecy? What a miserable government must that be, where the sovereign suspects an enemy in every subject, and, to secure the teacher interview essay questions tranquillity of the public, is essay about food, obliged to sacrifice the repose of every individual? By what arguments is it pretended, that secret accusations may be justified? The public safety, say they, and the security and maintenance of the established form of government. But what a strange constitution is that, where the teacher essay government, which hath in its favour not only power but opinion, still more efficacious, yet fears its own subjects? The indemnity of the informer. Do not the laws defend him sufficiently; and tutorial, are there subjects more powerful than the laws? The Edition: current; Page: [ 57 ] necessity of protecting the informer from infamy. When secret calumny is authorised, and punished only when public. The nature of the teacher interview questions crime.
If actions, indifferent in themselves, or even useful to the public, were called crimes, both the accusation and the trial could never be too secret. But can there be any crime, committed against the public, which ought not to be publicly punished? I respect all governments; and I speak not of any one in particular. Such may sometimes be the nature of engineering cover letter, circumstances, that when abuses are inherent in questions the constitution, it may be imagined, that to structure tutorial rectify them, would be to destroy the constitution itself. But were I to dictate new laws in a remote corner of the universe, the good of posterity, ever present to my mind, would hold back my trembling hand, and prevent me from authorising secret accusations. Public accusations, says Montesquieu, are more conformable to the nature of a republic, where zeal for the public good is the principal passion of a citizen, than of a monarchy, in which, as this sentiment is very feeble, from the essay nature of the government, the best establishment is that of commissioners, who, in the name of the example paper public, accuse the infractors of the laws. But in all governments as well in a republic as in a monarchy, Edition: current; Page: [ 58 ] the punishment, due to teacher interview the crime of paper, which one accuses another, ought to teacher interview be inflicted on the informer. The torture of structure tutorial, a criminal, during the course of his trial, is a cruelty, consecrated by custom in most nations. It is used with an intent either to make him confess his crime, or explain some contradictions, into which he had been led during his examination; or discover his accomplices; or for some kind of metaphysical and incomprehensible purgation of infamy; or, finally, in order to discover other crimes, of which he is not accused, but of questions, which he may be guilty. No man can be judged a criminal until he be found guilty; nor can society take from him the public protection, until it have been proved that he has violated the conditions on which it was granted. What right, then, but that of power, can authorise the punishment of a citizen, so long Edition: current; Page: [ 59 ] as there remains any doubt of his guilt?
The dilemma is frequent. Either he is guilty, or not guilty. Tutorial! If guilty, he should only suffer the punishment ordained by the laws, and torture becomes useless, as his confession is unnecessary. If he be not guilty, you torture the innocent; for, in the eye of the teacher essay law, every man is innocent, whose crime has not been proved. Besides, it is confounding all relations, to of capital expect that a man should be both the accuser and teacher essay, accused; and that pain should be the test of truth, as if truth resided in the muscles and fibres of a wretch in torture. By this method, the robust will escape, and reference for research, the feeble be condemned. These are the inconveniencies of this pretended test of truth, worthy only of a cannibal; and which the Romans, in many respects barbarous, and whose savage virtue has been too much admired, reserved for the slaves alone.
What is the political intention of punishments? To terrify, and to be an example to others. Is this intention answered, by thus privately torturing the guilty and the innocent? It is doubtless of importance, that no crime should remain unpunished; but it is useless to make a public example of the author of a crime hid in teacher darkness. A crime already committed, and for which there can be no remedy, can only be punished by a Edition: current; Page: [ 60 ] political society, with an intention that no hopes of impunity should induce others to commit the punishment essays same.
If it be true, that the teacher questions number of those, who, from fear or virtue, respect the laws, is greater than of those by whom they are violated, the risk of torturing an innocent person is greater, as there is a greater probability that, c#xE6;teris paribus, an individual hath observed, than that he hath infringed the laws. There is another ridiculous motive for torture, namely, to purge a man from infamy. Ought such an abuse to be tolerated in the eighteenth century? Can pain, which is a sensation, have any connection with a moral sentiment, a matter of opinion? Perhaps the sides of capital rack may be considered as a refiner#x2019;s furnace. It is not difficult to trace this senseless law to its origin; for an absurdity, adopted by a whole nation, must have some affinity with other ideas, established and respected by the same nation. This custom seems to be the offspring of religion, by questions, which mankind, in food food all nations and in all ages, are so generally influenced. We are taught by our infallible church, that those stains of sin, contracted through human frailty, and teacher interview essay, which have not deserved the eternal anger of the Almighty, are to deffinition be purged away, in another life, by an Edition: current; Page: [ 61 ] incomprehensible fire. Now infamy is a stain, and teacher, if the punishments and punishment essays, fire of essay, purgatory can take away all spiritual stains, why should not the pain of torture take away those of a civil nature? I imagine that the confession of a criminal, which in some tribunals is required, as being essential to his condemnation, has a similar origin, and has been taken from the essay food food mysterious tribunal of penitence, where the teacher interview essay questions confession of sins is a necessary part of the sacrament.
Thus have men abused the unerring light of revelation; and in the times of tractable ignorance, having no other, they naturally had recourse to it on every occasion, making the most remote and absurd applications. Thesis Statement Deffinition! Moreover, infamy is a sentiment regulated neither by the laws nor by reason, but entirely by opinion. Questions! But torture renders the victim infamous, and therefore cannot take infamy away. Another intention of torture is, to oblige the supposed criminal to reconcile the contradictions into which he may have fallen during his examination; as if the dread of punishment, the uncertainty of his fate, the solemnity of the court, the majesty of the fast food food judge, and the ignorance of the accused, were not abundantly sufficient to teacher essay questions account for contradictions, which are so common to men even in a state of tranquillity; and which must Edition: current; Page: [ 62 ] necessarily be multiplied by engineering cover, the perturbation of the mind of interview essay, a man, entirely engaged in the thought of saving himself from imminent danger. This infamous test of truth is a remaining monument of that ancient and savage legislation, in which trials by fire, by boiling water, or the uncertainty of combats, were called judgments of God; as if the engineering cover links of that eternal chain, whose beginning is in the breast of the interview essay questions first cause of all things, could never be disunited by the institutions of letter outline, men. The only teacher questions difference between torture, and trials by fire and boiling water, is, that the event of the first depends on of outline research paper, the will of the accused; and of the second, on teacher interview essay, a fact entirely physical and external: but this difference is apparent only, not real. Cover Letter Outline! A man on the rack, in the convulsions of torture, has it as little in his power to declare the truth, as, in former times, to prevent, without fraud, the teacher effect of fire or of boiling water. Every act of the structure will is invariably in proportion to the force of the impression on our senses. The impression of pain, then, may increase to such a degree, that, occupying the mind entirely, it will compel the sufferer to essay questions use the food and healthy food shortest method of freeing himself from torment. His answer, therefore, will be an effect as necessary as that of fire or boiling water; and he will Edition: current; Page: [ 63 ] accuse himself of crimes of interview questions, which he is innocent.
So that the very means employed to reference apa distinguish the innocent from the guilty, will most effectually destroy all difference between them. It would be superfluous to confirm these reflections by examples of innocent persons, who from the agony of torture have confessed themselves guilty: innumerable instances may be found in all nations, and in essay questions every age. How amazing, that mankind have always neglected to draw the natural conclusion! Lives there a man who, if he have carried his thoughts ever so little beyond the necessities of life, when he reflects on such cruelty, is not tempted to fly from society, and return to his natural state of independence? The result of torture, then, is a matter of calcution, and depends on the constitution, which differs in every individual, and is in proportion to his strength and sensibility; so that to discover truth by cover, this method, is a problem which may be better resolved by a mathematician than a judge, and may be thus stated: The force of the interview muscles, and the sensibility of the nerves of an innocent person being given, it is required to find the degree of pain necessary to both sides essays make him confess himself guilty of a given crime.
The examination of the accused is teacher interview essay, intended to Edition: current; Page: [ 64 ] find out the truth; but if this be discovered with so much difficulty, in the air, gesture, and countenance of a man at ease, how can it appear in a countenance distorted by the convulsions of torture. Every violent action destroys those small alterations in essays the features, which sometimes disclose the sentiments of the heart. These truths were known to the Roman legislators, amongst whom, as I have already observed, slaves, only, who were not considered as citizens, were tortured. They are known to teacher essay questions the English, a nation in which the progress of science, superiority in commerce, riches and power, its natural consequences, together with the numerous examples of virtue and courage, leave no doubt of the excellence of its laws. They have been acknowledged in Sweden, where torture has been abolished. They are known to one of the wisest monarchs in Europe, who, having seated philosophy on the throne, by his beneficent legislation, has made his subjects free, though dependent on the laws; the only freedom that reasonable men can desire in the present state of things. In short, torture has not been thought necessary in the laws of armies, composed chiefly of the dregs of mankind, where its use should seem most necessary. Strange phenomenon! that a set of men, hardened by Edition: current; Page: [ 65 ] slaughter, and familiar with blood, should teach humanity to the sons of peace. It appears also, that these truths were known, though imperfectly, even to those by whom torture has been most frequently practised; for a confession made during torture is null, if it be not afterwards confirmed by an oath; which, if the example of outline for a research criminal refuses, he is tortured again.
Some civilians, and some nations, permit this infamous petitio principii to interview essay questions be only three times repeated, and others leave it to the discretion of the judge; and therefore of two men equally innocent or equally guilty, the most robust and resolute will be acquitted, and the weakest and most pusillanimous will be condemned, in consequence of the following excellent method of both of capital, reasoning. I, the judge, must find some one guilty. Thou, who art a strong fellow, hast been able to resist the force of torment; therefore I acquit thee. Thou, being weaker, hath yielded to essay questions it; I therefore condemn thee. I am sensible, that the confession which was extorted from thee, has no weight: but if thou dost not confirm by oath what thou hast already confessed, I will have thee tormented again. A very strange but necessary consequence of the use of torture, is letter outline, that the case of the innocent is worse than that of the guilty. With regard to Edition: current; Page: [ 66 ] the first, either he confesses the crime, which he has not committed, and is condemned; or he is acquitted, and has suffered a punishment he did not deserve. On the contrary, the person who is interview, really guilty has the most favourable side of the essay structure question; for if he supports the torture with firmness and resolution, he is teacher interview questions, acquitted, and about food, has gained, having exchanged a greater punishment for a less. The law by which torture is teacher, authorised, says, Men, be insensible to pain. Nature has indeed given you an irresistible self-love, and an unalienable right of self-preservation, but I create in of outline for a you a contrary sentiment, an heroical hatred of yourselves. I command you to accuse yourselves, and to declare the truth, midst the tearing of your flesh and teacher questions, the dislocation of your bones.
Torture is used to discover, whether the criminal be guilty of other crimes besides those of which he is accused: which is equivalent to the following reasoning: Thou art guilty of one crime, therefore it is possible that thou mayst have committed a thousand others: but the affair being doubtful, I must try it by my criterion of truth. The laws order thee to be tormented, because thou art guilty, because thou mayst be guilty, and because I chuse thou shouldst be guilty. Edition: current; Page: [ 67 ] Torture is used to make the criminal discover his accomplices; but if it has been demonstrated that it is not a proper means of discovering truth, how can it serve to discover the essay tutorial accomplices, which is one of the truths required. Will not the teacher interview man who accuses himself, yet more readily accuse others? Besides, is it just to torment one man for the crime of another? May not the accomplices be found out by the examination of the witnesses, or of the criminal; from the evidence, or from the nature of the crime itself; in short, by all the means that have been used to prove the guilt of the prisoner? The accomplices commonly fly when their comrade is taken. The uncertainty of their fate condemns them to perpetual exile, and frees society from the essay structure tutorial danger of further injury; whilst the punishment of the criminal, by deterring others, answers the purpose for which it was ordained.
CHAPTER XVII.: OF PECUNIARY PUNISHMENTS. There was a time when all punishments were pecuniary. The crimes of the subjects were the inheritance of the prince. An injury done to teacher interview essay questions society was a favour to the crown; and the sovereign and magistrates, those guardians of the public security, were interested in the violation of the laws. Crimes were tried, at that time, in a court of Exchequer, and the cause became a civil suit between the person accused and the crown. The magistrate then had other powers than were necessary for the public welfare, and the criminal suffered other punishments than the necessity of reference page for research, example required. Teacher! The judge was rather a collector for the crown, an example for a paper agent for teacher interview questions the treasury, than a protector and for a research, minister of the teacher interview laws. But, according to this system, for a man to confess himself guilty, was to acknowledge himself a debtor to the crown; which was, and fast food, is at present (the effects continuing after the teacher essay causes have ceased) the intent of all criminal causes. Thus, the criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 69 ] who refuses to confess his crime, though convicted by the most undoubted proofs, will suffer a less punishment than if he had confessed; and he will not be put to the torture to oblige him to confess other crimes which he might have committed, as he has not confessed the principal.
But the confession being once obtained, the judge becomes master of his body, and tutorial, torments him with a studied formality, in order to squeeze out of him all the profit possible. Confession, then, is allowed to be a convincing proof, especially when obtained by the force of torture; at the same time that an extra-judicial confession, when a man is at case and under no apprehension, is not sufficient for his condemnation. All inquiries, which may serve to teacher interview clear up the food fact, but which may weaken the pretensions of the crown, are excluded. It was not from compassion to the criminal, or from considerations of humanity, that torments were sometimes spared, but out of fear of losing those rights which at present appear chimerical and inconceivable. The judge becomes an enemy to the accused, to teacher interview essay questions a wretch, a prey to essay about food food the horrors of a dungeon, to torture, to death, and an uncertain futurity, more terrible than all; he inquires not into interview questions the truth of the engineering letter fact, but the nature of the interview questions crime; he lays Edition: current; Page: [ 70 ] snares to make him convict himself; he fears, lest he should not succeed in finding him guilty, and lest that infallibility which every man arrogates to essay tutorial himself should be called in question. It is in teacher questions the power of the essay structure tutorial magistrate to determine, what evidence is sufficient to send a man to prison; that he may be proved innocent, he must first be supposed guilty. This is what is called an offensive prosecution; and such are all criminal proceedings, in the eighteenth century, in all parts of our polished Europe. The true prosecution for information: that is, an teacher interview impartial inquiry into the fact, that which reason prescribes, which military laws adopt, and which Asiatic despotism allows in suits of one subject against another, is very little practiced in any courts of justice. What a labyrinth of absurdities! Absurdities which will appear incredible to happier posterity. The philosopher only will be able to read, in the nature of man, the research paper possibility of there ever having been such a system.
There is a palpable contradiction between the laws and the natural sentiments of mankind, in the case of oaths which are administered to a criminal to make him speak the truth, when the contrary is essay questions, his greatest interest. As if a man could think himself obliged to contribute to his own destruction; and as if, when interest speaks, religion was not generally silent; religion, which in all ages hath, of all other things, been most commonly abused; and indeed, upon what motive should it be respected by the wicked, when it has been thus violated by those who were esteemed the wisest of men? The motives which religion opposes to engineering cover the fear of impending evil, and the love of life, are too weak, as they are too distant, to make any impression on the senses. The affairs of the other world are regulated by teacher interview essay questions, laws entirely different from those by which human affairs are directed; why then should we endeavour to essay structure compromise matters between them? Why Edition: current; Page: [ 72 ] should a man be reduced to the terrible alternative, either of offending God, or of contributing to his own immediate destruction? The laws which require an oath in such a case, leave him only the choice of teacher interview, becoming a bad christian or a martyr. For this reason, oaths become by statement, degrees a mere formality, and all sentiments of religion, perhaps the only motive of honesty in the greatest part of mankind, are destroyed. Experience proves their utility: I appeal to every judge, whether he has ever known that an oath alone has brought truth from the lips of a criminal; and reason tells us, it must be so; for all laws are useless, and, in consequence, destructive, which contradict the natural feelings of essay, mankind.
Such laws are like a dyke, opposed directly to the course of a torrent; it is either immediately overwhelmed, or by a whirlpool formed by itself, it is gradually undermined and destroyed. CHAPTER XIX.: OF THE ADVANTAGE OF IMMEDIATE PUNISHMENT. The more immediately, after the commission of a crime, a punishment is inflicted, the more just and useful it will be. It will be more just, because it spares the criminal the cruel and superfluous torment of sides punishment essays, uncertainty, which increases in proportion to teacher interview the strength of his imagination and the sense of his weakness; and page paper apa, because the privation of teacher essay questions, liberty, being a punishment, ought to be inflicted before condemnation, but for as short a time as possible. Imprisonments, I say, being only the means of securing the person of the accused, until he be tried, condemned or acquitted, ought not only to food be of short duration, but attended with as little severity as possible. The time should be determined by the necessary preparation for the trial, and the right of priority in the oldest prisoners. The confinement ought not to be closer than is requisite to prevent his flight, or his concealing the proofs of the crime; and the trial should be conducted with all possible Edition: current; Page: [ 74 ] expedition. Can there be a more cruel contrast than that between the indolence of a judge, and the painful anxiety of the accused; the comforts and pleasures of an insensible magistrate, and the filth and misery of the prisoner?
In general, as I have before observed, The degree of the punishment, and teacher questions, the consequences of a crime, ought to be so contrived, as to have the greatest possible effect on others, with the reference page paper least possible pain to interview essay questions the delinquent. If there be any society in which this is both of capital essays, not a fundamental principle, it is an unlawful society; for interview mankind, by their union, originally intended to subject themselves to the least evils possible. An immediate punishment is more useful; because the smaller the interval of time between the punishment and reference paper, the crime, the stronger and more lasting will be the teacher association of the two ideas of Crime and Punishment: so that they may be considered, one as the cause, and reference for research paper apa, the other as the unavoidable and necessary effect. It is demonstrated, that the association of ideas is the cement which unites the fabric of the human intellect; without which, pleasure and pain would be simple and ineffectual sensations. The vulgar, that is, all men who have no general ideas or universal principles, act in teacher interview essay questions consequence of the most immediate and essay food, familiar associations; but the teacher questions more Edition: current; Page: [ 75 ] remote and complex only present themselves to the minds of those who are passionately attached to a single object, or to those of greater understanding, who have acquired an habit of rapidly comparing together a number of objects, and for a, of forming a conclusion; and the result, that is, the action, in consequence, by these means, becomes less dangerous and uncertain.
It is, then, of the greatest importance, that the punishment should succeed the crime, as immediately as possible, if we intend, that, in the rude minds of the multitude, the seducing picture of the teacher essay advantage arising from the crime, should instantly awake the attendant idea of punishment. Engineering Letter Outline! Delaying the punishment serves only to separate these two ideas; and thus affects the interview essay questions minds of the spectators rather as being a terrible sight than the necessary consequence of a crime; the horror of which should contribute to heighten the cover letter idea of the punishment. There is another excellent method of strengthening this important connection between the ideas of essay, crime and punishment; that is, to make the punishment as analagous as possible to the nature of the crime; in order that the punishment may lead the reference page apa mind to consider the crime in a different point of view, from that in which it was Edition: current; Page: [ 76 ] placed by the flattering idea of promised advantages. Crimes of teacher interview essay, less importance are commonly punished, either in essay about and healthy the obscurity of a prison, or the criminal is transported, to give, by his slavery, an example to societies which he never offended; an example absolutely useless, because distant from the place where the crime was committed. Men do not, in general, commit great crimes deliberately, but rather in a sudden gust of passion; and they commonly look on the punishment due to teacher essay questions a great crime as remote and improbable. The public punishment, therefore, of small crimes will make a greater impression, and, by deterring men from the both of capital punishment essays smaller, will effectually prevent the teacher interview greater. Some crimes relate to person, others to property.
The first ought to be punished corporally. The great and rich should by no means have it in their power to set a price on the security of the weak and indigent; for then, riches, which, under the protection of the laws, are the reward of industry, would become the essay about fast food aliment of tyranny. Liberty is at interview an end, whenever the laws permit, that, in certain cases, a man may cease to be a person, and become a thing. Then will the powerful employ their address to select from the various combinations of civil society, all that is in their own favour. Engineering Cover Letter Outline! This is that magic art which transforms subjects into teacher interview beasts of burden, and which, in the hands of the cover outline strong, is the chain that binds the the weak and incautious. Thus it is, that in interview questions some governments, where there is all the appearance of liberty, tyranny lies concealed, and insinuates itself into some neglected corner of the constitution, where it gathers strength insensibly. Engineering Cover! Mankind Edition: current; Page: [ 78 ] generally oppose, with resolution, the assaults of barefaced and open tyranny; but disregard the teacher little insect that gnaws through the dyke, and opens a sure, though secret, passage to for a research inundation. CHAPTER XXI.: OF THE PUNISHMENT OF THE NOBLES. What punishments shall be ordained for the nobles, whose privileges make so great a part of the laws of nations? I do not mean to inquire whether the hereditary distinction between nobles and commoners be useful in any government, or necessary in a monarchy; or whether it be true, that they form an teacher interview questions intermediate power, of use in moderating the excesses of both extremes; or whether they be not rather slaves to reference page for research their own body, and to others, confining within a very small circle the natural effects and hopes of industry, like those little fruitful spots scattered here and there in the sandy deserts of Arabia; or Edition: current; Page: [ 79 ] whether it be true that a subordination of rank and condition is inevitable, or useful in society; and if so, whether this subordination should not rather subsist between individuals than particular bodies; whether it should not rather circulate through the whole body politic, than be confined to one part; and rather than be perpetual, should it not be incessantly produced and destroyed. Be these as they may, I assert that the punishment of a nobleman should in no wise differ from that of the lowest member of society.
Every lawful distinction, either in honours or riches, supposes previous equality, founded on the laws, on which all the members of teacher essay, society are considered as being equally dependent. We should suppose that men, in renouncing their natural despotism, said, the of outline research paper wisest and teacher essay questions, most industrious among us shall obtain the greatest honours, and his dignity shall descend to his posterity. The fortunate and reference paper apa, happy may hope for greater honours, but let him not therefore be less afraid than others of violating those conditions on which he is exalted. It is true, indeed, that no such decrees were ever made in questions a general diet of mankind, but they exist in the invariable relations of both sides essays, things: nor do they destroy the advantages which are supposed to be produced by the class of nobles, but prevent the inconveniencies; Edition: current; Page: [ 80 ] and they make the laws respectable by destroying all hopes of impunity. It may be objected, that the same punishment inflicted on a nobleman and a plebeian, becomes really different from the difference of their education and from the infamy it reflects on an illustrious family; but I answer, that punishments are to be estimated, not by the sensibility of the criminal, but by the injury done to society; which injury is augmented by the high rank of the offender. The precise equality of a punishment can never be more than external, as it is in proportion to the degree of sensibility, which differs in every individual. The infamy of an innocent family may be easily obliterated by teacher interview essay questions, some public demonstration of favour from the sovereign; and forms have always more influence than reason on the gazing multitude. The punishment of robbery, not accompanied with violence, should be pecuniary. He who endeavours to enrich himself with the property of another, should be deprived of part of his own. But this crime, alas! is example of outline, commonly the effect of misery and teacher essay, despair; the crime of that unhappy part of mankind, to whom the right of exclusive property, a terrible, and perhaps unnecessary right, has left but a bare existence.
Besides, as pecuniary punishment may increase the number of poor, and of outline for a, may deprive an innocent family of subsistence, the most proper punishment will be that kind of slavery, which alone can be called just; that is, which makes the society, for a time, absolute master of the person and labour of the criminal, in order to oblige him to essay questions repair, by this dependence, the unjust despotism he usurped over the property of another, and his violation of the social compact. When robbery is attended with violence, corporal Edition: current; Page: [ 82 ] punishment should be added to slavery. Many writers have shown the evident disorder which must arise from not distinguishing the punishment due to robbery with violence, and that due to theft, or robbery committed with dexterity, absurdly making a sum of money equivalent to a man#x2019;s life. But it can never be superfluous to repeat, again and again, those truths of which mankind have not profited; for research paper political machines preserve their motion much longer than others, and receive a new impulse with more difficulty. These crimes are in their nature absolutely different, and this axiom is essay questions, as certain in politics as in mathematics, that between qualities of different natures there can be no similitude. CHAPTER XXIII.: OF INFAMY, CONSIDERED AS A PUNISHMENT. Those injuries, which affect the honour, that is, that just portion of esteem which every citizen has a right to expect from others, should be punished with infamy.
Infamy is a mark of the Edition: current; Page: [ 83 ] public disapprobation, which deprives the object of all consideration in the eyes of his fellow citizens, of the confidence of his country, and of that fraternity which exists between members of the same society. This is not always in the power of the laws. It is necessary that the infamy inflicted by the laws should be the same with that which results from the relations of example research paper, things, from universal morality, or from that particular system, adopted by the nation and the laws, which governs the opinion of the vulgar. Interview Questions! If, on the contrary, one be different from the food and healthy other, either the laws will no longer be respected, or the received notions of morality and probity will vanish in spite of the declamations of moralists, which are weak to resist the force of example. If we declare those actions infamous, which are in themselves indifferent, we lessen the infamy of essay, those which are really infamous. The punishment of infamy should not be too frequent, for the power of opinion grows weaker by repetition; nor should it be inflicted on a number of persons at the same time, for cover the infamy of many resolves itself into the infamy of none. Painful and corporal punishments should never be applied to fanaticism; for being founded on pride, it glories in persecution.
Infamy and teacher interview essay questions, ridicule Edition: current; Page: [ 84 ] only should be employed against fanatics; if the first, their pride will be overbalanced by the pride of the people; and we may judge of the power of the second, if we consider that even truth is obliged to summon all her force, when attacked by error armed with ridicule. Thus, by opposing one passion to another, and opinion to opinion, a wise legislator puts an end to the admiration of the populace, occasioned by a false principle, the original absurdity of which is veiled by some well-deduced consequences. This is the method to avoid confounding the structure immutable relations of things, or opposing nature, whose actions not being limited by time, but operating incessantly, overturn and destroy all those vain regulations which contradict her laws. It is not only in the fine arts that the imitation of nature is the fundamental principle; it is the same in sound policy, which is no other than the art of uniting, and directing to the same end, the natural and immutable sentiments of questions, mankind. A wise government will not suffer, in reference for research the midst of teacher essay, labour and industry, that kind of essay about and healthy, political idleness which is confounded, by rigid declaimers, with the leisure attending riches acquired by industry, which is of use to an increasing society, when confined within proper limits.
I call those politically idle, who neither contribute to the good of society by their labour nor their riches; who continually accumulate, but never spend; and teacher essay questions, are reverenced by the vulgar with stupid admiration, and regarded by the wise with disdain; who, being victims to a monastic life, and deprived of all incitement to the activity which is necessary to preserve or increase its comforts, devote all their vigour to passions of the of capital punishment strongest kind, the passions of opinion. I call him not idle, who enjoys the fruits of the essay virtues or vices of his ancestors, and in exchange for his pleasures supports the industrious poor. It is not then the Edition: current; Page: [ 86 ] narrow virtue of austere moralists, but the laws, that should determine what species of idleness deserves punishment. CHAPTER XXV.: OF BANISHMENT, AND CONFISCATION. He who disturbs the public tranquillity, who does not obey the laws, who violates the conditions on which men mutually support and defend each other, ought to be excluded from society, that is, banished. It seems as if banishment should be the punishment of both sides punishment, those, who, being accused of an atrocious crime, are probably, but not certainly, guilty. For this purpose would be required a law, the least arbitrary, and the most precise possible; which should condemn to banishment those who have reduced the community to the fatal alternative, either of fearing or punishing them unjustly; still, however, leaving them the sacred right of proving their innocence. The Edition: current; Page: [ 87 ] reasons ought to interview be stronger for banishing a citizen than a stranger, and for the first accusation than for one who hath been often excused. Should the person who is excluded for ever from outline, society be deprived of his property?
This question may be considered in different lights. The confiscation of essay questions, effects, added to banishment, is a greater punishment than banishment alone; there ought then to be some cases, in which, according to and healthy the crime, either the whole fortune should be confiscated, or part only, or none at all. The whole should be forfeited, when the law, which ordains banishment, declares, at the same time, that all connections between the society and the criminal are annihilated. In this case, the citizen dies, the man only teacher questions remains; and with respect to a political body, the death of the citizen should have the same consequences with the death of the man. It seems to follow, then, that in this case, the effects of the criminal should devolve to his lawful heirs. But it is essay, not on account of this refinement that I disapprove of confiscations. If some have insisted that they were a restraint to vengeance, and the violence of particulars, they have not reflected, that though punishments be productive of good, they are not, on that account, more just; to be just, they must be necessary. Edition: current; Page: [ 88 ] Even an useful injustice can never be allowed by a legislator, who means to guard against watchful tyranny; which, under the flattering pretext of momentary advantages, would establish permanent principles of destruction, and, to procure the teacher essay ease of a few in a high station, would draw tears from thousands of the poor. The law which ordains confiscations, sets a price on the head of the subject, with the guilty punishes the innocent, and by reducing them to indigence and thesis deffinition, despair, tempts them to become criminal. Questions! Can there be a more melancholy spectacle, than a whole family, overwhelmed with infamy and misery, from the crime of their chief? a crime, which if it had been possible, they were restrained from preventing, by that submission which the laws themselves have ordained. CHAPTER XXVI.: OF THE SPIRIT OF FAMILY IN STATES.
It is remarkable, that many fatal acts of injustice have been authorised and approved, even by sides of capital, the wisest and most experienced men, in the freest republics. This has been owing to their having considered the state, rather as a society of families, than of men. Let us suppose a nation, composed of an teacher essay hundred thousand men, divided into twenty thousand families of five persons each, including the head or master of the family, its representative. If it be an association of families, there will be twenty thousand men, and eighty thousand slaves; if of men, there will be an hundred thousand citizens, and not one slave. In the first case we behold a republic, and twenty thousand little monarchies, of which the heads are the sovereigns; in the second, the spirit of liberty will not only breathe in deffinition every public place of the city, and in the assemblies of the nation, but in private houses, where men find the greatest part of their happiness or misery. As laws Edition: current; Page: [ 90 ] and customs are always the effect of teacher questions, a republic, if the society be an association of the heads of families, the spirit of monarchy will gradually make its way into the republic itself, as its effects will only be restrained by the opposite interests of each; and not by an universal spirit of liberty and equality. Thesis! The private spirit of family is a spirit of teacher essay, minuteness, and confined to page for research apa little concerns. Teacher Interview Essay! Public spirit, on structure tutorial, the contrary, is influenced by interview, general principles, and from facts deduces general rules of utility to the greatest number.
In a republic of families, the children remain under the structure authority of the father, as long as he lives, and are obliged to wait until death for an existence dependent on the laws alone. Accustomed to kneel and tremble in their tender years, when their natural sentiments were less restrained by that caution, obtained by teacher, experienee, which is called moderation, how should they resist those obstacles, which vice always opposes to virtue, in thesis statement the languor and decline of teacher essay questions, age, when the despair of reaping the fruits is alone sufficient to damp the vigour of their resolutions. In a republic, where every man is a citizen, family subordination is sides of capital essays, not the effect of compulsion, but of contract; and the sons, disengaged from the natural dependence, which the questions weakness Edition: current; Page: [ 91 ] of infancy and the necessity of education required, become free members of society, but remain subject to reference paper the head of the family for their own advantage, as in the great society. In a republic of families, the young people, that is, the most numerous and most useful part of the nation, are at the discretion of their fathers: in a republic of men, they are attached to their parents by no other obligation, than that sacred and inviolable one of mutual assistance, and of gratitude for the benefits they have received; a sentiment, destroyed not so much by teacher interview essay, the wickedness of the human heart, as by a mistaken subjection, prescribed by the laws. These contradictions between the laws of families, and the fundamental laws of a state, are the source of many others between public and private morality, which produce a perpetual conflict in the mind. Domestic morality inspires submission and fear: the other, courage and liberty. That instructs a man to confine his beneficence to a small number of persons, not of his own choice; this, to extend it to all mankind: that commands a continual sacrifice of himself to a vain idol, called the good of the family, which is often no real good to any one of those who compose it; this teaches him to consider his own advanatge Edition: current; Page: [ 92 ] without offending the laws, or excites him to sacrifice himself for the good of his country by rewarding him beforehand with the fanaticism it inspires. Such contradictions are the reason, that men neglect the pursuit of virtue, which they can hardly distinguish midst the obscurity and confusion of natural and moral objects. How frequently are men, upon a retrospection of their actions, astonished to find themselves dishonest.
In proportion to the increase of society, each member becomes a smaller part of the whole; and the republican spirit diminishes in the same proportion, if neglected by the laws. Political societies, like the human body, have their limits circumscribed, which they cannot exceed without disturbing their economy. It seems as if the greatness of a state ought to essay structure be inversely as the sensibility and activity of the teacher interview questions individuals; if, on the contrary, population and inactivity increase in deffinition the same proportion, the laws will with difficulty prevent the crimes arising from the good they have produced. An overgrown republic can only be saved from despotism, by subdividing it into a number of confederate republics. But how is this practicable? By a despotic dictator, who, with the courage of Sylla, has as much genius for building up, as that Roman had for pulling down. Teacher! Edition: current; Page: [ 93 ] If he be an ambitious man, his reward will be immortal glory; if a philosopher, the about food blessings of his fellow citizens will sufficiently console him for the loss of authority, though he should not be insensible to their ingratitude. In proportion as the sentiments, which unite us to the state, grow weaker, those which attach us to the objects which more immediately surround us grow stronger; therefore, in teacher interview essay the most despotic government, friendships are more durable, and domestic virtues (which are always of the lowest class) are the most common, or the structure tutorial only virtues existing. Hence it appears how confined have been the views of the greatest number of legislators. CHAPTER XXVII.: OF THE MILDNESS OF PUNISHMENTS. The course of questions, my ideas has carried me away from my subject, to the elucidation of which I now return.
Crimes are more effectually prevented by the certainty, than the severity of punishment. Edition: current; Page: [ 94 ] Hence, in a magistrate, the necessity of vigilance, and, in a judge, of implacability, which, that it may become an useful virtue, should be joined to a mild legislation. The certainty of essay, a small punishment will make a stronger impression, than the fear of one more severe, if attended with the hopes of escaping; for it is the nature of interview questions, mankind to be terrified at the approach of the smallest inevitable evil, whilst hope, the best gift of Heaven, hath the power of engineering letter, dispelling the apprehension of a greater; especially if supported by examples of impunity, which weakness or avarice too frequently afford. If punishments be very severe, men are naturally led to the perpetration of other crimes, to avoid the punishment due to interview essay the first. The countries and times most notorious for severity of letter, punishments, were always those in interview questions which the of outline for a paper most bloody and inhuman actions and the most atrocious crimes were committed; for the hand of the legislator and the assassin were directed by the same spirit of ferocity: which on essay questions, the throne, dictated laws of iron to slaves and savages, and in private instigated the subject to sacrifice one tyrant, to essay about food and healthy make room for another. In proportion as punishments become more cruel, the minds of men, as a fluid rises to the Edition: current; Page: [ 95 ] same height with that which surrounds it, grow hardened and insensible; and the force of teacher essay questions, passions still continuing, in the space of an hundred years, the wheel terrifies no more than formerly the prison.
That a punishment may produce the effect required, it is sufficient that the evil it occasions should exceed the good expected from the apa crime; including in the calculation the certainty of the punishment, and teacher interview, the privation of the expected advantage. All severity beyond this is superfluous, and therefore tyrannical. Men regulate their conduct by the repeated impression of evils they know, and not by those with which they are unacquainted. Let us, for example, suppose two nations, in engineering cover letter outline one of which the greatest punishment is perpetual slavery, and in the other the wheel. I say, that both will inspire the same degree of teacher interview, terror; and that there can be no reasons for increasing the punishments of the first, which are not equally valid for augmenting those of the second to fast and healthy food more lasting and more ingenious modes of tormenting; and so on to the most exquisite refinements of a science too well known to tyrants. There are yet two other consequences of cruel punishments, which counteract the purpose of their institution, which was, to prevent crimes. Edition: current; Page: [ 96 ] The first arises from the impossibility of establishing an exact proportion between the crime and punishment; for though ingenious cruelty hath greatly multiplied the variety of torments, yet the teacher questions human frame can suffer only to a certain degree, beyond which it is impossible to proceed, be the enormity of the crime ever so great.
The second consequence is impunity. Human nature is limited no less in evil than in good. Excessive barbarity can never be more than temporary; it being impossible that it should be supported by a permanent system of legislation; for if the laws be too cruel, they must be altered, or anarchy and impunity will succeed. Is it possible, without shuddering with horror, to read in history of the barbarous and useless torments that were coolly invented and executed by both of capital, men who were called sages? Who does not tremble at the thoughts of thousands of wretches, whom their misery, either caused or tolerated by teacher interview essay questions, the laws which favoured the few and example research, outraged the many, had forced in despair to return to a state of nature; or accused of impossible crimes, the essay questions fabric of ignorance and superstition; or guilty only thesis of having been faithful to their own principles; who, I say, can, without horror, think of their being torn to pieces with slow and studied Edition: current; Page: [ 97 ] barbarity, by men endowed with the same passions and the same feelings? A delightful spectacle to a fanatic multitude! CHAPTER XXVIII.: OF THE PUNISHMENT OF DEATH. The useless profusion of punishments, which has never made men better, induces me to inquire, whether the punishment of death be really just or useful in a well-governed state? What right, I ask, have men to interview essay questions cut the throats of their fellow-creatures? Certainly not that on which the sovereignty and laws are founded. The laws, as I have said before, are only the sum of the smallest portions of the thesis private liberty of each individual, and teacher, represent the general will, which is the aggregate of essay structure tutorial, that of each individual.
Did any one ever give to others the right of taking away his life? Is it possible, that in the smallest portions of the liberty of each, sacrificed to the good of the public, can be obtained the greatest Edition: current; Page: [ 98 ] of teacher questions, all good, life? If it were so, how shall it be reconciled to the maxim which tells us, that a man has no right to kill himself? Which he certainly must have, if he could give it away to another. But the punishment of death is not authorised by of outline for a research, any right; for I have demonstrated that no such right exists. It is therefore a war of teacher questions, a whole nation against a citizen, whose destruction they consider as necessary or useful to the general good. But if I can further demonstrate, that it is neither necessary nor useful, I shall have gained the cause of humanity.
The death of a citizen cannot be necessary but in one case. When, though deprived of his liberty, he has such power and connections as may endanger the security of the nation; when his existence may produce a dangerous revolution in the established form of government. But even in tutorial this case, it can only interview essay questions be necessary when a nation is on thesis, the verge of recovering or losing its liberty; or in times of teacher questions, absolute anarchy, when the disorders themselves hold the place of laws. But in a reign of tranquillity; in of capital punishment essays a form of teacher interview, government approved by the united wishes of the essay about food and healthy food nation; in a state fortified from enemies without, and supported by strength within, and opinion, Edition: current; Page: [ 99 ] perhaps more efficacious; where all power is lodged in interview the hands of the true sovereign; where riches can purchase pleasures and not authority, there can be no necessity for reference taking away the life of a subject. If the experience of all ages be not sufficient to prove, that the punishment of death has never prevented determined men from interview essay questions, injuring society; if the example of the Romans; if twenty years reign of essay, Elizabeth, empress of teacher interview essay questions, Russia, in which she gave the both sides punishment fathers of essay, their country an example more illustrious than many conquests bought with blood; if, I say, all this be not sufficient to persuade mankind, who always suspect the voice of essays, reason, and who chuse rather to be led by authority, let us consult human nature in proof of my assertion. It is not the intenseness of the pain that has the greatest effect on the mind, but its continuance; for essay questions our sensibility is essay structure tutorial, more easily and more powerfully affected by weak, but by repeated impressions, than by a violent but momentary impulse. The power of habit is universal over every sensible being. As it is by that we learn to speak, to walk, and to satisfy our necessities, so the ideas of morality are stamped on our minds by repeated impressions. The death of a criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 100 ] is a terrible but momentary spectacle, and therefore a less efficacious method of deterring others, than the continued example of a man deprived of essay questions, his liberty, condemned as a beast of burden, to repair, by his labour, the injury he has done to society. If I commit such a crime, says the of outline research spectator to himself, I shall be reduced to that miserable condition for the rest of interview essay, my life.
A much more powerful preventive than the fear of death, which men always behold in distant obscurity. The terrors of death make so slight an impression, that it has not force enough to withstand the forgetfulness natural to mankind, even in the most essential things; especially when assisted by the passions. Violent impressions surprise us, but their effect is example, momentary; they are fit to produce those revolutions which instantly transform a common man into a Laced#xE6;monian or a Persian; but in a free and quiet government they ought to be rather frequent than strong. The execution of interview essay questions, a criminal is, to the multitude, a spectacle which in some excites compassion mixed with indignation. These sentiments occupy the mind much more than that salutary terror which the laws endeavour to inspire; but in the contemplation of continued suffering, terror is the only, or at least, the predominant sensation. Edition: current; Page: [ 101 ] The severity of a punishment should be just sufficient to excite compassion in the spectators, as it is intended more for them than for the criminal. A punishment, to be just, should have only that degree of severity which is sufficient to deter others. Now there is no man, who, upon the least reflection, would put in competition the both sides punishment total and perpetual loss of his liberty, with the greatest advantages he could possibly obtain in consequence of a crime. Perpetual slavery, then, has in it all that is interview questions, necessary to deter the example of outline research most hardened and interview questions, determined, as much as the punishment of death.
I say, it has more. There are many who can look upon death with intrepidity and firmness; some through fanaticism, and others through vanity, which attends us even to and healthy the grave; others from a desperate resolution, either to get rid of their misery, or cease to live: but fanaticism and vanity forsake the criminal in slavery, in chains and fetters, in an iron cage; and despair seems rather the beginning than the end of their misery. The mind, by collecting itself and uniting all its force, can, for a moment, repel assailing grief; but its most vigorous efforts are insufficient to resist perpetual wretchedness. In all nations, where death is used as punishment, every example supposes a new crime committed. Edition: current; Page: [ 102 ] Whereas, in perpetual slavery, every criminal affords a frequent and lasting example: and if it be necessary that men should often be witnesses of the power of the teacher interview essay laws, criminals should often be put to death; but this supposes a frequency of crimes; and from hence this punishment will cease to have its effect, so that it must be useful and useless at the same time.
I shall be told, that perpetual slavery is as painful a punishment as death, and therefore as cruel. I answer, that if all the miserable moments in the life of about and healthy food, a slave were collected into one point, it would be a more cruel punishment than any other; but these are scattered through his whole life, whilst the teacher interview essay pain of death exerts all its force in engineering outline a moment. There is also another advantage in the punishment of slavery, which is, that it is interview, more terrible to thesis deffinition the spectator than to the sufferer himself; for teacher questions the spectator considers the sum of all his wretched moments, whilst the sufferer, by the misery of the present, is prevented from thinking of the future. All evils are increased by the imagination, and the sufferer finds resources and consolation, of which the spectators are ignoran; who judge by their own sensibility of what passes in a mind by habit grown callous to reference for research misfortune. Edition: current; Page: [ 103 ] Let us, for a moment, attend to the reasoning of a robber or assassin, who is deterred from violating the laws by the gibbet or the wheel. I am sensible, that to essay develop the essay about food and healthy food sentiments of one#x2019;s own heart, is an questions art which education only can teach; but although a villain may not be able to give a clear account of of outline for a, his principles, they nevertheless influence his conduct. He reasons thus: #x201C;What are these laws that I am bound to respect, which make so great a difference between me and teacher questions, the rich man? He refuses me the farthing I ask of him, and excuses himself by bidding me have recourse to labour, with which he is unacquainted. Who made these laws? The rich and the great, who never deigned to visit the miserable hut of the poor; who have never seen him dividing a piece of mouldy bread, amidst the cries of his famished children, and the tears of his wife. Letter! Let us break those ties, fatal to the greatest part of mankind, and only useful to a few indolent tyrants.
Let us attack injustice at its source. I will return to my natural state of independence. I shall live free and teacher questions, happy on the fruits of my courage and industry. A day of pain and repentance may come, but it will be short; and for an hour of grief, I shall enjoy years of example for a, pleasure and liberty. King of a small number, as determined Edition: current; Page: [ 104 ] as myself, I will correct the mistakes of questions, fortune; and shall see those tyrants grow pale and tremble at the sight of engineering cover, him, whom, with insulting pride, they would not suffer to rank with dogs and questions, horses.#x201D; Religion then presents itself to the mind of this lawless villain, and promising him almost a certainty of eternal happiness upon reference page for research apa, the easy terms of repentance, contributes much to lessen the horror of the last scene of the tragedy. But he who foresees that he must pass a great number of years, even his whole life, in teacher interview essay pain and slavery; a slave to those laws by which he was protected; in sight of his fellow citizens, with whom he lives in freedom and society; makes an useful comparison between those evils, the uncertainty of his success, and the shortness of the time in which he shall enjoy the for research apa fruits of his transgression. Questions! The example of those wretches continually before his eyes, makes a much greater impression on deffinition, him than a punishment, which, instead of correcting, makes him more obdurate. The punishment of death is pernicious to society, from the example of barbarity it affords. If the passions, or necessity of war, have taught men to shed the blood of their fellow creatures, the laws which are intended to moderate the ferocity of mankind, should not increase it by examples Edition: current; Page: [ 105 ] of barbarity, the more horrible, as this punishment is usually attended with formal pageantry.
Is it not absurd, that the laws, which detect and punish homicide, should, in order to teacher essay questions prevent murder, publicly commit murder themselves? What are the true and most useful laws? Those compacts and conditions which all would propose and both sides punishment, observe, in teacher essay questions those moments when private interest is silent, or combined with that of the public. What are the natural sentiments of every person concerning the punishment of death? We may read them in the contempt and indignation with which every one looks on thesis, the executioner, who is nevertheless an teacher interview innocent executor of the public will; a good citizen, who contributes to the advantage of society; the of capital instrument of the general security within, as good soldiers are without. What then is the origin of this contradiction? Why is this sentiment of mankind indelible to the scandal of reason? It is, that in a secret corner of the teacher interview questions mind, in which the original impressions of nature are still preserved, men discover a sentiment which tells them, that their lives are not lawfully in the power of any one, but of that necessity only, which with its iron sceptre rules the universe. What must men think, when they see wise Edition: current; Page: [ 106 ] magistrates and essay about and healthy, grave ministers of justice, with indifference and tranquillity, dragging a criminal to death, and whilst a wretch trembles with agony, expecting the fatal stroke, the judge, who has condemned him, with the coldest insensibility, and perhaps with no small gratification from the exertion of his authority, quits his tribunal to essay enjoy the comforts and pleasures of thesis statement, life? They will say, #x201C;Ah! those cruel formalities of teacher essay questions, justice are a cloak to both sides of capital punishment tyranny, they are a secret language, a solemn veil, intended to conceal the sword by which we are sacrificed to the insatiable idol of despotism. Murder, which they would represent to us as an horrible crime, we see practiced by them without repugnance or remorse.
Let us follow their example. A violent death appeared terrible in teacher interview their descriptions, but we see that it is the affair of a moment. It will be still less terrible to him, who, not expecting it, escapes almost all the pain.#x201D; Such is the fatal, though absurd reasoning of food, men who are disposed to commit crimes; on whom the abuse of religion has more influence than religion itself. If it be objected, that almost all nations in all ages have punished certain crimes with death, I answer that the force of these examples vanishes, when opposed to truth, against which prescription Edition: current; Page: [ 107 ] is urged in vain. The history of mankind is an immense sea of errors, in which a few obscure truths may here and there be found. But human sacrifices have also been common in almost all nations. That some societies only, either few in number, or for a very short time, abstained from the interview questions punishment of reference page for research apa, death, is rather favourable to my argument, for such is the fate of great truths, that their duration is only as a flash of interview questions, lightning in the long and dark night of error. The happy time is not yet arrived, when truth, as falsehood has been hitherto, shall be the portion of the example of outline greatest number. I am sensible that the voice of one philosopher is too weak to be heard amidst the clamours of a multitude, blindly influenced by custom; but there is a small number of sages, scattered on the face of the teacher interview essay questions earth, who will echo to me from the bottom of their hearts; and if these truths should happily force their way to the thrones of princes, be it known to them, that they come attended with the secret wishes of all mankind, and tell the example for a research paper sovereign who deigns them a gracious reception, that his fame shall outshine the glory of teacher questions, conquerors, and that equitable posterity will exalt his peaceful trophies above those of a Titus, an deffinition Antoninus, or a Trajan. Edition: current; Page: [ 108 ] How happy were mankind, if laws were now to be first formed! now that we see on the thrones of teacher questions, Europe benevolent monarchs, friends to the virtues of peace, to the arts and sciences, fathers of their people, though crowned yet citizens; the increase of whose authority augments the happiness of their subjects, by destroying that intermediate despotism which intercepts the prayers of the people to the throne.
If these humane princes have suffered the old laws to subsist, it is doubtless because they are deterred by thesis statement deffinition, the numberless obstacles which oppose the subversion of errors established by the sanction of many ages; and therefore every wise citizen will wish for the increase of their authority. That a magistrate, the teacher interview essay questions executor of the laws, should have a power to imprison a citizen, to deprive the man he hates of his liberty upon Edition: current; Page: [ 109 ] frivolous pretences, and to leave his friend unpunished, notwithstanding the strongest proofs of his guilt, is an error as common as it is contrary to the end of for research paper, society, which is personal security. Imprisonment is a punishment, which differs from all other in teacher questions this particular, that it necessarily precedes conviction; but this difference does not destroy a circumstance, which is essential, and common to it with all other punishments, viz. that it should never be inflicted, but when ordained by the law. Cover Outline! The law should, therefore, determine the crime, the presumption, and the evidence sufficient to interview subject the accused to imprisonment and examination. Public report, his flight, his extra-judicial confession, that of an accomplice, menaces, and his constant enmity with the sides punishment essays person injured, the circumstances of the crime, and such other evidence, may be sufficient to justify the imprisonment of a citizen.
But the nature of this evidence should be determined by the laws, and essay, not by the magistrates, whose decrees are always contrary to political liberty, when they are not particular applications of a general maxim of the public code. When punishments become less severe, and prisons less horrible; when compassion and humanity shall penetrate the iron gates of dungeons, and direct the letter outline Edition: current; Page: [ 110 ] obdurate and inexorable ministers of justice, the laws may then be satisfied with weaker evidence for imprisonment. A person accused, imprisoned, tried and acquitted, ought not to be branded with any degree of infamy. Among the Romans, we see that many, accused of very great crimes, and afterwards declared innocent, were respected by the people, and honoured with employments in the state. Interview Essay Questions! But why is the fate of an innocent person so different in this age? It is, because the present system of penal laws presents to our minds an idea of food, power rather than of justice.
It is, because the accused and convicted are thrown indiscriminately into the same prison; because imprisonment is rather a punishment, than a means of securing the person of the accused; and because the interior power, which defends the laws, and the exterior, which defends the throne and kingdom, are separate when they should be united. If the first were (under the common authority of the laws) combined with the right of judging, but not, however immediately dependent on the magistrate, the pomp that attends a military corps, would take off the teacher interview infamy; which, like all popular opinions, is more attached to for research the manner and form, than to the Edition: current; Page: [ 111 ] thing itself; as may be seen in military imprisonment, which, in the common opinion, is not so disgraceful as the civil. But the barbarity and ferocity of our ancestors, the hunters of the north, still subsist among the people, in our customs and our laws, which are always several ages behind the actual refinements of a nation. CHAPTER XXX.: OF PROSECUTION AND PRESCRIPTION. The proofs of the crime being obtained, and the certainty of it determined, it is necessary to allow the criminal the teacher time and means for thesis statement deffinition his justification; but a time so short, as not to diminish that promptitude of punishment, which, as we have shewn, is one of the most powerful means of preventing crimes. A mistaken humanity may object to the shortness of the essay questions time, but the force of the objection will vanish, if we consider that the danger of the for research apa innocent increases with the defects of the teacher interview legislation. Edition: current; Page: [ 112 ] The time for inquiry and for engineering cover justification should be fixed by essay questions, the laws, and not by the judge, who, in that case, would become legislator. With regard to atrocious crimes, which are long remembered, when they are once proved, if the reference for research paper apa criminal have fled, no time should be allowed; but in less considerable and more obscure crimes, a time should be fixed, after which the delinquent should be no longer uncertain of his fate. For in the latter case, the length of time, in teacher which the crime is almost forgotten, prevents the example of impunity, and allows the criminal to amend, and become a better member of society. General principles will here be sufficient, it being impossible to fix precisely the limits of time for any given legislation, or for any society in any particular circumstance. I shall only add, that in sides of capital a nation willing to prove the utility of moderate punishment, laws which, according to the nature of the crime increase or diminish the time of inquiry and justification, considering the imprisonment or the voluntary exile of the criminal as a part of the teacher essay questions punishment, will form an easy division of a small number of mild punishments for a great number of crimes.
But, it must be observed, the time for inquiry and justification, should not increase in direct Edition: current; Page: [ 113 ] proportion to the atrociousness of essay and healthy food, crimes; for the probability of such crimes having been committed, is inversely as their atrociousness. Therefore the time for inquiring ought, in some cases, to be diminished, and that for justification increased, and vice versa. This may appear to contradict what I have said above, namely, that equal punishments may be decreed for unequal crimes, by considering the time allowed the criminal, or the prison, as a punishment. In order to explain this idea, I shall divide crimes into two classes. The first comprehends homicide, and all greater crimes; the second, crimes of an inferior degree. This distinction is founded in human nature.
The preservation of teacher interview, life is essay fast food, a natural right; the preservation of property is a right of society. The motives that induce men to shake off the natural sentiment of compassion, which must be destroyed before great crimes can be committed, are much less in number than those by essay questions, which, from the natural desire of being happy, they are instigated to violate a right, which is essay structure tutorial, not founded in the heart of man, but is the work of society. The different degrees of probability in these two classes, require that they should be regulated on different principles. In the greatest crimes, as they are less frequent, Edition: current; Page: [ 114 ] and the probability of the innocence of the accused being greater, the time allowed him for his justification should be greater, and the time of inquiry less. For by interview essay, hastening the definitive sentence, the flattering hopes of impunity are destroyed, which are more dangerous, as the crime is more atrocious. On the contrary, in crimes of of outline for a paper, less importance, the probability of the innocence being less, the time of inquiry should be greater, and that of justification less, as impunity is not so dangerous. But this division of crimes into essay questions two classes should not be admitted, if the consequences of impunity were in proportion to the probability of the crime. It should be considered, that a person accused, whose guilt or innocence is not determined for want of proofs, may be again imprisoned for reference paper the same crime, and be subject to a new trial, if fresh evidence arises within the time fixed. This is, in interview essay questions my opinion, the best method of providing at essay structure the same time for the security and liberty of the subject, without favouring one at the expence of the teacher interview questions other; which may easily happen, since both these blessings, the thesis deffinition inalienable and equal patrimony of every citizen, are liable to be invaded, the one by open or disguised despotism, and the other by tumultuous and popular anarchy. CHAPTER XXXI.: OF CRIMES OF DIFFICULT PROOF.
With the foregoing principles in view, it will appear astonishing, that reason hardly ever presided at the formation of the laws of nations; that the weakest and most equivocal evidence, and teacher interview essay questions, even conjectures, have been thought sufficient proof for of capital crimes the most atrocious, (and therefore most improbable), the most obscure and chimerical; as if it were the interest of the laws and the judge not to inquire into the truth, but to prove the teacher questions crime; as if there was not a greater risk of condemning an innocent person, when the probability of his guilt is less. The generality of men want that vigour of mind and resolution, which are as necessary for great crimes as for great virtues, and which at the same time produce both the one and the other, in letter those nations which are supported by the activity of their government, and a passion for the public good. For in those which subsist by their greatness or power, or by the goodness Edition: current; Page: [ 116 ] of their laws, the passions being in a weaker degree, seem calculated rather to teacher interview maintain than to essays improve the teacher form of government. This naturally leads us to research paper an important conclusion, viz. that great crimes do always produce the destruction of a nation. There are some crimes which, though frequent in society, are of difficult proof, a circumstance admitted, as equal to interview essay questions the probability of the innocence of the essay fast food and healthy accused. But as the teacher interview essay frequency of these crimes is cover letter outline, not owing to their impunity, so much as to other causes, the danger of their passing unpunished is of less importance, and therefore the time of interview essay questions, examination and prescription may be equally diminished. These principles are different from those commonly received; for reference page paper apa it is in crimes, which are proved with the greatest difficulty, such as adultery, and sodomy, that presumptions, half-proofs, etc. are admitted; as if a man could be half innocent, and half guilty; that is, half punishable and half absolvable. It is in these cases that torture should exercise its cruel power on the person of the interview accused, the witnesses, and even his whole family, as, with unfeeling indifference, some civilians have taught, who pretend to structure tutorial dictate laws to nations. Edition: current; Page: [ 117 ] Adultery is a crime which, politically considered, owes its existence to two causes, viz. pernicious laws, and the powerful attraction between the sexes. This attraction is teacher questions, similar in many circumstances to gravity, the spring of motion in the universe. Like this, it is diminished by distance; one regulates the motions of the for research paper apa body, the other of the soul.
But they differ in questions one respect; the force of gravity decreases in proportion to the obstacles that oppose it; the other gathers strength and vigour as the obstacles increase. If I were speaking to nations guided only by the laws of nature, I would tell them, that there is a considerable difference between adultery and all other crimes. Adultery proceeds from an abuse of that necessity which is constant and universal in human nature; a necessity anterior to the formation of example for a research paper, society, and interview, indeed the founder of society itself; whereas, all other crimes tend to the destruction of society, and arise from momentary passions, and not from a natural necessity. It is the opinion of sides of capital, those, who have studied history and mankind, that this necessity is constantly in the same degree in the same climate. If this be true, useless, or rather pernicious must all laws and customs be, which tend to diminish the sum total of the effects of Edition: current; Page: [ 118 ] this passion. Such laws would only burden one part of the society with the additional necessities of the other; but, on the contrary, wise are the laws which, following the natural course of the river, divide the stream into a number of equal branches, preventing thus both sterility and inundation. Conjugal fidelity is always greater in proportion as marriages are more numerous, and questions, less difficult. About And Healthy Food! But when the interest or pride of families, or paternal authority, not the inclination of the teacher interview essay questions parties, unite the sexes, gallantry soon breaks the slender ties, in spite of common moralists, who exclaim against the effect, whilst they pardon the essay structure cause. But these reflections are useless to those, who, living in the true religion, act from sublimer motives, which correct the eternal laws of teacher interview essay questions, nature. The act of essay tutorial, adultery is a crime so instantaneous, so mysterious, and so concealed by the veil which the laws themselves have woven; a veil necessary indeed, but so transparent, as to heighten rather than conceal the charms of the object; the opportunities are so frequent, and the danger of discovery so easily avoided, that it were much easier for the laws to prevent this crime, than to teacher questions punish it when committed. Edition: current; Page: [ 119 ] To every crime, which from its nature must frequently remain unpunished, the punishment is an incentive.
Such is the nature of the human mind, that difficulties, if not insurmountable, nor too great for our natural indolence, embellish the object, and spur us on to the pursuit. They are so many barriers that confine the imagination to the object, and oblige us to consider it in every point of view. Page Apa! In this agitation, the mind naturally inclines and fixes itself to the most agreeable part, studiously avoiding every idea that might create disgust. The crime of sodomy, so severely punished by the laws, and for teacher questions the proof of which are employed tortures, which often triumph over innocence itself, has its source much less in the passions of man in a free and about fast and healthy, independent state, than in society and teacher interview essay, a slave. It is much less the effect of a satiety in pleasures, than of essay structure, that education, which, in order to make men useful to others, begins by making them useless to themselves. In those public seminaries, where ardent youth are carefully excluded from interview questions, all commerce with the outline other sex, as the vigour of nature blooms, it is consumed in teacher interview questions a manner not only useless to mankind, but which accelerates the reference for research approach of teacher, old age. Edition: current; Page: [ 120 ] The murder of cover letter outline, bastard children is, in like manner, the effect of teacher interview, a cruel dilemma, in which a woman finds herself who has been seduced through weakness, or overcome by force.
The alternative is, her own infamy, or the death of a being who is incapable of feeling the loss of life. How can she avoid preferring the last to both of capital essays the inevitable misery of teacher interview essay questions, herself and her unhappy infant! The best method of preventing this crime, would be effectually to protect the weak woman from that tyranny which exaggerates all vices that cannot be concealed under the cloak of virtue. I do not pretend to lessen that just abhorrence which these crimes deserve, but to discover the sources from whence they spring; and I think I may draw the following conclusions: That the punishment of for research, a crime cannot be just, ( that is, necessary ), if the laws have not endeavoured to prevent that crime by interview, the best means which times and circumstances would allow. Suicide is essay and healthy, a crime, which seems not to admit of punishment, properly speaking; for it cannot be inflicted but on the innocent, or upon an insensible dead body. In the first case, it is unjust and tyrannical, for political liberty supposes all punishments entirely personal; in the second, it has the same effect, by way of example, as the scourging a statue.
Mankind love life too well; the objects that surround them; the seducing phantom of pleasure and hope, that sweetest error of mortals, which makes men swallow such large draughts of evil, mingled with a very few drops of teacher questions, good, allure them too strongly, to apprehend that this crime will ever be common from its unavoidable impunity. The laws are obeyed through fear of punishment, but death destroys all sensibility. What motive, then, can restrain the desperate hand of suicide? He who kills himself does a less injury to society, than he who quits his country for ever; Edition: current; Page: [ 122 ] for the other leaves his property behind him, but this carries with him at least a part of his substance. Besides, as the cover letter outline strength of a society consists in the number of citizens, he who quits one nation to teacher interview questions reside in another, becomes a double loss.
This then is the question: whether it be advantageous to society, that its members should enjoy the unlimited privilege of migration? Every law that is not armed with force, or which, from circumstances, must be ineffectual, should not be promulgated. Opinion, which reigns over the minds of men, obeys the slow and indirect impressions of the legislator, but resists them when violently and directly applied; and useless laws communicate their insignificance to the most salutary, which are regarded more as obstacles to be surmounted, than as safeguards of the public good. But further, our perceptions being limited, by enforcing the observance of laws which are evidently useless, we destroy the influence of the most salutary. From this principle, a wise dispenser of public happiness may draw some useful consequences, the explanation of which would carry me too far from my subject, which is to prove the inutility of for a research paper, making the nation a prison. Such a law is vain, because, unless inaccessible rocks, or impassable Edition: current; Page: [ 123 ] seas, divide the country from all others, how will it be possible to secure every point of the circumference, or how will you guard the guards themselves? Besides, this crime, once committed, cannot be punished; and to punish it before hand, would be to punish the intention and not the action; the will, which is entirely out of the power of human laws. To punish the absent by confiscating his effects, besides the facility of collusion, which would inevitably be the case, and which, without tyranny, could not be prevented, would put a stop to all commerce with other nations. To punish the criminal when he returns, would be to prevent him from repairing the evil he had already done to teacher questions society, by making his absence perpetual.
Besides, any prohibition would increase the desire of removing, and page for research apa, would infallibly prevent strangers from settling in the country. What must we think of a government which has no means, but fear, to keep its subjects in their own country; to teacher interview essay questions which, by the first impressions of their infancy, they are so strongly attached. The most certain method of keeping men at home, is, to make them happy; and it is the interest of every state to turn the balance, not only of commerce, but of felicity in reference apa favour Edition: current; Page: [ 124 ] of interview, its subjects. Essay Structure! The pleasures of luxury are not the principal sources of teacher, this happiness; though, by thesis statement, preventing the interview questions too great accumulation of wealth in few hands, they become a necessary remedy against the too great inequality of individuals, which always increases with the example paper progress of society. When the populousness of a country does not increase in proportion to its extent, luxury favours despotism, for where men are most dispersed, there is essay, least industry, the dependence of the poor upon the luxury of the rich is greatest, and the union of the oppressed against the oppressors is least to be feared. In such circumstances, rich and powerful men more easily command distinction, respect and service, by which they are raised to thesis a greater height above the poor; for men are more independent the less they are observed, and are least observed when most numerous. On the teacher essay contrary, when the number of people is thesis statement, too great in proportion to the extent of a country, luxury is a check to despotism; because it is a spur to industry, and because the labour of the poor affords so many pleasures to the rich, that they disregard the teacher interview essay luxury of ostentation, which would remind the statement people of their dependence.
Hence we see that Edition: current; Page: [ 125 ] in teacher essay vast and depopulated states, the luxury of ostentation prevails over that of convenience; but, in the countries more populous, the luxury of convenience tends constantly to diminish the luxury of engineering letter, ostentation. The pleasures of luxury have this inconvenience, that though they employ a great number of hands, yet they are only enjoyed by a few, whilst the rest, who do not partake of them, feel the want more sensibly, on comparing their state with that of others. Security and liberty, restrained by the laws, are the essay questions basis of happiness, and when attended by these, the pleasures of luxury favour population, without which they become the thesis instrument of tyranny. As the most noble and generous animals fly to solitude and inaccessible deserts, and abandon the fertile plains to man, their greatest enemy; so men reject pleasure itself, when offered by the hand of tyranny. But to return. If it be demonstrated, that the laws which imprison men in their own country are vain and teacher interview, unjust, it will be equally true of those which punish suicide, for that can only be punished after death, which is in the power of apa, God alone; but it is no crime, with regard to man, because the interview questions punishment falls on thesis statement deffinition, Edition: current; Page: [ 126 ] an innocent family. Teacher Interview! If it be objected, that the consideration of such a punishment may prevent the crime; I answer, that he who can calmly renounce the pleasure of existence; who is so weary of life as to brave the idea of essay about fast, eternal misery, will never be influenced by the more distant and less powerful considerations of family and children. Smuggling is a real offence against the sovereign and the nation; but the punishment should not brand the offender with infamy, because this crime is not infamous in the public opinion. By inflicting infamous punishments, for crimes that are not reputed so, we destroy that idea where it may be useful. If the same punishment be decreed for killing a pheasant as for killing a man, or for forgery, all difference between those crimes will shortly vanish. It is thus that moral sentiments are destroyed in the heart of man; Edition: current; Page: [ 127 ] sentiments, the work of many ages and of much bloodshed; sentiments, that are so slowly, and with so much difficulty, produced, and for the establishment of which such sublime motives, and such an apparatus of ceremonies, were thought necessary.
This crime is owing to the laws themselves; for the higher the duties, the greater is the questions advantage, and, consequently, the temptation; which temptation is increased by the facility of perpetration, when the circumference that is guarded is of great extent, and reference for research, the merchandise prohibited is small in bulk. The seizure and loss of the goods attempted to be smuggled, together with those that are found along with them, is just; but it would be better to lessen the duty, because men risk only in proportion to the advantage expected. This crime being a theft of what belongs to the prince, and consequently to the nation, why is it not attended with infamy? I answer, that crimes, which men consider as productive of no bad consequences to themselves, do not interest them sufficiently to excite their indignation. The generality of mankind, upon whom remote consequences make no impression, do not see the evil that may result from the teacher essay practice of smuggling, Edition: current; Page: [ 128 ] especially if they reap from it any present advantage. They only perceive the loss sustained by the prince. Essay Structure! They are not then interested in refusing their esteem to the smuggler, as to one who has committed a theft or a forgery, or other crimes, by which they themselves may suffer; from this evident principle, that a sensible being only interests himself in teacher interview essay those evils with which he is acquainted. Shall this crime, then, committed by one who has nothing to lose, go unpunished? No. There are certain species of smuggling, which so particularly affect the example research paper revenue, a part of government so essential, and managed with so much difficulty, that they deserve imprisonment, or even slavery; but yet of such a nature as to be proportioned to the crime.
For example, it would be highly unjust that a smuggler of tobacco should suffer the same punishment with a robber or assassin; but it would be most conformable to the nature of the interview offence, that the produce of research, his labour should be applied to the use of the crown, which he intended to defraud. The necessity of questions, good faith in structure contracts and the support of commerce oblige the legislature to secure, for the creditors, the persons of bankrupts. It is, however, necessary to distinguish between the fraudulent and the honest bankrupt. The fraudulent bankrupt should be punished in the same manner with him who adulterates the coin; for to falsify a piece of coin, which is a pledge of the mutual obligation between citizens, is not a greater crime than to violate the obligations themselves. But the bankrupt who, after a strict examination, has proved before proper judges, that either the fraud or losses of others, or misfortunes unavoidable by human prudence, have stript him of his substance; upon what barbarous pretence is he thrown into prison, and interview essay, deprived of the only remaining good, the melancholy enjoyment of mere liberty? Why is he ranked with criminals, and in of outline for a research despair compelled to repent of his honesty? Conscious of essay questions, his innocence, Edition: current; Page: [ 130 ] he lived easy and happy under the protection of those laws, which it is true, he violated, but not intentionally. Laws, dictated by the avarice of the rich, and accepted by the poor, seduced by that universal flattering hope which makes men believe, that all unlucky accidents are the paper lot of others, and the most fortunate only their share.
Mankind, when influenced by the first impressions, love cruel laws, although being subject to them themselves, it is the interview essay questions interest of every person that they should be as mild as possible; but the fear of being injured is always more prevalent than the intention of essay about and healthy, injuring others. But to return to the honest bankrupt. Let his debt, if you will, not be considered as cancelled till the payment of the whole; let him be refused the liberty of leaving the country without leave of his creditors, or of carrying into another nation that industry which, under a penalty, he should be obliged to interview essay questions employ for their benefit; but what pretences can justify the depriving an innocent, though unfortunate man of his liberty, without the least utility to his creditors? But, say they, the hardships of confinement will induce him to discover his fraudulent transactions; an event that can hardly be supposed, after a rigorous examination of his conduct and Edition: current; Page: [ 131 ] affairs. Outline! But if they are not discovered, he will escape unpunished. It is, I think, a maxim of government, that the importance of the political inconveniences, arising from the impunity of a crime, are directly as the injury to teacher the public, and inversely as the difficulty of proof. It will be necessary to distinguish fraud, attended with aggravating circumstances, from simple fraud, and that from perfect innocence. Both! For the first, let there be ordained the same punishment as for forgery; for the second, a less punishment but with the loss of liberty; and if perfectly honest, let the bankrupt himself chuse the questions method of re-establishing himself, and of satisfying his creditors; or if he should appear not to have been strictly honest, let that be determined by his creditors: but these distinctions should be fixed by the laws, which alone are impartial, and not by the arbitrary and dangerous prudence of judges.* Edition: current; Page: [ 132 ] With what ease might a sagacious legislator prevent the greatest part of fraudulent bankruptcies, and remedy the misfortunes that befal the honest and industrious! A public register of all contracts, with the example of outline for a research liberty of consulting it, allowed to every citizen; a public fund formed by teacher interview, a contribution of the opulent merchants for the timely assistance of unfortunate industry, were establishments that could produce no real inconveniences, and many advantages. But unhappily the most simple, the cover outline easiest, yet the wisest laws, that wait only for the nod of the legislator, to diffuse through nations wealth, power and felicity; laws which would be regarded by future generations with eternal gratitude, are either unknown or rejected.
A restless and trifling spirit, the timid prudence of the present moment, a distrust and aversion to teacher questions the most useful novelties, possess the minds of those who are empowered to regulate the actions of mankind. Are sanctuaries just? Is a convention between nations, mutually to give up their criminals, useful? In the whole extent of a political state, there should be no place independent of the laws. Their power should follow every subject, as the shadow follows the body. Essay Structure Tutorial! Sanctuaries, and impunity, differ only in degree, and as the effect of punishment depends more on their certainty, than their greatness, men are more strongly invited to crimes by sanctuaries, than they are deterred by punishment. To increase the number of sanctuaries, is to erect so many little sovereignties; for, when the laws have no power, new bodies will be formed in opposition to the public good, and teacher interview questions, a spirit established contrary to that of the state. History informs us, that from the use of sanctuaries have arisen the greatest revolutions in kingdoms and in opinions. Some have pretended, that in whatever country Edition: current; Page: [ 134 ] a crime, that is, an action contrary to the laws of society, be committed, the criminal may be justly punished for it in any other; as if the character of subject were indelible, or synonimous with, or worse than that of reference page paper apa, slave; as if a man could live in one country, and interview, be subject to the laws of another, or be accountable for his actions to two sovereigns, or two codes of laws, often contradictory. There are also who think, that an act of cruelty committed, for example, at Constantinople may be punished at page paper Paris; for this abstracted reason, that he who offends humanity, should have enemies in all mankind, and be the object of universal execration; as if judges were to be the knights-errant of human nature in general, rather than guardians of particular conventions between men. The place of punishment can certainly be no other, than that where the crime was committed; for the necessity of punishing an individual for the general good subsists there, and there only.
A villain, if he has not broke through the conventions of teacher interview essay questions, a society of which, by my supposition, he was not a member, may be feared, and by force banished and excluded from that society; but ought not to be formally punished by the laws, which were only intended to maintain the social compact, Edition: current; Page: [ 135 ] and not to punish the intrinsic malignity of actions. Whether it be useful that nations should mutually deliver up their criminals? Although the certainty of sides of capital essays, there being no part of the teacher questions earth where crimes are not punished, may be a means of preventing them, I shall not pretend to engineering outline determine this question, until, laws more conformable to the necessities and rights of humanity, and until milder punishments, and interview essay, the abolition of the arbitrary power of opinion, shall afford security to virtue and innocence when oppressed; and thesis, until tyranny shall be confined to the plains of interview, Asia, and paper, Europe acknowledge the interview essay universal empire of reason, by which the tutorial interests of sovereigns and subjects are best united. CHAPTER XXXVI.: OF REWARDS FOR APPREHENDING, OR KILLING CRIMINALS. Let us now inquire, whether it be advantageous to society, to set a price on the head of a criminal, and so to make of every citizen an teacher interview essay questions executioner. Thesis Deffinition! Edition: current; Page: [ 136 ] If the offender hath taken refuge in another state, the sovereign encourages his subjects to commit a crime, and to expose themselves to teacher a just punishment; he insults that nation, and authorises the subjects to statement deffinition commit on their neighbours similar usurpations. If the criminal still remain in his own country, to set a price upon his head, is the strongest proof of the weakness of the government.
He who has strength to defend himself, will not purchase the assistance of another. Besides, such an edict confounds all the ideas of virtue and morality, already too wavering in the mind of man. At one time treachery is punished by the laws, at another encouraged. Teacher! With one hand the legislator strengthens the ties of kindred and tutorial, friendship, and with the other rewards the violation of both. Always in contradiction with himself, now he invites the suspecting minds of teacher questions, men to mutual confidence, and essay about fast and healthy, now he plants distrust in every heart.
To prevent one crime, he gives birth to a thousand. Such are the expedients of weak nations, whose laws are like temporary repairs to a tottering fabric. On the contrary, as a nation becomes more enlightened, honesty and mutual confidence become more necessary, and are daily tending to unite with sound policy. Edition: current; Page: [ 137 ] Artifice, cabal, and interview essay questions, obscure and indirect actions are more easily discovered, and the interest of the whole is better secured against the passions of the individual. Even the times of ignorance, when private virtue was encouraged by public morality, may afford instruction and example to more enlightened ages. Outline! But laws which reward treason, excite clandestine war, and mutual distrust, oppose that necessary union of interview essay questions, morality and policy, which is the foundation of happiness and universal peace. CHAPTER XXXVII.: OF ATTEMPTS. ACCOMPLICES AND PARDON. The laws do not punish the intention; nevertheless an attempt which manifests the intention of committing a crime, deserves a punishment, though less, perhaps, than if the crime were actually perpetrated. The importance of preventing even attempts to commit a crime sufficiently Edition: current; Page: [ 138 ] authorises a punishment; but as there may be an interval of time between the attempt and the execution, it is proper to engineering reserve the greater punishment for the actual commission, that even after the attempt there may be a motive for desisting. In like manner, with regard to the accomplices, they ought not to essay suffer so severe a punishment as the immediate perpetrator of the crime.
But this for a different reason. When a number of cover, men unite, and teacher, run a common risk, the research paper greater the danger, the interview more they endeavour to distribute it equally. Now, if the principals be punished more severely than the accessaries, it will prevent the danger from being equally divided, and will increase the difficulty of paper apa, finding a person to execute the interview essay crime, as his danger is for a research, greater by the difference of the punishment. There can be but one exception to this rule; and that is, when the teacher interview principal receives a reward from the accomplices. In that case, as the difference of the danger is example of outline paper, compensated, the punishment should be equal. These reflections may appear too refined to those who do not consider, that it is of great importance, that the essay questions laws should leave the associates as few means as possible of agreeing among themselves.
Edition: current; Page: [ 139 ] In some tribunals, a pardon is offered to an accomplice in a great crime, if he discover his associates. This expedient has its advantages. The disadvantages are, that the law authorises treachery, which is detested even by the villains themselves; and introduces crimes of cowardice, which are much more pernicious to a nation than crimes of courage. Both Of Capital Essays! Courage is not common, and only wants a benevolent power to direct it to the public good. Cowardice, on the contrary, is a frequent self-interested, and teacher interview essay questions, contagious evil, which can never be improved into a virtue. Besides, the tribunal, which has recourse to this method, betrays its fallibility, and the laws their weakness, by imploring the both sides assistance of those by teacher essay, whom they are violated.
The advantages are, that it prevents great crimes, the effects of which being public, and the perpetrators concealed, terrify the people. It also contributes to prove, that he who violates the about food and healthy food laws, which are public conventions, will also violate private compacts. It appears to me, that a general law, promising a reward to teacher interview every accomplice who discovers his associates, would be better than a special declaration in every particular case; because it would prevent the union of those villains, as it would inspire a mutual distrust, and Edition: current; Page: [ 140 ] each would be afraid of exposing himself alone to danger. The accomplice, however, should be pardoned, on condition of reference for research paper apa, transportation. * * * * * But it is in vain, that I torment myself with endeavouring to extinguish the remorse I feel in attempting to induce the essay questions sacred laws, the monument of public confidence, the thesis deffinition foundation of human morality, to authorise dissimulation and perfidy. But what an example does it offer to essay questions a nation, to see the interpreters of the laws break their promise of pardon, and on of outline for a research paper, the strength of learned subtleties, and to the scandal of interview, public faith, drag him to punishment who hath accepted of their invitation! Such examples are not uncommon, and this is the reason, that political society is reference paper apa, regarded as a complex machine, the springs of which are moved at pleasure by the most dexterous or most powerful.
CHAPTER XXXVIII.: OF SUGGESTIVE INTERROGATIONS. The laws forbid suggestive interrogations; that is, according to the civilians, questions which, with regard to the circumstances of the crime, are special when they should be general; or, in interview other words, those questions which, having an immediate reference to the crime, suggest to the criminal an immediate answer. Interrogations, according to the law, ought to lead to the fact indirectly and about, obliquely, but never directly or immediately. The intent of essay, this injunction is, either that they should not suggest to the accused an immediate answer that might acquit him, or that they think it contrary to nature that a man should accuse himself. But whatever be the motive, the laws have fallen into of capital punishment a palpable contradiction, in condemning suggestive interrogations, whilst they authorise torture. Can there be an interrogation more suggestive than pain? Torture will suggest to a robust villain an obstinate silence, that he may exchange a greater punishment for teacher essay a less; Edition: current; Page: [ 142 ] and to a feeble man confession, to relieve him from the essay about and healthy present pain, which affects him more than the apprehension of the future.
If a special interrogation be contrary to the right of nature, as it obliges a man to accuse himself, torture will certainly do it more effectually. But men are influenced more by the names than the nature of things. He who obstinately refuses to answer the interrogatories, deserves a punishment, which should be fixed by the laws, and that of the severest kind; that criminals should not, by teacher essay, their silence, evade the example which they owe the about fast food public. But this punishment is not necessary when the guilt of the criminal is indisputable, because in that case interrogation is useless, as is likewise his confession, when there are, without it, proofs sufficient. This last case is most common, for experience shews, that in interview the greatest number of page for research apa, criminal prosecutions, the culprit pleads not guilty. CHAPTER XXXIX.: OF A PARTICULAR KIND OF CRIMES. The reader will perceive that I have omitted speaking of interview essay, a certain class of essay about fast and healthy, crimes, which has covered Europe with blood, and raised up those horrid piles, from whence, midst clouds of whirling smoke, the groans of human victims, the crackling of their bones, and the frying of their still panting bowels, were a pleasing spectacle and agreeable harmony to the fanatic multitude. But men of understanding will perceive, that the age and essay, country in which I live will not permit me to inquire into the nature of this crime. It were too tedious, and foreign to my subject, to prove the necessity of a perfect uniformity of opinions in a state, contrary to the examples of many nations; to prove that opinions, which differ from one another only in some subtile and obscure distinctions, beyond the essay tutorial reach of human capacity, may nevertheless disturb the public tranquillity, unless one only religion be established by authority; and that some opinions, by essay, Edition: current; Page: [ 144 ] being contrasted and opposed to each other, in their collision strike out the truth; whilst others, feeble in themselves, require the support of power and authority.
It would, I say, carry me too far, were I to prove, that, how odious soever is the empire of force over the opinions of mankind, from whom it only obtains dissimulation followed by contempt; and although it may seem contrary to the spirit of humanity and brotherly love, commanded us by reason, and authority, which we more respect, it is nevertheless necessary and thesis deffinition, indispensible. We are to teacher interview essay questions believe, that all these paradoxes are resolved beyond a doubt, and engineering cover outline, are conformable to the true interest of mankind, if practised by a lawful authority. I write only of crimes which violate the laws of interview, nature and the social contract, and not of sins, even the temporal punishments of which must be determined from other principles than those of a limited human philosophy. CHAPTER XL.: OF FALSE IDEAS OF UTILITY. A principal source of errors and injustice, are false ideas of utility. Sides Of Capital! For example; that legislator has false ideas of utility, who considers particular more than general conveniences; who had rather command the sentiments of mankind than excite them, and dares say to reason, #x201C;Be thou a slave;#x201D; who would sacrifice a thousand real advantages to the fear of an imaginary or trifling inconvenience; who would deprive men of the use of fire for fear of being burnt, and of water for fear of their being drowned; and who know of no means of preventing evil, but by destroying it. The laws of this nature, are those which forbid to wear arms, disarming those only who are not disposed to commit the crime which the laws mean to prevent.
Can it be supposed, that those who have the courage to violate the most sacred laws of teacher interview questions, humanity, and the most important of the code, will respect the less considerable and arbitrary Edition: current; Page: [ 146 ] injunctions, the violation of which is so easy, and of so little comparative importance? Does not the execution of this law deprive the subject of that personal liberty, so dear to mankind and to the wise legislator; and essay structure tutorial, does it not subject the innocent to all the teacher essay questions disagreeable circumstances that should only fall on thesis statement, the guilty? It certainly makes the questions situation of the cover letter outline assaulted worse, and the assailants better, and rather encourages than prevents murder, as it requires less courage to attack armed than unarmed persons. It is a false idea of utility, that would give to a multitude of sensible beings that symmetry and teacher essay questions, order, which inanimate matter is and healthy, alone capable of receiving; to neglect the present, which are the only motives that act with force and constancy on the multitude, for the more distant, whose impressions are weak and transitory, unless increased by that strength of imagination so very uncommon among mankind. Finally, that is a false idea of utility, which, sacrificing things to names, separates the public good from that of individuals.
There is this difference between a state of society and a state of nature, that a savage does no more mischief to another than is necessary to Edition: current; Page: [ 147 ] procure some benefit to himself; but a man in society is sometimes tempted, from a fault in the laws, to injure another, without any prospect of teacher interview essay, advantage. The tyrant inspires his vassals with fear and deffinition, servility, which rebound upon questions, him with double force, and are the cause of his torment. Fear, the more private and domestic it is, the less dangerous is it to him who makes it the instrument of his happiness; but the more it is public, and the greater number of people it affects, the thesis greater is the probability that some mad, desperate or designing person will seduce others to his party, by flattering expectations; and this will be the more easily accomplished, as the danger of the enterprize will be divided amongst a great number, because the value the unhappy set upon their existence is essay, less, as their misery is greater. CHAPTER XLI.: OF THE MEANS OF PREVENTING CRIMES. It is better to prevent crimes than to punish them. This is the fundamental principle of good legislation, which is the art of outline, conducting men to the maximum of happiness, and to the minimum of misery, if we may apply this mathematical expression to the good and evil of life. But the means hitherto employed for that purpose, are generally inadequate, or contrary to the end proposed. It is impossible to reduce the tumultuous activity of mankind to absolute regularity; for, midst the various and opposite teacher interview questions attractions of pleasure and pain, human laws are not sufficient entirely to prevent disorders in society. Such, however, is the chimera of weak men, when invested with authority.
To prohibit a number of indifferent actions, is example research, not to questions prevent the about food and healthy crimes which they may produce, but to create new ones; it is to change at will the ideas of virtue and vice, which, at other times, we are told, are eternal and immutable. To what a situation should we be Edition: current; Page: [ 149 ] reduced, if every thing were to be forbidden that might possibly lead to questions a crime? We must be deprived of the use of our senses. For one motive that induces a man to commit a real crime, there are a thousand which excite him to those indifferent actions, which are called crimes by bad laws. If then, the probability that a crime will be committed be in reference for research proportion to the number of motives, to essay questions extend the essay fast food sphere of crimes will be to increase that probability. The generality of laws are only exclusive privileges; the tribute of teacher questions, all to the advantage of a few. Would you prevent crimes? Let the laws be clear and simple; let the entire force of the nation be united in fast food and healthy food their defence; let them be intended rather to interview essay questions favour every individual, than any particular classes of men; let the laws be feared, and the laws only. The fear of the laws is salutary, but the fear of men is a fruitful and fatal source of crimes.
Men enslaved are more voluptuous, more debauched, and more cruel than those who are in a state of freedom. These study the sciences, the interest of nations, have great objects before their eyes, and imitate them; but those, whose views are confined to the present moment, endeavour, midst the essay tutorial distraction of riot and debauchery, to forget their situation; accustomed Edition: current; Page: [ 150 ] to the uncertainty of all events, for the laws determine none, the consequence of their crimes becomes problematical, which gives an additional force to the strength of their passions. In a nation, indolent from the nature of the climate, the uncertainty of the questions laws confirms and increases men#x2019;s indolence and stupidity. In a voluptuous but active nation, this uncertainty occasions a multiplicity of cabals and intrigues, which spread distrust and sides punishment, diffidence through the hearts of all, and questions, dissimulation and treachery are the foundation of their prudence. In a brave and powerful nation, this uncertainty of the laws is at last destroyed, after many oscillations from liberty to slavery, and from slavery to liberty again. Would you prevent crimes? Let liberty be attended with knowledge. As knowledge extends, the disadvantages which attend it diminish, and statement deffinition, Edition: current; Page: [ 151 ] the teacher essay questions advantages increase. A daring impostor, who is always a man of some genius, is adored by the ignorant populace, and despised by men of understanding. Knowledge facilitates the comparison of objects, by shewing them in different points of view. When the clouds of ignorance are dispelled by the radiance of knowledge, authority trembles, but the force of the laws remains immoveable.
Men of enlightened understanding must necessarily approve those useful conventions, which are the foundation of public safety; they compare, with the highest satisfaction, the inconsiderable portion of liberty of which they are deprived, with the sum total sacrificed by others for their security; observing that they have only given up the pernicious liberty of injuring their fellow-creatures, they bless the about fast food and healthy throne, and the laws upon which it is established. It is false that the sciences have always been prejudicial to mankind. Teacher Essay Questions! When they were so, the evil was inevitable. The multiplication of the human species on the face of the earth introduced war, the rudiments of arts, and the first laws, which were temporary compacts arising from necessity, and perishing with it. Food And Healthy Food! This was the first philosophy, and its few elements were Edition: current; Page: [ 152 ] just, as indolence and want of sagacity, in the early inhabitants of the world, preserved them from error. But necessities increasing with the number of mankind, stronger and more lasting impressions were necessary to prevent their frequent relapses into interview a state of barbarity, which became every day more fatal. The first religious errors, which peopled the essay tutorial earth with false divinities, and created a world of invisible beings to govern the visible creation, were of the utmost service to mankind. The greatest benefactors to humanity were those who dared to deceive, and led pliant ignorance to the foot of the altar. By presenting to the minds of the vulgar, things out interview essay questions of the reach of their senses, which fled as they pursued, and always eluded their grasp; which, as they never comprehended, they never despised, their different passions were united, and attached to a single object. This was the first transition of all nations from their savage state.
Such was the necessary, and perhaps the only bond of all societies at their first formation. Of Outline Research! I speak not of the chosen people of God, to whom the most extraordinary miracles, and the most signal favours, supplied the place of human policy. But as it is the nature of error to subdivide Edition: current; Page: [ 153 ] itself ad infinitum, so the pretended knowledge which sprung from it transformed mankind into a blind fanatic multitude, jarring and destroying each other in the labyrinth in which they were inclosed; hence it is not wonderful, that some sensible and philosophic minds should regret the ancient state of barbarity. This was the first epocha in which knowledge, or rather opinions, were fatal. The second may be found in the difficult and interview questions, terrible passage from error to deffinition truth, from darkness to light.
The violent shock between a mass of interview questions, errors, useful to the few and powerful, and the truths so important to the many and the weak, with the fermentation of passions excited on that occasion, were productive of infinite evils to unhappy mortals. In the study of engineering letter, history, whose principal periods, after certain intervals, much resemble each other, we frequently find, in the necessary passage from the obscurity of ignorance to the light of philosophy, and from tyranny to liberty, its natural consequence, one generation sacrificed to teacher questions the happiness of the next. Essay Structure! But when this flame is extinguished, and the world delivered from its evils, truth, after a very slow progress, sits down with monarchs on the throne, and is worshiped in the assemblies of Edition: current; Page: [ 154 ] nations. Shall we then believe, that light diffused among the people is more destructive than darkness, and that the knowledge of the teacher interview essay questions relations of things can never be fatal to punishment essays mankind? Ignorance may indeed be less fatal than a small degree of knowledge, because this adds, to the evils of ignorance, the inevitable errors of a confined view of things on this side the bounds of truth; but a man of enlightened understanding, appointed guardian of the laws, is the greatest blessing that a sovereign can bestow on teacher interview essay, a nation. Such a man is accustomed to behold truth, and not to thesis statement deffinition fear it; unacquainted with the greatest part of those imaginary and insatiable necessities, which so often put virtue to the proof, and accustomed to interview essay contemplate mankind from the reference page paper apa most elevated point of view, he considers the nation as his family, and his fellow citizens as brothers; the distance between the great and the vulgar appears to him the less, as the number of mankind he has in view is greater. The philosopher has necessities and interests unknown to the vulgar, and the chief of these is not to belie in public the principles he taught in interview obscurity, and the habit of loving virtue for its own sake. A few such philosophers would constitute the happiness of a nation; which however Edition: current; Page: [ 155 ] would be but of short duration, unless by good laws the number were so increased as to lessen the probability of an improper choice.
Another method of preventing crimes is, to make the observance of the laws, and not their violation, the interest of the magistrate. The greater the number of those who constitute the tribunal, the statement less is the danger of corruption; because the attempt will be more difficult, and the power and temptation of each individual will be proportionably less. Interview Essay! If the sovereign, by engineering outline, pomp and the austerity of edicts, and by refusing to hear the complaints of the oppressed, accustom his subjects to respect the magistrates more than the laws, the magistrates will gain indeed, but it will be at the expence of interview essay, public and private security. Yet another method of preventing crimes is, to reward virtue. Upon this subject the laws of all nations are silent. If the rewards, proposed by academies for the discovery of useful truths, have increased our knowledge, and multiplied good books, is it not probable that rewards, distributed by the beneficent hand of a sovereign, would also multiply virtuous actions?
The coin of honour is inexhaustible, and cover letter, is abundantly fruitful in the hands of a prince who distributes it wisely. Finally, the most certain method of preventing crimes, is to perfect the system of education. Teacher! But this is an object too vast, and exceeds my plan; an object, if I may venture to declare it, which is so intimately connected with the nature of government, that it will always remain a barren spot, cultivated only by a few wise men. A great man, who is tutorial, persecuted by essay questions, that world he hath enlightened, and to whom we are indebted for many important truths, hath most amply detailed the principal maxims of useful education. This chiefly consists in presenting to the mind a small number of select objects; in substituting the originals for the copies, both of physical and moral phenomena; in leading the engineering cover letter pupil to virtue by the easy road of interview, sentiment, and in withholding him from structure tutorial, evil by the infallible power of necessary inconveniences, rather than by command, which only obtains counterfeit and momentary obedience. As punishments become more mild, clemency and pardon are less necessary. Essay Questions! Happy the nation in which they will be considered as dangerous! Clemency, which has often been deemed a sufficient substitute for every other virtue in cover letter sovereigns, should be excluded in a perfect legislation, where punishments are mild, and the proceedings in criminal cases regular and expeditious. This truth will seem cruel to those who live in countries, where, from the absurdity of the laws, and the severity of punishments, pardons, and the clemency of the prince, are necessary. It is indeed one of the noblest prerogatives of the throne, but, at teacher interview essay questions the same time, a tacit disapprobation of the cover letter laws. Clemency is a virtue which belongs to the legislator, and not to the executor of the laws; a virtue which ought to shine in the code, and not in private judgment.
To shew mankind, that crimes are sometimes pardoned, and that punishment is not the necessary consequence, is Edition: current; Page: [ 159 ] to nourish the flattering hope of impunity, and is the cause of their considering every punishment inflicted as an act of injustice and oppression. Teacher Essay! The prince, in pardoning, gives up the public security in favour of an individual, and, by his ill-judged benevolence, proclaims a public act of impunity. Let, then, the executors of the laws be inexorable, but let the legislator be tender, indulgent and humane. He is a wise architect, who erects his edifice on the foundation of self-love, and contrives, that the interest of the public shall be the interest of each individual; who is not obliged by particular laws, and irregular proceedings, to separate the public good from that of individuals, and erect the essay food and healthy food image of public felicity on the basis of fear and distrust; but, like a wise philosopher, he will permit his brethren to enjoy, in quiet, that small portion of happiness, which the immense system, established by interview essay questions, the first cause, permits them to taste on this earth, which is but a point in thesis statement the universe. A small crime is sometimes pardoned, if the person offended chuses to forgive the offender. This may be an act of questions, good nature and humanity, but it is contrary to the good of the public. The right of punishing belongs not to for a paper any individual in particular, but to society in general, or the Edition: current; Page: [ 160 ] sovereign. He may renounce his own portion of this right, but cannot give up that of others. I conclude with this reflection, that the interview severity of punishments ought to be in proportion to the state of the nation.
Among a people hardly yet emerged from barbarity, they should be most severe, as strong impressions are required; but in proportion as the minds of men become softened by their intercourse in society, the severity of punishments should be diminished, if it be intended, that the necessary relation between the object and the sensation should be maintained. From what I have written results the example of outline paper following general theorem, of considerable utility, though not conformable to interview custom, the common legislator of nations. That a punishment may not be an act of violence, Edition: current; Page: [ 161 ] of one or of many, against a private member of society, it should be public, immediate and necessary; the least possible in the case given; proportioned to the crime, and determined by the laws. A COMMENTARY ON THE BOOK OF CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS. CHAPTER I.: THE OCCASION OF THIS COMMENTARY. Having read, with infinite satisfaction, the engineering outline little book on Crimes and Punishments, which in morality, as in medicine, may be compared to one of those few remedies, capable of alleviating our sufferings; I flattered myself that it would be a means of softening the remains of barbarism in the laws of many nations; I hoped for some reformation in mankind, when I was Edition: current; Page: [ 164 ] informed, that, within a few miles of my abode, they had just hanged a girl of eighteen, beautiful, well made, accomplished, and of a very reputable family.
She was culpable of interview essay, having suffered herself to be got with child, and also, of having abandoned her infant. Paper! This unfortunate girl, flying from her father#x2019;s house, is taken in labour, and, without assistance, is delivered of her burden by the side of a wood. Shame, which in teacher essay the sex is a powerful passion, gave her strength to return home, and to conceal her situation. She left her child exposed; it is found the next morning; the mother is discovered, condemned and executed. The first fault of this unhappy victim ought to have been concealed by statement, the family, or rather claims the protection of the laws, because it was incumbent on her seducer to repair the injury he had done; because weakness hath a right to indulgence; because concealing her pregnancy may endanger her life; because declaring her condition destroys her reputation, and because the difficulty of teacher questions, providing for essay structure her infant is a great additional misfortune. Her second fault is more criminal. She abandons the fruit of her weakness, and teacher questions, exposes it to cover outline perish.
Edition: current; Page: [ 165 ] But because a child is dead, is it absolutely necessary to teacher essay questions kill the mother? She did not kill the child. She flattered herself, that some passenger would have compassion on of outline for a paper, the innocent babe. It is even possible that she might intend to return and provide for it; a sentiment so natural in the breast of a mother, that it ought to be presumed. The law in the country of teacher interview essay questions, which I am speaking is, indeed, positively against her. But is it not an structure tutorial unjust, inhuman, and pernicious law? Unjust, because it makes no distinction between her who murders, and her who abandons her infant; inhuman, because it punishes with death a too great desire of concealing a weakness; pernicious, because it deprives the state of a fruitful subject, in a country that wants inhabitants. Charity hath not yet established, in that nation, houses of reception for exposed infants.
Where charity is wanting, the law is always cruel. It were much better to prevent, than to think only of punishing these frequent misfortunes. The proper object of jurisprudence is, to hinder the commission of crimes, rather than condemn to death a weak woman, when it is evident that her transgression was unattended with malice, and that she hath already been severely punished by the pangs of her own heart. Edition: current; Page: [ 166 ] Insure, as far as possible, a resource to teacher interview those who shall be tempted to do evil, and thesis, you will have less to punish. This misfortune, and this very hard law, with which I was so sensibly affected, prompted me to cast my eyes on the criminal code of nations. The humane author of the Essay on teacher essay, Crimes and statement, Punishments, had but too much cause to complain, that the latter frequently exceed the former, and are sometimes detrimental to the state they were intended to serve. Those ingenious punishments, the ne plus ultra of the human mind, endeavouring to render death horrible, seem rather the inventions of interview questions, tyranny than of justice. The punishment of the wheel was first introduced in Germany in the times of anarchy, when those who usurped the regal power resolved to Edition: current; Page: [ 167 ] terrify, with unheard-of torments, those who should dispute their authority. In England they ripped open the belly of a man guilty of high-treason, tore out fast food his heart, dashed it in his face, and teacher essay questions, then threw it into the fire.
And wherein did this high-treason frequently consist? In having been, during a civil war, faithful to an unfortunate king; or, in both sides punishment having spoken freely on the doubtful right of the conqueror. Teacher! At length, their manners were softened; they continued to tear out the heart, but not till after the death of the offender. The apparatus is dreadful, but the death is mild, if death can ever be mild. CHAPTER III.: ON THE PUNISHMENT OF HERETICS. The denunciation of death to those who, in page paper certain dogmas, differed from the established church, was peculiarly the act of tyranny. No Christian emperor, before the interview questions tyrant Maximus, ever thought of example research, condemning a man to teacher essay punishment Edition: current; Page: [ 168 ] merely for points of controversy. It is true, indeed, that two Spanish bishops pursued to death the Priscilianists under Maximus; but it is both punishment essays, also true, that this tyrant was willing to gratify the reigning party with the blood of heretics. Barbarity and justice were to him indifferent. Jealous of Theodosius, a Spaniard like himself, he endeavoured to deprive him of the empire of the East, as he had already obtained that of the West.
Theodosius was hated for his cruelties; but he had found the means of gaining to his party the heads of the church. Maximus was willing to display the same zeal, and to attach the Spanish bishops to his faction. He flattered both the old and the new religion; he was as treacherous as inhuman, as indeed were all those who at that time either pretended to, or obtained empire. That vast part of the teacher interview essay world was then governed like Algiers at present. Emperors were created and dethroned by the military power, and were often chosen from among nations that were reputed barbarous. Theodosius opposed to his competitor other barbarians from Scythia. Example Research! He filled the teacher essay army with Goths, and surprised Alaric the conqueror of Rome.
In this horrible confusion, each endeavoured to strengthen his party by every means in essay structure his power. Edition: current; Page: [ 169 ] Maximus having caused the Emperor Gratian, the colleague of Theodosius, to be assassinated at Lyons, meditated the destruction of Valentinian the second, who, during his infancy, had been made successor to Gratian. He assembled at Treves a powerful army, composed of Gauls and interview, Germans. He caused troops to essay about fast food be levied in Spain, when two Spanish bishops, Idacio and Ithacus, or Itacius, both men of credit, came and demanded of him the blood of Priscilian, and all his adherents, who were of opinion, that souls were emanations from God; that the Trinity did not contain three hypostases; and moreover, they carried their sacrilege so far as to fast on Sundays. Teacher Interview Essay Questions! Maximus, half Pagan, and cover letter outline, half Christian, soon perceived the enormity of these crimes. The holy bishops, Idacio and Itacius, obtained leave to torture Priscilian and his accomplices before they were put to death. They were both present, that things might be done according to order, and they returned blessing God, and numbering Maximus, the defender of the faith, among the teacher interview essay questions saints. But Maximus being afterward defeated by Theodosius, and assassinated at the feet of page for research paper apa, his conqueror, had not the interview essay questions good fortune to be canonized.
It is proper to of capital punishment observe, that Saint Martin, Edition: current; Page: [ 170 ] bishop of questions, Tours, who was really a good man, solicited the pardon of Priscilian; but being himself accused of thesis statement, heresy by the bishops, he returned to Tours, for teacher interview essay fear of the torture at Treves. As to Priscilian, he had the consolation, after he was hanged, of being honoured by his sect as a martyr. His feast was celebrated, and of outline for a research, would be celebrated still, if there were any Priscilianists remaining. This example made the entire church tremble; but it was soon after imitated and surpassed. Priscilianists had been put to death by teacher interview questions, the sword, the halter, and by lapidation. A young lady of quality, suspected to have fasted on reference paper apa, a Sunday, was at Bourdeaux only stoned to death. These punishments appeared too mild; it was proved that God required that heretics should be roasted alive. The peremptory argument, in support of this opinion was, that God punishes them in that manner in the next world, and that every prince, or his representative, even down to a petty constable, is the image of teacher interview essay questions, God in this sublunary world. On this principle it was, that all over Europe they burnt witches and essay tutorial, sorcerers, who were manifestly under the empire of the devil; and also heterodox Christians, which were deemed still more criminal and dangerous. Edition: current; Page: [ 171 ] It is interview questions, not certainly known, what was the crime of those priests who were burnt at Orleans in the presence of king Robert and his wife Constantia, in the year 1022.
How indeed should it be known? there being, at about fast and healthy that time, but a small number of clerks and monks that could write. All we certainly know is, that Robert and his wife feasted their eyes with this abominable spectacle. One of the sectaries had been confessor to her majesty, who thought she could not better repair the misfortune of having confessed to a heretic, than by seeing him devoured by the flames. Custom becomes law; from that period to the present time, a space of more than seven hundred years, the church hath continued to burn those that are guilty, or supposed guilty, of an error in opinion. CHAPTER IV.: ON THE EXTIRPATION OF HERESY. It seems necessary to distinguish an heresy of opinion from faction.
From the first ages of teacher essay, Christianity opinions have been different. The Christians of Alexandria were, in many points, of a different opinion from those of Antioch. The Achaians differed from the Asiatics. This diversity of opinion existed from the beginning, and probably will continue for ever. Jesus Christ, who could have united all the faithful in the same sentiments, did it not; and therefore we may conclude that it was not his design; but that he chose rather to exercise all his churches in acts of indulgence and tutorial, charity, by interview, permitting different systems, yet all agreeing to acknowledge him their lord and master. These several sects, so long as they were tolerated by the emperors, or concealed from their sight, had it not in thesis their power to interview prosecute each other, being equally subject to the Roman magistrates; they could only dispute. If they were persecuted, they equally Edition: current; Page: [ 173 ] claimed the engineering cover privilege of nature: #x201C;Suffer us,#x201D; they said, #x201C;to adore our God in questions peace, and do not refuse us the liberty you grant to thesis the Jews:#x201D; Every sect may now urge the same argument to their oppressors.
They may say to those who want privileges to the Jews; #x201C;Treat us as you treat the sons of Jacob; let us, like them, pray to God according to our conscience. Our opinion will no more injure your state, than Judaism. You tolerate the enemies of questions, Jesus Christ, tolerate us who adore him, and cover, who differ from you only in interview essay questions theological subtleties. Do not deprive yourselves of useful subjects; useful in your manufactures, your marine, and the cultivation of structure, your lands. Of what importance is it, that their creed be somewhat different from yours? You want their labour, and not their catechism?#x201D; Faction is quite a different thing. It always happens, that a persecuted sect degenerates into faction. The oppressed naturally unite and animate each other; and are generally more industrious in teacher essay questions strengthening their party, than their persecutors in their extermination. They must either destroy or be destroyed. So it happened after the persecution excited in 304, by Galerius, in the two last years of Dioclesian.
The Christians, having been favoured by that emperor Edition: current; Page: [ 174 ] during eighteen years, were become too numerous and too rich to be exterminated. They joined Chlorus; they fought for his son Constantine, and a total revolution of the empire was the consequence. Small events may be compared with great, when they are produced by the same spirit. Revolutions of statement, a similar kind happened in Holland, in Scotland, and in Switzerland. When Ferdinand and Isabella drove the Jews out of Spain, where they were established not only before the reigning family, but before the Moors, the Goths, or even the Carthaginians; if the Jews had been as warlike as they were rich, they might easily, in conjunction with the Arabs, have effected a revolution. In short, no sect ever changed the government, unless excited by essay questions, despair. Mahomed himself succeeded only because he was driven from Mecca, and research paper, a reward offered for his head. Would you prevent a sect from overturning the state, imitate the questions present wise conduct of England, of Germany, of Holland; use toleration. Sides Essays! The only methods, in policy, to be taken with a new sect, are, to put to death the chief and all his adherents, men, women, and children, without sparing one individual; or to tolerate them, when Edition: current; Page: [ 175 ] numerous. The first method is that of a monster; the second of a wise man.
Chain your subjects to the state by their interest. Questions! Let the Quaker and the Turk find their advantage in living under your laws. Religion is page, of God to man; the civil law is of you to your people. Lewis IX. king of France, who for his virtues was numbered among the saints, made a law against blasphemers. Teacher Interview Essay Questions! He condemned them to a new punishment; their tongues were pierced with a hot iron. It was a kind of retaliation; the sinning member suffering the punishment. But it was somewhat difficult to determine what was blasphemy. Expressions frequently escape from essay about food and healthy, a man in teacher questions a passion, from joy, or even in conversation, which are merely expletives, such as the sela and the vab of the Hebrews, the pol and essay about, the Edition: current; Page: [ 176 ] #xE6;depol of the interview essay Latins, as also per Deos immortales, an expression frequently used, without the least intention of swearing by the immortal gods. The words which are called oaths and blasphemy, are commonly vague terms that may be variously interpreted. The law by which they are punished, seems to be founded on that of the Jews, which says: Thou shalt not take the statement deffinition name of the Lord thy God in vain.
The best commentators are of opinion, that this commandment relates to perjury; and there is the more reason to believe them right, as the word shave, which is translated in vain, properly signifies perjury. Now, what analogy can there be between perjury and Cabo de Dios, Cadedis, Sangbleu, Ventrebleu, Corpo de Dio, etc.? It was customary with the Jews to swear by the life of God, as the Lord liveth: the phrase was common; so that it was lying in essay questions the name of God that was forbidden. Philip Augustus, in cover outline 1181, condemned the nobility who should pronounce the words which are softened in the terms Tetebleu, Ventrebleu, Corbleu, Sangbleu, to pay a fine, and the plebeians to be drowned. The first part of this law seems puerile, the latter abominable.
It was an outrage to teacher interview questions nature, to drown one man for a crime for which another paid a few pence of the money of those Edition: current; Page: [ 177 ] times. So that this law, like many other, remained unexecuted, especially when the king was excommunicated, and his kingdom interdicted by Pope Celestine III. Saint Lewis, transported with zeal, ordered indiscriminately, that whosoever should pronounce these indecent words, should have his tongue bored, or his upper lip cut off. A citizen of Paris, having suffered this punishment, complained to Pope Innocent IV. This pontiff remonstrated to reference apa the king that the essay punishment was too great for the crime, which however had no effect upon his majesty. Happy had it been for mankind, if the popes had never affected any other superiority over kings. The ordinance of Lewis XIV. And Healthy! says, #x201C;Those who shall be convicted of having sworn by, or blasphemed the holy name of God, of his most holy mother, or of his saints, shall, for the first offence, pay a fine; for interview essay the second, third, and fourth, a double, triple, and quadruple fine; for the fifth, shall be put in the stocks; for the sixth, shall stand in structure tutorial the pillory, and lose his upper lip; for the seventh, shall have his tongue cut out.#x201D; This law appears to be humane and just, as it inflicts a cruel punishment only on a seven-fold repetition, which can hardly be presumed. Edition: current; Page: [ 178 ] But with regard to more atrocious profanations, which are called Sacrilege, the criminal ordinance mentions only robbing of churches; it takes no notice of public impieties, perhaps because they were not supposed to happen, or were too difficult to specify.
They are left therefore to the discretion of the judge; and yet nothing ought to be left to discretion. In such extraordinary cases, how is the judge to act? He should consider the age of the offender, the nature and teacher questions, degree of his offence, and particularly the necessity of a public example. Pro qualitate person#xE6;, quoque rei conditione et temporis et #xE6;tatis et sexus, vel clementius statuendum. If the law does not expressly say that such a crime shall be punished with death, what judge shall think himself authorised to pronounce that sentence? If the law be silent; if nevertheless a punishment be required, the judge ought certainly, without hesitation, to decree the least severe, because he is a man.
Sacrilegious profanations are never committed except by young debauchees. Would you punish them as severely as if they had murdered a brother? Their youth pleads in their favour. They are not suffered to dispose of their possessions, because they are supposed to page want maturity Edition: current; Page: [ 179 ] of judgment, sufficient to foresee the consequences of an teacher questions imprudent transaction. Is it not therefore natural to suppose, that they are incapable of cover, foreseeing the teacher interview consequences of essay and healthy food, their impiety? Would you treat a wild young man, who, in his phrenzy, had profaned a sacred image, without stealing it, with the same rigour that you punished a Brinvilliers, who poisoned his father and his whole family? There is no law against the unhappy youth, and you are determined to make one that shall condemn him to the severest punishment! He deserved chastisement, but did he deserve such excruciating torture, and the most horrible death? But he had offended God! True, most grievously. Imitate God in interview essay questions your proceedings against him.
If he be penitent, God forgives him. Impose a penance, and let him be pardoned. Your illustrious Montesquieu hath said: It is our duty to honour the Deity, and not to revenge him. Let us weigh these words. They do not mean, that we should neglect the maintenance of public decorum; but, as the judicious author of the preceding Essay observes, that it is absurd for an insect to pretend to revenge the Supreme Being. A village magistrate, or the magistrate of a city, is neither a Moses nor a Joshua. CHAPTER VI.: OF THE INDULGENCE OF THE ROMANS IN MATTERS OF RELIGION. The amazing contrast between the fast and healthy Roman laws, and the barbarous institutions by which they were succeeded, hath often been the interview essay questions subject of essay fast, conversation among the speculative part of mankind. Doubtless the Roman senate held the supreme God in as great veneration as we; and professed as much esteem for their secondary deities as we for our saints.
Ab Jove principium was their common formule. Pliny, in his panegyric on the good Trajan, attests, that the interview Romans never omitted to begin their discourse and affairs by invoking the Deity. Cicero and Livy tell us the same thing. No people were more religious; but they were too wise, and too great, to descend to the punishment of idle language or philosophic opinions. They were incapable of inflicting barbarous punishments on those who, with Cicero, himself an augur, had no faith in auguries; or Edition: current; Page: [ 181 ] on those who, like C#xE6;sar, asserted in full senate, that the gods do not punish men after death. It hath often been remarked that the senate permitted the chorus in the Troad to sing, There is nothing after death, and death itself is nothing. You ask, what becomes of the dead?
They are where they were ere they were born. * Was ever profanation more flagrant than this? From Ennius to Ausonius all his profanation, notwithstanding the respect for divine worship. Why were these things disregarded by the senate? Because they did not, in any wise, affect the government of the deffinition state; because they disturbed no institution, nor religious ceremony. The police of the Romans was nevertheless excellent; they were nevertheless absolute masters of the best part of the teacher essay questions world, till the reign of Theodosius the second. It was a maxim of the Romans, Deorum offens#xE6;, Diis cur#xE6;, Offences against essay about fast and healthy, the gods concern the gods only. The senate, by the wisest institution, being at interview essay questions the head of religion, were under no apprehensions that a convocation of priests should force them to revenge the priesthood under a pretext of revenging Heaven. They never said, let us tear the impious asunder, lest we ourselves Edition: current; Page: [ 182 ] be deemed impious; let us shew the about fast food and healthy food priesthood, by our cruelty, that we are no less religious than they. But our religion is more holy than that of the Romans, and consequently impiety is a greater crime.
Granted. God will punish it. The part of man is, to punish that which is criminal in teacher interview essay questions the public disorder which the impiety hath occasioned. But if in the act of impiety the delinquent hath not even stolen a handkerchief; if the ceremonies of religion have been in no wise disturbed, shall we, as I said before, punish the impiety as we would punish parricide? The Marshal d#x2019;Ancre had caused a white cock to be killed when the moon was at full: ought we therefore to burn the Marshal D#x2019;Ancre? Est modus in rebus, sunt certi denique fines; Nec scutica dignum horribili sectere flagello. CHAPTER VII.: ON THE CRIME OF PREACHING; AND OF ANTHONY. A Calvanist teacher, who, in certain provinces, preaches to his flock, if he be detected, is punished with death; and those who have given him a supper, or a bed, are sent to the gallies for life. In other countries, if a Jesuit be caught preaching, he is hanged. Is it to avenge God that this Calvinist and this Jesuit are put to death?
Have both parties built upon the following Evangelical law? If he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican. But the Evangelist does not order that this heathen and this publican should be hanged. Or have they built on this passage in Deuteronomy:* If among you a prophet arise; and that which he hath said come to pass; and he sayeth unto you, let us follow strange gods; and if thy brother, or thy son, or thy wife, or the essay friend of thy heart, say unto thee, Come, let us follow strange gods: let them Edition: current; Page: [ 184 ] be straightways killed, strike thou first, and all the people after thee. But neither this Jesuit nor the Calvanist said unto you, Come, let us follow strange gods. The counsellor Dubourg, the monk Jehan Chouvin, named Calvin, the Spanish physician Servetus, the Calabrian Gentilis, all worshipped the same God: and yet the president Minard caused counsellor Dubourg to be burnt; and teacher interview questions, Dubourg#x2019;s friends caused president Minard to be assassinated; Jehan Calvin caused the physician Servetus to be roasted; and had likewise the consolation to be a principal means of bringing the Calabrian Gentilis to the block; and the successors of Jehan Calvin burnt Anthony. Was it reason, or piety, or justice, that committed these murders? This history of Anthony is one of the most singular which the essay structure tutorial annals of phrenzy hath preserved. I read the following account in a very curious manuscript; it is in part related by Jacob Spon. Anthony was born at Brieu in Lorrain, of catholic parents, and he was educated by the Jesuits at Pont a Mousson. The preacher Feri engaged him in the protestant religion at interview essay questions Metz.
Having returned to of capital Nancy he was prosecuted as Edition: current; Page: [ 185 ] a heretic, and, had he not been saved by a friend, would certainly have been hanged. He fled for refuge to Sedan, where, being taken for a Papist, he narrowly escaped assassination. Seeing by interview, what strange fatality his life was not in safety, either among Papists or Protestants, he went to Venice and essay, turned Jew. He was positively persuaded, even to the last moments of his life, that the religion of the Jews was the only true religion; for interview essay that, if it was once true, it must always be so. The Jews did not circumcise him, for fear of offending the state; but he was no less internally a Jew. Of Capital Punishment! He now went to Geneva, where, concealing his faith, he became a preacher, was president of the college, and teacher interview questions, finally what is called a minister.
The perpetual combat in his breast between the religion of Calvin, which he was obliged to preach, and that of Moses, which was the both sides of capital punishment only religion he believed, produced a long illness. He became melancholy, and at last quite mad, crying aloud, that he was a Jew. The ministers of the gospel came to visit him, and essay questions, endeavoured to bring him to himself; but he answered, #x201C;that he adored none but the God of Israel; that it was impossible for God to change; that God could never have given a law, and inscribed it with his Edition: current; Page: [ 186 ] own hand, with an intention that it should be abolished.#x201D; He spoke against Christianity, and afterwards retracted all he had said, and even wrote his confession of faith, to sides essays escape punishment; but the unhappy persuasion of his heart would not permit him to sign it. The council of the city assembled the clergy, to consult what was to be done with the unfortunate Anthony. The minority of teacher interview, these clergy were of about fast and healthy, opinion, that they should have compassion on him, and rather endeavour to cure his disease than punish him. The majority determined that he should be burnt, and he was burnt. This transaction is of the year 1632.* A hundred years of reason and virtue are scarce sufficient to teacher essay questions expiate such a deed. CHAPTER VIII.: THE HISTORY OF SIMON MORIN. The tragical end of Simon Morin is not less horrible than that of poor Anthony. It was midst the feasting, pleasures, and gallantry of a brilliant court; it was even in essays the times of the greatest licentiousness, that this unfortunate madman was burnt at Paris, in interview questions the year 1663.
Imagining that he had seen visions, he carried his folly so far, as to believe that he was sent from God, and that he was incorporated with Jesus Christ. The Parliament very wisely condemned him to be confined in essay structure tutorial a mad-house. What was very remarkable, there happened to teacher questions be confined in the same mad-house another fool, who called himself God the Father. Simon Morin was so struck with the folly of his companion, that he acknowledged his own, and appeared for a time to have recovered his senses. He declared his repentance, and, unfortunately for himself, obtained his liberty. Edition: current; Page: [ 188 ] Some time after, he relapsed into his former nonsense, and began to dogmatize. His unhappy destiny brought him acquainted with St.
Sorlin Desmarets, who, for some months, was his friend, but who afterwards, from jealousy, became his most cruel persecutor. This Desmarets was no less a visionary than Morin. His first follies indeed were innocent. He printed the Tragi-Comedies of Erigone and reference page for research paper apa, Mirame, with a translation of the questions Psalms; the Romance of Ariane, and outline, the Poem of Clovis, with the office of the holy Virgin turned into verse. He likewise published dithyrambic poems, enriched with invectives against Homer and Virgil. From this kind of questions, follies he proceeded to others of a more serious nature.
He attacked Port-Royal, and after confessing that he had perverted some women to atheism, he commenced prophet. He pretended that God had given him, with his own hand, the key to the treasure of the Apocalypse, that with this key he would reform the whole world, and that he should command an army of an hundred and forty thousand men against the Jansenists. Nothing could have been more reasonable and more just, than to have confined him in the same place with Simon Morin; but can it be Edition: current; Page: [ 189 ] believed, that he found credit with the essay about fast food Jesuit Annat, the essay king#x2019;s confessor? whom he persuaded, that this poor Simon Morin would establish a sect almost as dangerous as the Jansenists themselves. In short, carrying his infamy so far as to turn informer, he obtained an order to seize the person of his rival. Page! Shall I tell it! Simon Morin was condemned to be burnt alive? In conducting him to the stake, there was found, in one of his stockings, a paper in which he begged forgiveness of God for all his errors.
This ought to have saved him; but no: the sentence was confirmed, and he was executed without mercy. Such deeds are enough to make a man#x2019;s hair bristle with horror. Yet where is the country that hath not beheld such shocking spectacles? Mankind universally forget that they are brothers, and persecute each other even to death. Let us console ourselves with the hope, that such dreadful times are passed, never more to return. In the year 1748, in the bishopric of teacher interview essay questions, Wurtsburg, an old woman was convicted of witchcraft and burnt. This was an extraordinary phenomenon in the present century. But how incredible it seems, that a people, who boasted of their reformation, and of having trampled superstition under their feet, and who flattered themselves that they had brought their reason to perfection; is it not wonderful, I say, that such a people should have believed in witchcraft; should have burnt old women accused of this crime, and that above a hundred years after the pretended reformation of their reason?. In the year 1652, a country woman, named Michelle Chaudron, of the little territory of Geneva, met the devil in her way from the city. The devil gave her a kiss, received her homage, and imprinted on her upper lip and on her right breast, the mark which he is wont to bestow upon his favourites.
This seal of the devil is a Edition: current; Page: [ 191 ] little sign upon the skin, which renders it insensible, as we are assured by all the both demonographical civilians of those times. The devil ordered Michelle Chaudron to bewitch two young girls. She obeyed her master punctually. The parents of the two girls accused her of dealing with the devil. Essay Questions! The girls, being confronted with the criminal, declared, that they felt a continual prickling in some parts of their bodies, and that they were possessed. Physicians were called, at least men that passed for physicians in those days. They visited the girls. Punishment Essays! They sought for the seal of the devil on the body of Michelle, which seal is teacher questions, called, in the verbal process, the Satanical mark. Into one of these marks they plunged a long needle, which was already no small torture. Blood issued from the both of capital essays wound, and Michelle testified by her cries that the teacher interview essay part was not insensible.
The judges not finding sufficient proof that Michelle Chaudron was a witch, ordered her to thesis deffinition be tortured, which infallibly produced the interview essay proof they wanted. The poor wretch, overcome by torment, confessed at last every thing they desired. The physicians sought again for the Satanical mark, and found it in a little black spot on both punishment essays, one of her thighs. Into this they plunged their Edition: current; Page: [ 192 ] needle. The poor creature, exhausted and almost expiring with the pain of the teacher essay torture, was insensible to the needle, and did not cry out. She was instantly condemned to be burnt; but the page for research paper world beginning at teacher this time to be a little more civilized, she was previously strangled. At this period every tribunal in Europe resounded with such judgments, and fire and faggot were universally employed against witchcraft as well as heresy. The Turks were reproached with having amongst them neither sorcerers, witches, nor demoniacs; and the want of the latter was considered as an infallible proof of the falsity of for research paper apa, their religion. A zealous friend to the public welfare, to humanity, and to true religion, in one of his writings in favour of innocence, informs us, that there have been above a hundred thousand witches condemned to die by Christian tribunals. If, to these lawful massacres, we add the much superior number of heretics sacrificed, our part of the globe will appear one vast scaffold covered with executioners and victims, and surrounded by judges, guards, and spectators.
CHAPTER X.: ON THE PUNISHMENT OF DEATH. It hath long since been observed, that a man after he is hanged is good for nothing, and that punishments invented for teacher interview questions the good of society, ought to be useful to society. It is evident, that a score of punishment, stout robbers, condemned for life to interview some public work, would serve the state in their punishment, and that hanging them is a benefit to nobody but the executioner. Thieves, in England, are seldom punished with death, but are transported to the colonies. This is deffinition, also practised in Russia, where not one criminal was executed during the whole reign of the autocratical Elisabeth. Catherine II. who hath succeeded her, with much more genius, follows her example; yet crimes are not multiplied by this humanity; and it generally happens that the criminals sent to Siberia in time become honest people. The same is essay, observed in the English colonies.
We are astonished at apa the change, and yet nothing can be more natural. The condemned are forced to Edition: current; Page: [ 194 ] continual labour for a livelihood. The opportunities of teacher, vice are wanting. They marry and multiply. Oblige men to work, and you certainly make them honest. It is well known, that atrocious crimes are not committed in the country, unless when there is too much holiday, and consequently too much idleness, and consequently too much debauchery.
The Romans never condemned a citizen to death, unless for crimes which concerned the about safety of the state. These our masters, our first legislators, were careful of the blood of their fellow-citizens; but we are extravagant with the blood of ours. The question hath been frequently debated, whether a judge ought to have the power to interview questions punish with death, when the punishment is undetermined by the law? This question was solemnly agitated in sides of capital punishment essays the presence of the Emperor Henry VII. who decreed that no judge should have such a power.* There are some criminal cases which are either so new, so complicated, and so unaccountable as to have escaped the provision of the laws, and which, therefore, in interview questions some countries are left to the discretion of the judge. But for one case in outline which the laws permit the death of a criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 195 ] whom they have not condemned, there are a thousand wherein humanity should save whom the laws have condemned to suffer. The sword of justice is in our hands, but we ought rather to blunt than to sharpen its edge. It remains within its sheath in the presence of kings, to inform us that it ought seldom to be drawn. There have been some judges who were passionately fond of spilling human blood; such was Jefferies in England, and such in France was the man whom they called Coupe-tete. Nature never intended such men for magistrates, but for executioners. Must we go to teacher the end of the world, must we have recourse to the laws of China, to learn how frugal we ought to be of human blood?
It is now more than four thousand years that the tribunals of that empire have existed; and it is also more than four thousand years that the of outline research paper Edition: current; Page: [ 196 ] meanest subject, at the extremity of the teacher interview essay empire, hath not been executed without first transmitting his case to the emperor, who causes it to be thrice examined by one of his tribunals; after which he signs the death warrant, alters the sentence, or entirely acquits. But it is unnecessary to travel so far for sides of capital essays examples of this nature; Europe will abundantly supply us. In England, no criminal is put to death, whose death warrant is not signed by the king. It is also practised in Germany, and in most parts of the north. Such likewise was formerly the custom in France, and such it ought to be in all polished nations. A sentence, at a distance from the essay throne, may be dictated by of outline for a paper, cabal, prejudice, or ignorance. Such little intrigues are unknown to monarchs, who are continually surrounded by great objects. The members of the interview essay questions supreme council are more enlightened, less liable to prejudice, and better qualified than a provincial judge, to determine whether the state require severe punishments. In short, when inferior courts have judged according to the letter of the law, which possibly may be rigorous, the council mitigates the sentence according to the true spirit of all laws, which teaches, never to sacrifice a man, but in evident necessity. All mankind being exposed to the attempts of violence or perfidy, detest the crimes of which they may possibly be the victims: all desire that the principal offender and his accomplices may be punished; nevertheless, there is a natural compassion in example for a research paper the human heart, which makes all men detest the cruelty of torturing the accused in order to extort confession.
The law has not condemned them, and yet, though uncertain of their crime, you inflict a punishment more horrible than that which they are to suffer when their guilt is confirmed. #x201C;Possibly thou mayst be innocent; but I will torture thee that I may be satisfied: not that I intend to make thee any recompence for the thousand deaths which I have made thee suffer, in lieu of that which is preparing for thee.#x201D; Who does not shudder at the idea? St. Augustin opposed such cruelty. The Romans tortured their slaves only; and Quintilian, recollecting that they Edition: current; Page: [ 198 ] were men, reproved the essay Romans for such want of humanity. If there were but one nation in the world which had abolished the use of torture; if in that nation crimes were no more frequent than in others; and if that nation be more enlightened and more flourishing since the abolition, its example surely were sufficient for the rest of the world. Essay About! England alone might instruct all other nations in essay questions this particular; but England is not the only nation. Torture hath been abolished in other countries, and with success; the essay fast food and healthy food question therefore is teacher interview essay questions, decided.
Shall not a people, who pique themselves on their politeness, pride themselves also on their humanity? Shall they obstinately persist in their inhumanity, merely because it is an ancient custom? Reserve, at deffinition least, such cruelty for the punishment of those hardened wretches, who shall have assassinated the father of interview essay, a family, or the father of his country; but that a young person, who commits a fault which leaves no traces behind it, should suffer equally with a parricide; is not this an useless piece of barbarity? I am ashamed of statement, having said any thing on this subject, after what hath been already said by teacher interview questions, the author of the Essay on Crimes and Punishments. Edition: current; Page: [ 199 ] I ought to example for a have been satisfied with wishing, that mankind may read with attention the work of that friend to interview questions humanity. CHAPTER XIII.: OF CERTAIN SANGUINARY TRIBUNALS. Is it credible, that there formerly existed a supreme tribunal more horrible than the Inquisition, and that this tribunal was established by Charlemagne? It was the judgment of Westphalia, otherwise called the Vhemic Court.
The severity, or rather cruelty, of this court, went so far as to punish with death, every Saxon who broke his fast during Lent. The same law was also established in structure Franche-Comte, in the beginning of the teacher interview essay questions seventeenth century. In the archives of a little place called St. Claude, situated in a remote corner of the most mountainous part of the county of Burgundy, are preserved the particulars of the sentence and verbal process of execution of a poor gentleman named Claude Edition: current; Page: [ 200 ] Guillon, who was beheaded on the 28th of outline, July, 1629. Being reduced to teacher interview essay questions the utmost poverty, and urged by the most intolerable hunger, he eat, on food and healthy, a fish-day, a morsel of horse flesh, which had been killed in a neighbouring field. This was his crime.
He was found guilty of sacrilege. Teacher Essay Questions! Had he been a rich man, and had spent two hundred crowns in a supper of sea-fish, suffering the poor to die of hunger, he would have been considered as a person fulfilling every duty. The following is a copy of his sentence: #x201C;Having seen all the papers of the process, and heard the opinions of the doctors learned in engineering letter the law, we declare the said Claude Guillon to be truly attainted and convicted of having taken away part of the flesh of a horse, killed in the meadow of interview questions, that town; of having caused the said flesh to be dressed, and of eating the punishment same on Saturday the 31st of March,#x201D; etc. What infamous doctors must these have been, who gave their opinions on this occasion? Was it among the Topinambous, or among the Hottentots, that these things happened? The Vhemic Court was yet more horrible.
Delegates from this court were secretly spread over all Germany, taking informations unknown to the accused, who were condemned without being heard; and frequently, Edition: current; Page: [ 201 ] in want of an essay executioner, the youngest judge performed the office himself.* It was requisite, in reference paper order to be safe from the interview questions assassination of structure, this court, to teacher essay questions procure letters of exemption from the emperor; and reference paper apa, even these were sometimes ineffectual. This chamber of assassins was not entirely abolished till the reign of Maximilian I. It ought to have been dissolved in the blood of its members. The Venetian Council of Ten was, in comparison with this, a court of teacher questions, mercy. What shall we think of such horrid proceedings? Is it sufficient to bewail humanity? There were some cases that cried aloud for vengeance. CHAPTER XIV.: ON THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN POLITICAL AND NATURAL LAWS. I call natural laws, those which nature dictates in all ages to essay fast all men, for the maintenance of that justice which she (say what they will of her) hath implanted in our hearts.
Theft, violence, homicide, ingratitude to teacher beneficent parents, perjury against innocence, conspiracies against one#x2019;s country, are crimes that are universally and justly punished, though with more or less severity. I call political laws, those that are made in compliance with present necessity, whether it be to give stability to the government, or to prevent misfortune. For example; being apprehensive that the enemy may receive intelligence from the inhabitants of the essay city, you shut the gates, and teacher interview essay questions, forbid any one to pass the ramparts on pain of death. Or, fearful of a new sect of essay tutorial, people, who publicly disclaim all obedience to their sovereign, Edition: current; Page: [ 203 ] and secretly consult of means to divest themselves of that obedience; who preach, that all men are equal, and that obedience is due to God alone; who, accusing the teacher reigning sect of superstition, mean to destroy that which is consecrated by the state; you denounce death against those who, in publicly dogmatizing in favour of this sect, may instigate the people to revolt. Or, two ambitious princes contend for a crown: the strongest gains the prize, and punishes with death the partizans of the engineering cover outline weaker. Interview! The judges become the instruments of vengeance of the new sovereign, and the supports of his authority.
When Richard the Third, the murderer of his two nephews, was acknowledged king of for a research paper, England, the essay questions jury found Sir William Collinburn guilty of having written to both sides essays a friend of the teacher interview essay Duke of Richmond, who was at that time raising an army, and who afterwards reigned by the name of Henry VII. They found two ridiculous lines of Sir William#x2019;s writing, which were sufficient to condemn him to for a research paper a horrible death. History abounds with such examples of justice. The right of reprisal is also a law adopted by nations. For example, your enemy has hanged one of your brave captains, for having defended an old ruined castle against a whole army. Teacher Questions! One Edition: current; Page: [ 204 ] of his captains falls into sides punishment essays your hands; he is interview, a worthy man, and you esteem him; nevertheless you hang him by engineering, way of reprisal. Teacher Interview Essay! You say it is the thesis law: that is to say, because your enemy has been guilty of an enormous crime, you must be guilty of another.
These political sanguinary laws exist but for a time; they are temporary, because they are not founded in truth. Teacher! They resemble the necessity which, in cases of extreme famine, obliges people to eat each other: they cease to eat men as soon as bread is to be had. CHAPTER XV.: ON THE CRIME OF HIGH-TREASON. ON TITUS OATES, AND ON THE DEATH OF AUGUSTIN DE THOU. High-treason is an offence committed against the security of the commonwealth, or of the king its representative. It is considered as parricide, and therefore ought not to be extended to offences which bear no analogy to that crime. Edition: current; Page: [ 205 ] In making it high-treason to commit a theft in any house belonging to the state, or even to speak seditious words, you lessen the horror which the crime of high-treason ought to inspire. In our ideas of great crimes, there should be nothing arbitrary. If a theft from, or imprecation against, a father be considered as parricide, you break the engineering cover outline bond of filial piety; the son will then regard his parent as a terrible monster. Every exaggeration in a law tends to its destruction. In common crimes, the laws of England are favourable to the accused; but in cases of high-treason they are against him.
The Jesuit Titus Oates being legally interrogated in the House of Commons, and having upon his oath declared, that he had related the whole truth, yet afterwards accused the secretary of the Duke of York, and several others, of high-treason, and his information was admitted. He likewise swore before the questions king#x2019;s council, that he had not seen the secretary, and afterwards that he had. Notwithstanding these illegalities and contradictions, the secretary was executed. The same Titus Oates and another witness deposed, that fifty Jesuits had conspired to assassinate Charles II. and that they had seen commissions, Edition: current; Page: [ 206 ] signed by father Oliva, general of the Jesuits, for the officers that were to command an army of rebels. This evidence was sufficient to authorize the tearing out the hearts of several people, and paper apa, dashing them in their faces. But seriously, can two witnesses be thought sufficient to convict a man whom they have a mind to destroy? At least one would imagine they ought not to be notorious villains; neither ought that which they depose to be improbable. Let us suppose that two of the most upright magistrates in the kingdom were to accuse a man of having conspired with the Mufti, to circumcise the whole Council of State, the Parliament, the Archbishop and the Sorbonne; in vain these two magistrates might swear, that they had seen the letters of the Mufti: it would naturally be supposed that they were wrong in their heads. It was equally ridiculous to imagine, that the general of the Jesuits should raise an army in England, as that the Mufti intended to circumcise the Court of France.
But unhappily Titus Oates was believed; that there might remain no species of atrocious folly, which hath not entered into the heart of man. The laws of England do not consider as guilty of interview essay, conspiracy those who are privy to it, and statement, do Edition: current; Page: [ 207 ] not inform. They suppose the informer as infamous as the essay questions conspirator is culpable. In France, if any one be privy to a conspiracy, and does not reveal it, he is punished with death. Lewis XI. against whom conspiracies were frequent, made this law; a law which a Lewis XII. or a Henry IV. could never have imagined. Structure Tutorial! It not only obliges an honest man to teacher interview divulge a crime, which, by his resolution and advice, he might possibly prevent; but it renders him liable to be punished as a calumniator, it being easy for the accused to manage their affairs in such a manner as to elude conviction.
This was exactly the case of the truly respectable Augustin de Thou, counsellor of reference paper, state, and son of the only good historian of which France can boast; equal to Guicciardini in point of abilities, and perhaps superior in point of impartiality. This conspiracy was against teacher interview, Cardinal de Richelieu, rather than against essay, Lewis XIII. The design was not to betray France to an enemy; for teacher essay the king#x2019;s brother, who was the principal author of the plot, could never intend to betray a kingdom to which he was the presumptive heir, there being only between him and the crown a dying brother, and two children in the cradle. Edition: current; Page: [ 208 ] De Thou was neither guilty in the sight of God nor man. One of the agents of the king#x2019;s brother, of the Duke of Bouillon, sovereign prince of Sedan, and example of outline research paper, of the grand Equerry d#x2019;Effiat St. Mars, had communicated their intention to de Thou, who immediately went to St. Mars, and endeavoured to interview essay questions dissuade him from the enterprize.
If he had informed against him, he had no proof, and both sides of capital punishment essays, must inevitably have fallen a sacrifice to the resentment of the presumptive heir of a sovereign prince, of the king#x2019;s favourite, and to public execration. In short, he would have been punished as a malignant calumniator. The chancellor Seguier was convinced of this in confronting de Thou with the grand Equerry, when de Thou asked the latter the teacher interview essay following question: #x201C;Do you not remember, Sir, that there never passed a day, in which I did not endeavour to dissuade you from the attempt?#x201D; St. Mars acknowledged it to be true. Of Outline For A! So that de Thou deserved a recompence, rather than death, from a tribunal of Equity. He certainly deserved to have been saved by Cardinal Richelieu; but humanity was not his virtue. There is in this case something more than summum jus summa injuria. In the sentence of this worthy man we read, #x201C;for having had knowledge and participation Edition: current; Page: [ 209 ] of the said conspiracy.#x201D; It does not say for not having revealed. So that his crime was, his having been informed of a crime; and he was punished for having had ears and eyes. All that we can say in extenuation of the severity is, that it was not the act of Justice herself, but of a delegated power. Interview! The letter of the deffinition law was positive; but I appeal not only to interview questions the lawyers, but to all mankind, whether the spirit of the law was not perverted?
It is a melancholy absurdity, that a small number of people should condemn as criminal, a man judged innocent by a whole nation, and worth their esteem! CHAPTER XVI.: OF RELIGIOUS CONFESSION. Jaurigny and Balthazar Gerard, who assassinated William I. Prince of Orange; Clement the Dominican, Chatel, Ravaillac, and all the other parricides of those times, went to confession before they committed their crimes. Fanaticism, Edition: current; Page: [ 210 ] in that deplorable age, was carried to engineering letter outline such excess, that confession was an additional engagement to the perpetration of villainy; an engagement deemed sacred, because confession is a sacrament. Strada himself says, that Jaurigny non ante facinus aggredi sustinuit quam expiatam necis animam apud Dominicanum sacerdotem c#xE6;lesti pane firmaverit. It appears in the interrogatory of teacher essay, Ravaillac that coming from the Feuillants, and going towards the Jesuits college, he addressed himself to the Jesuit d#x2019;Aubigny; that after talking to him of several apparitions which he had seen, he shewed him a knife, on the blade of which was engraved a heart and structure tutorial, a cross; and teacher interview, that he said, this heart signifies, that the heart of the thesis statement deffinition king should be induced to make war against the Huguenots. If this d#x2019;Aubigny had informed the king of these words, and described the man, the best of kings might possibly have escaped assassination. On the 20th of August, 1610, three months after the death of Henry IV. whose wounds were yet bleeding in the hearts of his subjects, the advocate-general Servin, of illustrious memory, required that the Jesuits should be obliged to sign the teacher interview essay questions four following articles: I. That the Council is superior to fast food the Pope.
Edition: current; Page: [ 211 ] II. Teacher Interview Questions! That the Pope cannot deprive the king of any of his rights by excommunication. III. That the cover letter outline ecclesiastics are, like other people, entirely subject to the king. IV. That a priest who, by confession, is apprized of a conspiracy against the king or the state, should reveal it to the magistrates.
On the 22d, the parliament published an arret, forbidding the Jesuits to instruct youth, until they had signed those four articles. But the court of Rome was at that time so powerful, and teacher, that of France so weak, that the arret was disregarded. It is worth notice, that this court of essay about and healthy, Rome, which would not suffer confession to be revealed when the life of a sovereign was concerned, obliged the confessors to inform the Inquisition in teacher questions case any female should accuse another priest of having seduced or attempted to reference page apa seduce her. Paul IV. Pius IV.
Clement VIII. and Gregory XV. ordered this revelation. It was a dangerous snare both for the confessor and the penitent. It was converting a sacrament into a register of accusations and sacrilege; for by the ancient canons, and particularly by the Lateran council, under Innocent III. every confessor who reveals confession, of whatsoever nature it may be, shall be interdicted and imprisoned for interview essay life. Edition: current; Page: [ 212 ] Thus we see four different Popes, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, ordering the revelation of a sin of impurity, and forbidding it in cases of for research paper, parricide. A woman confesses, or supposes in her confession to interview a Carmelite, that a Cordelier attempted to thesis seduce her; the Carmelite must impeach the Cordelier.
A fanatical assassin, believing that he shall serve God by killing his prince, consults his confessor on interview, this case of conscience; the page for research apa confessor is guilty of sacrilege if he save the life of his sovereign. This horrible absurdity is one of the unhappy consequences of the continual opposition, which hath subsisted for so many ages, between the essay ecclesiastical and reference page for research, civil law. Mankind have in a thousand instances been suspended between the crimes of sacrilege and high-treason, and the distinctions of right and wrong have been buried in a chaos, from which they are not yet emerged. Confession of sins hath been authorised in all times and in all nations. The ancients accused themselves in the mysteries of Orpheus, of Isis, of Ceres, of Samothrace.
The Jews confessed their sins on the day of solemn expiation, and still continue the same practice. Each penitent chuses his confessor, who becomes his penitent in turn, and interview questions, each receives from his companion Edition: current; Page: [ 213 ] thirty-nine lashes whilst he is repeating, three times, the formule of confession, which consists only in thirteen words, and which consequently must be general. None of these confessions were particular, and consequently could never serve for a pretence to engineering cover outline those secret consultations, under the shadow of which fanatical penitents think to interview questions sin with impunity; a pernicious practice, by which a salutary institution is essay structure, corrupted. Confession, which was intended as a curb to iniquity, hath frequently, in times of confusion and interview essay questions, seduction, become an incentive to wickedness. Probably it was for this reason, that so many Christian states have abolished a holy institution, which appeared to be as dangerous as useful. The crime of coining false money is deemed high-treason in the second degree, and justly.
To rob all the people is to be a traitor to the state. But it is example research, asked whether a merchant who imports ingots of gold from America, and privately converts them into teacher interview questions good money, be guilty of high-treason, and merit death? which is the punishment annexed to this crime in almost all countries. Nevertheless, he has robbed nobody; on the contrary, he has done service to the state by increasing the page apa currency. But he hath defrauded the king of the small profit upon the coin. He hath indeed coined good money; but he hath led others into the temptation of coining bad. Yet death is a severe punishment. I knew a lawyer who was of opinion, that such a criminal should be condemned, as a useful hand, to work in teacher interview questions the royal mint, with irons to his legs. In countries where a trifling domestic theft, or breach of trust, is punished with death, is engineering, not the disproportioned punishment dangerous to society? Is it not even an encouragement to larceny? If, in this case, a master prosecutes his servant, and the unhappy wretch suffer death, the whole neighbourhood hold the master in abhorrence: they perceive that the law is contrary to nature, and consequently that it is a bad law. What is the teacher essay questions result?
Masters, to avoid opprobrium, content themselves with discharging the tutorial thief, who afterwards steals from another, and gradually becomes familiar with dishonesty. The punishment being the same for a small theft as for teacher interview essay a greater, he will naturally steal as much as he can, and at last will not scruple to turn assassin to prevent detection. If, on essay tutorial, the contrary, the punishment be proportioned to the crime; if those who are guilty Edition: current; Page: [ 216 ] of a breach of trust be condemned to labour for the public, the master will not hesitate to bring the interview offender to justice, and the crime will be less frequent: so true it is, that rigorous laws are often productive of crimes. The celebrated Du Verger de Hauranne, Abb#xE8; de St. Cyran, one of the founders of Port Royal, in the year 1608, wrote a treatise on suicide, which is become one of the scarcest books in Europe. #x201C;The Decalogue,#x201D; says that author, #x201C;forbids us to commit murder; in which precept self-murder seems no less to be understood, than the murder of another: if, therefore, there be cases in which it is lawful to kill another, there may be cases also wherein suicide may be allowed. But a man ought not to attempt his own life, till after having consulted his reason. Public Edition: current; Page: [ 217 ] authority, which is the representative of God, may dispose of our lives. The reason of man may also represent that of the paper apa Deity, it being a ray of the eternal light.#x201D;
St. Cyran extends his argument to a great length, which after all is a mere sophism. But when he comes to interview essay exemplify, he is not quite so easily answered. #x201C;A man may kill himself,#x201D; says he, #x201C;for the good of his prince, for the good of his country, or for the good of his parents.#x201D; It does not appear, that we could with justice condemn a Codrus, or a Curtius. Statement Deffinition! What prince would dare to punish the family of a man who had sacrificed himself for his service? Or rather, is there any prince who would dare not to reward them. St. Thomas, before St. Cyran, said the same thing. But there was no need of either of Thomas, of Bonaventure, nor of Huranne, to inform us, that a man who dies for his country deserves our praise.
St. Cyran concludes, that it is teacher essay questions, lawful to do for one#x2019;s own sake, that which is praise-worthy if done for another. The arguments of Plutarch, of Seneca, of of outline for a research paper, Montaigne, and a hundred others, are well known. I do not pretend to apologise for an action which the interview essay laws have condemned; but I do not recollect, that either the Old or Edition: current; Page: [ 218 ] New Testament forbid a man to relinquish his life, when it is thesis statement deffinition, no longer supportable. By the Roman laws, suicide was not forbidden; on the contrary, in a law of Mark Antony, which was never repealed, we find it thus written: #x201C;If your brother or your father, being convicted of no crime, hath put himself to death, either to avoid pain, or being weary of life, or from despair or madness, his will shall nevertheless be valid, or his heirs inherit according to law.#x201D; Notwithstanding this humane law of our ancient masters, we ordain, that a stake shall be driven through the corps of the offender, and his memory becomes infamous. We do all in our power to dishonour his family. We punish a son for interview questions having lost a father, and a widow because she is deprived of her husband.
We even confiscate the effects of the deceased, and rob the living of that which is justly their due. Essay Structure! This custom, with many others, is derived from our canon law, which denies Christian burial to those who are guilty of suicide, concluding thence, that it is not lawful to inherit on earth from one who hath himself no inheritance in heaven. The cannon law assures us, that Judas committed a greater crime in teacher essay questions hanging himself, than in betraying Jesus Christ. CHAPTER XX.: ON A CERTAIN SPECIES OF MUTILATION. We find, in the Pandect, a law of Adrian, which denounces death to thesis statement the physicians who should make an eunuch, either by castration or by teacher interview questions, bruising the testes. Example Of Outline! By the same law, the possessions of interview essay, those who suffered castration were confiscated. Origen ought certainly to have been punished, who submitted to this operation, from the both sides of capital punishment rigid interpretation of that passage in St. Matthew, which says, There be eunuchs, which have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven#x2019;s sake. Things changed in the reigns of succeeding emperors, who adopted the luxury of Asia; especially in the lower empire of Constantinople, where eunuchs became patriarchs and teacher essay, generals of armies. In these our own times, it is the custom at Rome to castrate young children, to render them worthy of being musicians to his Holiness; so that Castrato and Musico del Papa are synonimous. It is page for research apa, not long since you might have seen at Naples, Edition: current; Page: [ 220 ] written in great letters over the doors of certain barbers, Qui si castrano mar avigliosamente i puti: here boys are castrated in the best manner.
It is a maxim received at the bar, that he who forfeits his life forfeits his effects; a maxim which prevails in those countries where custom serves instead of law. So that, as we have already observed, the children of teacher essay questions, one who puts an end to his own life, are condemned to perish with hunger, equally with those of an assassin. Thus, in every case, a whole family is punished for the crime of an individual. Thus when the father of a family is condemned to the gallies for life, by an arbitrary sentence, whether it be for having harboured a preacher, or for hearing his sermon in a cavern or a desert, his wife and children are reduced to beg their bread. That law which consists in depriving an orphan Edition: current; Page: [ 221 ] of support, and in giving to one man the possessions of another, was unknown in the times of the Roman republic. Engineering Cover Outline! It was first introduced by Sylla, in questions his proscriptions, whose example one would scarce have thought worthy imitation. About Fast Food Food! Nor indeed was this law adopted by Cesar, by Trajan, or by Antoninus, whose name is still pronounced with respect by all nations; and under Justinian, confiscation took place only in case of high-treason.
It seems that, in the times of feudal anarchy, princes and lords not being very rich, sought to increase their revenue by the condemnation of their subjects. Their laws being arbitrary, and the Roman jurisprudence unknown, customs either cruel or ridiculous prevailed. But now that the power of princes is founded on immense and certain revenues, there can be no need to swell their treasuries with the inconsiderable wreck of an unfortunate family. In countries where the Roman law is established, confiscation is not admitted, except within the jurisdiction of the parliament of Toulouse. Teacher Interview Essay Questions! It was formerly the law at Calais, but was abolished by the English, whilst that city was in their possession. It is tutorial, strange, that the inhabitants of the capital should be subject to a severer law Edition: current; Page: [ 222 ] than the teacher interview questions people in the country: but laws, like the cottages in a village, were generally established by accident, and without attention to the regularity of a general plan. Who would believe that, in the year 1673, in the most brilliant period of the kingdom of deffinition, France, the advocate-general, Omer Talon, did in interview essay questions full parliament express himself, on the subject of a young lady named Canillac, in the following words: #x201C;God says, in the 13th chapter of Deuteronomy, If thou comest into a city where idolatry reigneth, thou shalt surely smite the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword, destroying it utterly and all that is reference page, therein.
And thou shalt gather all the spoil thereof into questions the midst of the essay fast and healthy food street, and shalt burn with fire the city, and all the spoil thereof, for the Lord thy God; and it shall be an heap for ever; and there shall cleave nought of the cursed thing to thine hand.#x201D; #x201C;In like manner, in the crime of high-treason, the children were deprived of their inheritance, which became forfeited to the king. Naboth being prosecuted quia maledixerat regi, king Ahab took possession of interview essay, his effects. David being informed that Mephibosheth had rebelled, gave all his possessions to Ziba who brought him the news: tua sint omnia qu#xE6; fuerunt Mephibosheth. #x201D; Edition: current; Page: [ 223 ] The question in dispute was, who should inherit the paternal estate of Mlle. Sides Of Capital Punishment Essays! de Canillac, which having been confiscated, was abandoned by the king to a lord of the treasury, and interview questions, afterwards bequeathed by him to the testatrix. Reference For Research Apa! In this cause concerning a girl of Auvergne it was, that an advocate-general referred to Ahab, king of essay, a part of Palestine, who confiscated the vineyard of Naboth, after assassinating the owner with the sword of justice: an action so abominable as to have passed into a proverb, intended to inspire mankind with detestation for such acts of tyranny. There was certainly no analogy between the vineyard of Naboth and the inheritance of for research paper apa, Mlle. de Canillac; nor hath the teacher interview essay questions murder and confiscation of the reference page paper possessions of interview, Mephibosheth, the grandson of Saul, and son of Jonathan, the friend and protector of David, the about fast and healthy least affinity with the will of this lady.
It was with such pedantry, with such foolish quotations foreign to the subject, with such ignorance of the first principles of human nature, with such prejudices ill conceived and ill applied, that laws have been explained and executed, by men who acquired reputation in their sphere. I leave to the reader that, which to tell him were superfluous. CHAPTER XXII.: ON CRIMINAL PROCEDURE, AND OTHER FORMS. If, in France, it should ever happen that the laws of humanity soften some of our rigorous customs, without facilitating the commission of teacher interview essay, crimes, we may hope for reformation in those legal proceedings, wherein our legislators seem to have been influenced by too much severity. Our criminal procedure appears in many instances to point only at the destruction of the accused. Thesis Statement Deffinition! It is the only law which is uniform throughout the whole kingdom; a law which ought certainly to be no less favourable to the innocent, than terrible to interview essay questions the guilty. In England a man may recover damages for false imprisonment. Reference For Research Paper Apa! In France, on the contrary, an innocent person, who has had the misfortune to be thrown into a dungeon and tortured almost to death, has no consolation, no damages to teacher essay hope for, no action against any one; and to add to his misfortune, he has for ever lost his reputation.
Why? Because his joints have been dislocated; Edition: current; Page: [ 225 ] a circumstance which ought rather to inspire compassion and respect. The discovery of crimes, say they, requires severity: it is a war of human justice against iniquity. But there is generosity and compassion even in war. The brave are ever compassionate; and shall the page paper law delight in barbarity? Let us compare the criminal procedure of the Romans with ours. With them, the evidence were heard publicly in teacher interview essay questions presence of the accused, who might answer or interrogate them, or employ counsel. This procedure was open and noble; it breathed Roman magnanimity. With us, all is conducted in secret. A single judge, only attended by his clerk, hears each witness separately.
This custom, established by Francis I. Structure Tutorial! was confirmed by the commissioners who were employed to teacher interview essay digest the ordinance of Lewis XIV. in 1670; which confirmation was entirely owing to a mistake. They imagined, in thesis statement deffinition reading the code de Testibus, that the words testes intrare judicii secretum, signified that the essay witnesses were examined in private; but secretum means here the chamber of the judge. Intrare secretum, if intended to signify private interrogation, would be false Latin. This part of our law therefore is founded on a solecism. Edition: current; Page: [ 226 ] The evidence in these cases are commonly the dregs of the people, whom the judge may, in such private examination, make say whatever he pleases. They are examined a second time, but still privately; and if, after this re-examination, they retract from their deposition, or vary in any material circumstance, they are punished as false evidence. So that if a simple honest fellow, recollecting that he has said too much, that he misunderstood the judge, or the judge him, revoke his deposition from a principle of justice, he is punished as a reprobate.
The natural consequence of this is, that men will confirm a false testimony rather than expose themselves, for their honesty, to certain punishment. The law seems to oblige the magistrate to about be the enemy of the accused, rather than his judge; it being left in the power of the magistrate to confront the evidence with the essay questions accused, or not, as he shall think proper. Amazing! that so necessary a part of the procedure should be left undetermined. A man being suspected of a crime, knowing that he is denied the benefit of counsel, flies his country; a step to which he is encouraged by essay food food, every maxim of the law. But he may be condemned in his absence, whether the crime be Edition: current; Page: [ 227 ] proved or not.
Strange laws! If a man be charged with owing a sum of money, before he can be condemned to pay the interview demand, it is required that the structure tutorial debt be proved; but if his life be in question, he may be condemned, by default, without any proof of the crime. Teacher Interview! Is money then of more importance than life? O ye judges and legislators! Consult the cover pious Antoninus, and essay questions, the good Trajan: they suffered not the absent to be condemned. Do your laws then allow the privilege of counsel to an extortioner, or a fraudulent bankrupt, and refuse it to one who may possibly be a very honest and honourable man? If there ever were an instance of innocence being justified by means of counsel, the law, which deprives the accused of that benefit, is evidently unjust. The parliament of reference, Toulouse hath a very singular custom relative to the validity of evidence. Teacher Interview Essay Questions! In other places demi-proofs are admitted, which is structure, a palpable absurdity, there being no such thing as demi-truth; but at Toulouse they admit of quarters and eighths of a proof. For instance, an hearsay may be considered as a quarter, and questions, another hearsay, more vague than the former, as an reference page for research paper apa eighth: so that eight hearsays, which in fact are no other than an teacher essay echo of a groundless report, Edition: current; Page: [ 228 ] constitute a full proof.
Upon this principle it was, that poor Calas was condemned to the wheel. CHAPTER XXIII.: THE IDEA OF REFORMATION. Magistrates are in themselves so respectable, that the inhabitants of the only country in which they are venal, sincerely pray to be delivered from this custom: they wish that the civilian may by his merit establish that justice, which in his writings he hath so nobly defended. We may then possibly hope to see a regular and uniform system of laws. Shall the law of the provinces be always at example of outline for a variance with the interview essay questions law in the capital? Shall a man be right in Britanny, and wrong in Languedoc? Nay, there are as many laws as there are towns; and, even in the same parliament, the maxims of one chamber are not the maxims of another. Edition: current; Page: [ 229 ] What astonishing contrariety in the laws of one kingdom! In Paris, a man who has been an of capital essays inhabitant during one year and a day, is essay, reputed a citizen. In Franche-Comte, a freeman who, during a year and a day, inhabits a house in mortmain, becomes a slave; his collateral heirs are excluded from inheriting his foreign acquisitions, and even his children are deprived of their inheritance, if they have been a year absent from the house in which the essay father died.
This province is interview questions, called Franche, but where is engineering letter, their freedom? Were we to attempt to draw a line between civil authority and teacher essay questions, ecclesiastical customs, what endless disputes would ensue? In short, to what side soever we turn our eyes, we are presented with a confused scene of contradictions, uncertainty, hardships, and arbitrary power. About Fast Food Food! In the present age, we seem universally aiming at perfection; let us not therefore neglect to perfect the laws, on which our lives and fortunes depend. It may be alledged, that the interest of commerce and property should be secured; but commerce and property are not the end of the teacher interview essay social compact, but the means of obtaining that end; and to oppose all the of capital essays members of society to cruel laws, to preserve them from evils, necessarily occasioned by the infinite combinations which result from the actual state of political societies, would be to make the end subservient to the means, a paralogism in all sciences, and particularly in politics. In the former editions of this work, I myself fell into this error, when I said that the teacher interview questions honest bankrupt should be kept in custody, as a pledge for statement his debts, or employed as a slave to work for his creditors. I am ashamed of having adopted so cruel an opinion. I have been accused of teacher interview essay questions, impiety; I did not deserve it. I have been accused of sedition; I deserved it as little. But I insulted all the rights of humanity, and was never reproached. Post mortem nihil est, mors ipsaque nihil, etc.
Seneca. Spon, p. 500. Sides! Guy Vances. Boudin de Republica, lib. iii, c. 5. See the excellent abridgement of the chronological history and laws of Germany, an. 803. Copyright ©2004 - 2017 Liberty Fund, Inc.
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The 2010 Iom Report: the Future of Nursing. Grand Canyon University. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released its 2010 report called The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health and it calls for an increase in nurses working in the profession to be “80 percent BSN-prepared” by the year 2020. (An 80% BSN workforce by 2020?, n.d.). The four key messages that the committee developed included ideas such as: * Nurses using their complete education and training during practice.
* Nurses should have access to a better education system that lets them further their education successfully. * Nurses should work with physicians as partners in changing the healthcare system in the United States. * Policies and interview essay questions Procedures should effectively use data collection. Along with the education portion of “BSN in Ten”, The Institute of Medicine focused on about fast and healthy, facts that nurse’s education from the 20th century were not adequate for the 21st century anymore. The patients’ needs and care environments have changed and become more complex. There have been arguments that it is not possible to teach nursing students in 2 years for teacher essay, an Associate’s Degree what the Bachelor’s Degree nurses learn in 4 years.
There is not enough emphasis spent on the evidence based practice in a 2-year degree, therefore, making the both of capital punishment Bachelor’s Degree a better choice. The nurses need to be educated to teacher questions deliver a higher quality of care. Nursing, as a profession, makes up the engineering letter outline biggest portion of teacher interview, our nation’s health care. When taking care of structure tutorial, patients, nurses have a direct impact on the care of the patient. The closeness to patients and having a direct effect on patient outcomes, gives nurses the ability to effect the healthcare system. Nurses will come in contact with a diverse range of patients. Future of Nursing in the Light of Institute of Medicine (Iom) Report 2010. . United States health care system is composed of physicians, Physician assistant, Nurse practitioner, Nurses and Care nurses. Nursing incorporated wide range of teacher essay questions, sub classes that includes Bachelors, associates, RN and LPNs and more. Nurses incorporate broad spectrum of care including health promotion, disease prevention and palliative care.
Nursing profession also faces challenges as it’s not as diverse as our population is based on ethnicity, gender, and age. Many changes and improvements are required in profession in order to address the changing and newly developing problems. In 2010, report was published by IOM in order to improve the health care system of United States. This report focuses on many issues including transforming the health care system by improving the role of nursing. This report recommends that nurses should practice to full extent of their education and experience. Nurses must achieve higher level of education. Paper? Nurses should also have increased communication between all circles of health care system including physicians, professional and care nurses, leadership and policy making qualities, effective workforce and fine infrastructure of data collection. These recommendations highlight the teacher interview intersection between the diversity in United States and actions taken by nurses.
Theses recommendation only focus on how can nurses provide the best care to the patients regardless of how difficult it can be for nurse to practice them. IOM is about fast and healthy very detailed report for. Words: 539 - Pages: 3. The Impact of the 2010 Institute of Medicine (Iom) Report on the Future of Nursing in Education, Practice and Leadership. . The Impact of the 2010 Institute of interview, Medicine (IOM) Report on engineering cover letter outline, the Future of Nursing in Education, Practice and Leadership Esther Edukuye Grand Canyon University: Professional Dynamics NRS 430v 5/6/12 Janet Arnold Abstract This paper seeks to expand upon the 2010 Institute of Medicine’s report on the future of nursing, leading change, advancing health and illustrating its impact on essay, nursing education, practice and essay structure tutorial leadership. There is an ongoing transformation in the healthcare system necessitated by the need to achieve a patient centered care in the community, public, and primary care settings in contrast to previous times. Nurses occupying vital roles in the healthcare system, need improvements in the areas mentioned above to enhance needed reforms. Having reviewed the 2010 institute of medicine (IOM ) report on teacher, the Future of Nursing Leading Change Advancing Health, despite being a practicing nurse for a long time, I felt a renewed sense of call to duty. I felt better about my decision to go back to school to example earn my baccalaureate degree and started to think of how I can use the knowledge I will acquire thereby, to empower myself, as related to teacher my present field of practice and start effecting changes immediately in the areas of nursing education, practice and leadership as identified in the report, needing crucial, innovation and reform.
As a nurse presently in the mainstream of practice, it is no doubt that nursing care delivery today is essay structure really impacted in. Words: 1169 - Pages: 5. Transforming the Future of Nursing-Impact of the 2010 Iom Report. . Transforming the Future of Nursing-Impact of the 2010 IOM Report When the interview Affordable Care Act became law in 2010, it required a change in the way we think about the healthcare system. Reference For Research? This comprehensive healthcare legislation is teacher interview meant to improve and expand quality, access, and value of healthcare in statement the United States and will create new roles and interview essay opportunities for sides punishment essays, nurses. The IOM, with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF), produced a consensus report called The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health that proposes a conceptual framework for interview, changes that will affect the future of nursing (Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2010). This report sends a message and reference page makes recommendations that will have an interview, impact on nursing education, nursing leadership, and overall nursing practice. Nursing education is an integral part of example of outline paper, advancing nursing’s role in America’s future healthcare arena. Teacher Essay? The IOM report recognizes the need for more highly educated nurses with increased focus and depth on fundamental concepts that are applicable to many situations and communities. By 2020, they would like to see 80% of nurses earning their BSN degree and twice as many nurses with a doctorate degree.
They also advocate putting nurse residency programs in place that would assist nurses with transitioning to their professional vocations. In addition, nurses need to continue learning throughout their careers and lives to both sides maintain comprehensive skills and teacher essay knowledge. To achieve these. Words: 959 - Pages: 4. The Impart of the 2010 Iom Report in Nursing Education. . Example? nurse’s role as a leader The IOM report requires that nurses should possess leadership qualities. Nurses are required to use their leadership skills in their nursing practice in order to render better services to their patients (Harris 2010).
According to the IOM report, nurses are suited to take on policy education of the general public, policy makers and the media. Teacher Interview Essay Questions? Taking this leadership role promotes healthcare policies that will lead to food and healthy the improvement of the living conditions of the public. The IOM report requires all nurses to be leaders in questions implementation, design and evaluation of ongoing reforms in the nursing practice. Essay? The report requires that nurses exhibit a leadership style that entails working with others in a perspective of interview questions, collaboration and mutual respect. About Food? This leadership styles is interview essay effective in cover outline that it leads to better patient outcomes, staff satisfaction and fewer medical errors (Joel 2013). Conclusion In conclusion, nurses are required to essay improve their skills in order to offer better services to the majority population. The IOM should assist nurses in the improvement of their nursing skills. The IOM should also look for ways in which they can lower the prices for getting medical care. Medical care should affordable and quality in nature.
Medical care should also be accessible to the wider majority (White 2005). Essay Structure? Health care centers should be adequate enough to offer medical services to teacher interview the people. References Harris, J. Words: 1019 - Pages: 5. . Both Essays? promotion and teacher interview essay the nursing programs preparing them must be about our practice beyond the hospital setting (The American Nurse, 2013, p. 1.) In conclusion my nursing practice is already changing, by starting the process of furthering my education, I am able to take what’s learned each day and relate it to my current clinical practice. Better understanding of theories of essay tutorial, practice and using it in current practice benefits my patients and sharing knowledge with colleague enhances clinical care and practice. I am able to apply Nightingale’s Theory of Environment, which states comfort and sanitary conditions decrease risk of infection, to my fragile patient population. Teacher Interview Essay? My practice can mean life or death to my patients. References Ellerbe MN RN, S., Regen MS BSN RN, D. (2012).
Responding to health care reform by addressing the IOM report on the future of nursing. Retrieved from www.nursingcenter.com Purvis, S. (2012). The national association of clinical nurse specialist response to the institute of medicine’s future of nursing report. Retrieved from nacns: The American Nurse. (2013). www.theamericannurse.org The Future of nursing leading the change, Advancing Health. (2010). Retrieved from www.iom.edu The Joint Commission. (2010).
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Initiative on for research, the Future of Nursing, at the IOM. Retrieved from the teacher interview essay questions joint commission. Words: 930 - Pages: 4. . IOM report and future of Nursing Sunu Saju Grand Canyon University NRS 430V April 07, 2013 IOM report and future of Nursing IOM (Institute of Medicine), in partnership with RWJF (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation), developed the report “The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing health on thesis, October 5, 2010.This detailed study focus on the significant connection between the health needs of various, varying populations and essay the actions of the nursing staff. The health care delivery system and nursing profession consider this report as a framework for transformation. The changes in health care system and nursing workforce are directed to health care researchers, payers, national, state and local government leaders, professionals and executives comprised of nurses and others, and individual policy makers. These changes are also directed to engineering letter outline educational organizations, licensing departments, and charitable and legal institutions who advocate for customers (Institute of Medicine, 2010). Committee of IOM created key messages that constitute its suggestion for this change, which focus on education, leadership, and practice in nursing. The need to transform practice is addressed in first key message of Institute of Medicine, “Nurses should practice to the full extent of their education and training”. United States is teacher interview proud to have more than three million nurses today.
Nurses in reference page each state have scope of nursing practice developed by essay questions, the state board of nursing. The scope of. Words: 925 - Pages: 4. Implementation of the Iom Future of Nursing Report. . The writer is both sides punishment going to distinguish the significance of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) “Future of Nursing” report linked with the nursing staff, the teacher essay significance of the paper apa IOM’s Future of Nursing and how it is related to the nurse staffing, the intent of the teacher interview essay questions Future of Nursing’s Campaign for page paper, Action, the reasoning for state-based action coalitions and initiatives of the coalition.
The Work of the Committee In 2008, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) and the Institute of teacher interview questions, Medicine (IOM) propelled a two-year plan reacting to the desires of engineering cover outline, Registered Nurses in reconsidering and reintroducing the interview essay questions career of nurses. Example? The IOM nominated the RWJF Initiative with the determination to generate a report that would make suggestions to put the needs of Registered Nurses into motion and shape the profession (IOM, 2010). The above institution reflected on the role of health care professional’s employment setting, and stage’s of edification in teacher questions its determination to assess the opportunities that are available for nursing professionals. Registered Nurses ought do their job to the maximum scope of their edification and reference page for research apa teaching. Advanced trained Registered Nurses should also have a chance to work to the fullest extent of their edification and teaching by implementing and finalizing evaluations, completing admissions paper work and delivering the important certifications for home health care requirements (IOM, 2010). Nurses should attain advanced levels of edification and instruction. Words: 1289 - Pages: 6. The Impact of the 2010 Iom Report on the Future of Nursing. . The Impact of the 2010 IOM report on the future of Nursing.
Nurses are in the front line of patient’s care but are faced with various barriers which prevent them from being able to meet the demand and advancing health care system, to be able to overcome these barriers in 2008, the essay Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) and the Institute of medicine (IOM) launched a two-year initiative to food and healthy food respond to the need to assess and transform the nursing profession and its future. In response, some recommendations were made in the IOM report which will impact nursing and its future by transforming its education, practice and essay our role as a leader. The impact on nursing education: Our patients are depending on us for quality care, believing that we are qualified enough and have a better understanding of what we do for engineering cover outline, them. This is why progressively acquiring knowledge through research, education and evidence-based practice is important to the profession. Interview Questions? According to the report, “the primary goals of food and healthy food, nursing education remain the same: nurses must be prepared to teacher interview meet diverse patient’s needs, function as leaders and advance science that benefits patients and thesis deffinition the capacity of health professionals to deliver safe and quality patient care”. Science and technology are advancing daily not only in healthcare but in all profession, that is why nurses must not settle for mediocrity, we are to advance from teacher essay ADN to BSN to MSN and structure ultimately a doctoral degree if possible, this will help. Words: 1013 - Pages: 5. The Effect of Iom Report on Future of Nursing Practice. . A TERM PAPER PRESENTED BY EUGENIA NWOKEFORO ON PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF NURSING PROFESSIONALS THE EFFECT OF IOM REPORT 2010 ON THE FUTURE OF NURSING PRACTICE Nursing is a profession which plays vital role in improving the questions health care system by promoting, protecting and optimizing health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviating suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response and food an advocate in care of teacher essay questions, individuals, families, communities and page for research paper populations(ANA). INSTITUTION OF MEDICINE (IOM) was founded in 1970.
In 2008, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation(RWJF) and Institution of medicine (IOM) formed a two year committee to interview essay respond to the need to assess and transform the nursing profession. Today healthcare faces serious issues like child obesity, influenza(H1N1), HIV-AIDS, IOM is the entity that is advising on how to improve the health care system to meet the increased issue as it pertains to saving life and disease prevention and THE EFFECT OF IOM REPORT ON NURSING EDUCATION Nursing education is a crucial issue according to IOM report, Improved education system is paramount to increase nursing competence ,Advanced nursing degree provide nurses with more knowledge in essay fast food and healthy food their area of specialization, improve quality and efficient care. Words: 979 - Pages: 4. Iom Report on, the Future of Nursing. . The IOM report of 2010 regarding the Future of Nursing: Leading change, advancing health is teacher one of the most viewed on thesis statement, line reports in the IOM’s history. This milestone report calls for the leaders and amour bearers to act on its recommendations, including changes in public and teacher interview essay questions institutional policies at both sides essays the federal, state, and local levels. For this purpose, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) has collaborated with the AARP on the future of Nursing: Campaign for essay questions, Action.
The vision for this campaign is for example of outline research paper, all Americans to have access to high quality, patient - and family-centered care in a health care system where nurses contributes as essential partners in achieving success. It is focused on three main pillars for change. • Advancing Education transformation, • Removing barriers to practice and questions care • Nursing Leadership Advancing Education Transformation In 2110, the IOM issued a report in which it recommended that the proportion of fast, nurses in United States who hold at teacher questions least a bachelor’s degree be increased from its current 50% to80percentage by 2020. It emphases that if nurses were to be as effective as possible in helping to provide high- quality patient-centered care, they will need to be better prepared as a care becomes more complex and moves into the community. It recommended that more nurses with advanced degrees are needed to provide primary care and teach the next generation of students. The education of nurses may seem to be the least pressing matter. Words: 1227 - Pages: 5.
. Associates VS. Baccalaureate Nursing Candace Flynn Grand Canyon University August 3, It should be mandatory for nurses to practice with a baccalaureate degree .For decades there has been a long standing argument about engineering cover letter way nursing is practiced among the interview essay questions different entry level positions . .I have always had the attitude the four year degree was unnecessary .My mind has changed . To understand the present we must always examine the past . I graduated nursing school in 2003 It was the midst of the nursing shortage .I had every prestigious hospital in Philadelphia and the surrounding areas just about begging for my employment . It was a great time in nursing history for new grads . I had one hospital offer me 25,000 dollars upfront if I agreed to statement stay employed with them for three years .I had another hospital offer me 10,000 dollars , pay my tuition ,and my paid college for interview essay questions, my future children There were so many incentive programs thrown at our graduating class. Of Outline For A? Our heads were spinning . It was graduation day .May 2003 the majority of the students and I decided to be employed at Northeastern Hospital . It was the hospital that our nursing school was apart of questions, . Thesis Statement? We all felt very comfortable , our clinicals were done there , we knew the essay questions majority of the staff . It was tradition for the newly graduated nurses that attended at Northeastern school Of Nursing to be employed at Northeastern Hospital . In 2003 the demand. Words: 1175 - Pages: 5. . Essay Fast Food? The Impact of the 2010 IOM Report on The Future of Nursing Robert Loperfido Felician Health Policy and teacher interview questions Politics NURS 385 Helena Correia RNC, MSN August 18, 2014 The Impact of the 2010 IOM Report on thesis, The Future of Nursing The United States is at a significant junction. Health care reforms are being carried out and the system is beginning to change. The largest component of the health care workforce is nurses and the needs to strengthen this group will only improve the delivery of care and the health care system. The IOM and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation established that accessible, high quality care cannot be achieved without extraordinary nursing care and leadership (American Nurses Association, 2014, p. Teacher Interview Essay? 1). The report calls on nurses individually and as a profession to embrace changes needed to promote health, prevent illness and care for people across the lifespan.
The report also calls for support from interprofessional collaborations from physicians, dieticians, physical therapist and other multisector professions to work with nurses to make the changes necessary for a more accessible, cost efficient and high quality health care system. This report expands on the theme that high quality, safe, evidence based patient centered care is a critical role of nursing and that to have a successful health care system rests on deffinition, the future of nursing (Institute of Medicine, 2010). Interview? In 2010 the President signed into law and Congress approved health care. Words: 3783 - Pages: 16. The Impact on Nursing of the 2010 Iom Report on the Future of letter outline, Nursing. . The impact on nursing of the 2010 IOM report on interview questions, the Future of cover letter outline, Nursing. Teacher Essay Questions? Name: xxxxxxxxxxxx June 18, 2015 The Institute of medicine (IOM) is an independent non-profit organization that works outside the government, providing objective and essay accurate advice to decision makers and the public at large. It was established in essay questions 1970. IOM helps to provide important information on health care as a whole. In this paper, I will be describing the impact of the 2010 IOM report on the Future of essay fast food food, Nursing, focusing on nursing education, nursing practice particularly in primary care, and nurse’s role as a leader.
The impact of IOM report on nursing education. Nursing is one of the biggest professions in the health care force. Nurses have a direct effect on patient care. Nursing education has to be improved before and after the nurses are licensed so that patients can be provided safe and quality care, which will help in the transformation of healthcare. Nurses need to be given training and in-services to provide information on recent skills and technology. The health challenges that the nation is facing has shifted drastically. Today, most health care relates to chronic conditions such as mental health, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, diabetes, congestive heart failure, and hypertension, due to an increase in essay questions the.
Words: 848 - Pages: 4. How the Future of about food, Nursing 2010 Iom Report Is Impacting Nursing. . How The Future of Nursing 2010 IOM Report is Impacting Nursing Robin Williams Education One of the impacts noted as a direct result of the IOM (2010) report was the need to educate nurses to teacher essay their fullest potential. The vision of nursing is to change with the ever-changing health care industry. Page For Research Apa? For the nurse there is education that must occur if this vision is to be realized. (IOM, 2010).
The seamless academic progression on interview, the road to successful education should be the beaten path of thesis statement, achievement of hope and a better smarter nurse. Teacher Essay Questions? One of the sides of capital punishment primary goals with education should prepare nurses to be able to care for a diverse level of teacher questions, patients, be better leaders and deliver safe quality care (IOM,2010). Nursing education prepares nurses to work collaboratively with a varied level of providers in a health care facility. This further makes their practice environment include community as well as public health care settings. Education is the door to successful practice as a nurse, equipping with better skills to provide holistic care to the patient populous. Educated nurses have better critical thinking sills, leadership, case management, are better at overall health promotions and ability to practice in a variety of health care settings (AACN, 2015). Tutorial? Practice There is interview questions a change in the wind when it comes to nursing practice, especially when considering primary care. The IOM (2010) report, shows. Words: 916 - Pages: 4.
The Impact of 2010 Iom Report on Nursing. . The Institute of Medicine (IOM) is “a private, nonprofit institution that provides independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation” and “the IOM’s aim is to essay food food help those in government and the private sector make informed health decisions by providing evidence” (The National Academies of Science, Engineering, Medicine) that are reliable and straightforward, all aimed at improving health. The IOM has been developing and publishing reports on health care issues for many years, and one of which is The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health, published in 2010. This report had impact, and will continuously do so, on interview essay questions, the nursing profession, especially related to nursing education, nursing practice, and nurse’s role as a leader. Of Outline For A Paper? Related to nursing education, IOM’s 2010 report recommends that all nurses should “achieve higher levels of education and training through an improved education system that promotes seamless academic progression” (Future of Nursing, 2010). The report also mentions that due to the changes in the nation’s demographics as well as health care needs, the teacher interview ways of education during the 20th century are not appropriate anymore in dealing with health care in the 21st century. The report of IOM 2010 also recommends that “80% of nurses should be baccalaureate prepared and the number of engineering outline, doctorally prepared nurses should double by 2020” (Chard, R., 2013).
In order to comply with the IOM recommendations and increasing patient demanding and complexity.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to essay questions, start. Tutorial. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on teacher interview it. Think of of outline for a research your resume not as a comprehensive list of essay your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job.
For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out cover letter outline, depending on interview the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only cover outline, sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and teacher interview essay questions, pasting relevant information together. Essay Structure Tutorial. Think of this as your brag file . Interview. 3. Put the cover outline Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the teacher interview essay questions fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of essay food a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume.
This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. Teacher Interview Questions. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to both of capital punishment, explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the questions position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to sides of capital, save space and focus on teacher interview essay making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of essay about fast food and healthy different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the teacher essay questions skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding.
The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to example of outline for a research paper, one page is teacher essay a good way to force yourself to for research paper, do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on essay more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to example of outline for a, see how you can organize your resume to interview essay, fit more in less space. Can’t figure out essay fast food and healthy, how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to questions, be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the reference apa most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the interview ideal candidate.
We’ll talk about getting creative in punishment order to stand out in a minute. But the questions most basic principle of essay good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and teacher, 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page.
You can use a different font or typeface for for research apa your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on teacher interview essay readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of reference page for research paper apa Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. Questions. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop.
No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on statement deffinition your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to questions, make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the about fast and healthy food hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in interview questions this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to apa, look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right!
13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the interview questions most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to for research, which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to teacher interview essay, importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience?
No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and thesis, then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in interview essay a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the statement deffinition recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person.
Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is teacher interview readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and structure tutorial, numbers as you can in teacher interview questions your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to thesis statement, picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Essay Questions. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to both of capital punishment essays, adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to interview, show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to thesis, your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by interview essay hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. Cover Letter Outline. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Interview Questions. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them.
Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the food and healthy food result you’re going for! 20. Teacher Questions. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on essay structure tutorial your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in essay your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in structure applicant tracking systems.
Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . Teacher Interview. We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. About Fast Food And Healthy. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to teacher essay questions, you getting the job than where you went to college. Statement Deffinition. 25.
Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by teacher interview essay listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to example for a, the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Teacher. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the for a degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28.
Include Continuing or Online Education. Teacher Essay Questions. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and thesis statement, Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to essay questions, skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Thesis Deffinition. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to teacher essay questions, the job.
Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on reference page paper apa the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the teacher interview questions cause.
Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Cover Outline. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to essay, include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for cover letter outline only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume.
According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only interview, (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. Food. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for interview essay questions leaving next to statement, each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to teacher interview questions, new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Page Paper Apa. Re-entering the interview questions workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into for a paper, your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in questions gaps on your resume.
For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on page for research paper your resume, a la “adeptly managed the teacher growing pile of essay about laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and teacher questions, intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. Page. There’s no need to teacher essay, address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for of outline paper you (or get some tips from an editor on essay how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc.
That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on engineering his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at essay, it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to page paper, save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of teacher interview questions “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out engineering cover letter, some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on interview essay questions new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to engineering outline, pounce when opportunity presents itself.
And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to teacher, keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on page the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the questions company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in sides punishment essays touch at interview essay questions, eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for essay tutorial this class.
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Is Columbia Southern University A Scam? If you are someone who has considered earning a college degree online, whether due to interview questions work or family commitments, you may have seen an advertisement for Columbia Southern University at some point and taken a look at what the school has to offer. And since it’s not a well known school, you may have wondered whether Columbia Southern University is a scam. To answer this question it’s necessary to take a brief look at the school, its degree programs, and its accreditation. Columbia Southern University was established in 1993 and is based in reference page paper Orange Beach, Alabama. The school only offers online degree programs. There is no physical campus where classes are taught in interview essay questions person. Essay Structure Tutorial. The school offers online degree programs in teacher essay questions fire science, criminal justice, business administration, organizational leadership, information technology, human resource management, and of outline for a research occupational safety and health. Essay Questions. Degree programs are available at the associate’s, bachelor’s, and graduate level. The Litmus Test For A Legitimate University.
The best way to tell if an online college or university is a scam is by evaluating its accreditation. The gold standard of collegiate accreditation in the United States is example for a research, known as regional accreditation. There are six regional accrediting agencies that are tasked with evaluating colleges and universities in their geographic areas to teacher essay make sure they meet minimum academic standards. A college or university only needs to statement be accredited by one of the six agencies. Before we go any further it is teacher essay questions, necessary to point out that Columbia Southern University is not accredited by any of the six regional accrediting agencies. This does not mean the school is unaccredited. There is a third type of essay about fast food and healthy accreditation that some distance learning schools choose to interview essay questions pursue. It’s known as the Distance Education and Training Counsel (DETC). DETC accreditation is a legitimate form of accreditation that is recognized by the US Department of Education. It is legitimate but you should be aware up front that schools that hold regional accreditation don’t always accept DETC college courses in transfer. In addition, if you complete a DETC accredited college degree, you may have trouble being accepted into a graduate program in a school that holds regional accreditation.
A Legitimate School With Valid Accreditation. So, is Columbia Southern University a scam? Due to the fact that Columbia Southern University is structure, accredited by an organization that is recognized by the US Department of Education, it’s safe to conclude that the school is teacher essay questions, not a scam. Nevertheless, you should definitely be aware of the reference page for research paper apa limitations of DETC accreditation prior to enrolling. I’m a graduate from Columbia Southern University. I had a great experience while attending and teacher interview essay I do believe I learned more than sitting in a classroom. I have taked both traditional classes and on line classes. I can further tell you I did transfer credits from CSU to a regional accredited school. Like all school, it is up to engineering the registrar on what they will take or not take.
I can further tell you that after completing my Bachelors Degree, I was picked up by a well know company and I am being paid for my achievements. I’m a success story from CSU. They don’t gouge you on price to attend and the staff is more than willing to essay assist you. It’s a great school at reference paper a great price. Even though CSU is not regionally accredited (right now), it doesn’t mean it won’t be in the future. It is however Nationally Accredited and you can look it up yourself under the US Department of Education, Accredited Colleges. It worked for me and right now, life is good. You get what you put into it.
You are absolutely correct, you do get what you put into it. Interview Essay Questions. Good luck in the future. Yeah, such a great education tends to turn out essay fast people who write “taked” and “well-know”. Good for questions you. Big talk for someone who can’t even spell out their whole name…lol : ) Similiar to the education of those that forget a period ends a sentence. Are you people developmentally disabled, or just really really immature? Wow. Yea and internet comments are so important to write precisely. I was going to take courses at letter outline Columbia Southern University so that they would transfer to Portland State University. Questions. Before enrolling at example of outline research paper Columbia Southern I called Portland state University and teacher asked if they took transfer credit from Columbia Southern.
Portland State’s reply: No, we don’t take transfer credits from Columbia Southern University. Regional Accreditation is the gold standard. Why are you wanting to school jump? Everyone is comparing apples and oranges. Smart choice, there are allot of universities that will not accept CSU credits, so you were smart to food food check! I used to teacher essay work at fast food and healthy CSU and it is obvious by the schools own record of actual graduates that something is very wrong at teacher interview questions CSU! I can see why you don’t work there any more. You have a horrible attitude. Perhaps you are a disgruntled ex-employee?
If so, you need to collect your thoughts and perhaps move on to acquire some professionalism. Good luck. Sad to hear that you have a very unrealistic and slanderous view towards your previous employer. Essay Fast Food And Healthy. I happen to be happily employed by CSU and teacher essay questions have attended a handful of both punishment their graduations with people graduating in classes of teacher interview essay 500-800 each year. I don’t see anything very wrong about CSU, in fact I see CSU changing the lives of essay about fast food and healthy many service members and working professionals daily. With a student count of 28,000 students and being one of the largest schools in Alabama I see very great things happening for CSU.
CSU is in the top ten military friendly schools and if you go to there “you can, you will, I did” campaign where you watch videos of interview essay actual CSU graduates who are leaders in their field talk about how CSU has helped their careers tremendously you will undoubtedly see that there is nothing very wrong about CSU. If CSU has 28,000 students, as you claim, and yet only graduates 500 to 800 students per engineering cover letter outline year, how can you explain that only 2.85% reach graduation? According to the American Enterprise Institute, even the lowest rated colleges for graduation rates are near 60%. Applying that formula to CSU, it would amount to about 1,400 student actively attending each year. Teacher Interview. So which is for research apa, it, the 28,000 and a dreadfully low graduation rate or a lower attendance? I theorize that CSU pads their numbers in an attempt to impress the public, probably including inactive records. PS, that makes you a liar. Sorry, impartial here, but your math is HORRIBLE!
Where did you go to school? CSU? LOL. A 60% grad rate means that 60% of the students that enroll as freshmen make it to graduation, NOT that 60% of teacher questions their enrollees graduate each year! That is literally impossible for a 2 year university much less a 4 year program. PS, that math makes you stupid.
I have been attending CSU for about year now and I can tell you that it is not as some of reference paper you idiots are portraying it to be. I really like the freedom I have to take as little or as much classes as I want. I am the VP of a company and probably earn more money than most of you so I can definitely afford a more expensive education. The question is why? Some of you are under the misconception that you can hide behind a university’s cloak and interview essay get a good job. Engineering Letter. That is simply stupidity on your part and insecurity because you think little of yourself. It is true that some companies will notice you more if you have a degree from a well known university but were not talking engineering here. When people choose to bad mouth something for the sake of doing it, there is usually an underlying cause and more often than not it is personal.
I love all those dummies out there who like to critique but offer no real value in their comments to others reading them. Go pay for an expensive education if you want. Teacher Questions. Maybe, if you got a better job than taco bell, you could afford a pricier education. And you service guy, you are probably one of those that only statement joined to get a free education and teacher interview essay attempted to back out when you went active duty. Anybody can get their own LLC and become a VP of a company. Your boasting of your employment position garners no merit. How can I verify you as a credible source for reference page paper truth? I cannot.
You call some of us “idiots” or “dummies”. Well, you are correct to the fact that I certainly felt like a “dummy” or “idiot” taking courses at CSU. Essay. Reason being, you do not have to put forth much effort to receive an “A” in reference page paper any of their courses. I literally did not read one chapter, and only completed the assignments using a glossary and essay index. Essay. What credible university doesn’t provide quality assurance of their curriculum to ensure students are actually reading assigned chapters? What credible university provides you open book tests and teacher interview essay questions quizzes; which are also the assignments? I worked on my assignments maybe five hours per week.
What type of graduate school allows their students to only do five hours worth of both sides of capital essays course work per week, and still achieve an “A” grade? All students at essay CSU must graduate magna and summa come laude. I’ve submitted some essay papers at about food CSU that I wouldn’t turn into my kindergarten teacher, and teacher interview essay questions still got an thesis, “A”. That’s amazing! I don’t know about the other people on this thread, but I certainly don’t feel insecure. Teacher Interview Essay Questions. However, while I was attending CSU, I did feel a little insecure and ashamed that I was taking the “easy way out” in life – that I wasn’t earning a master’s degree. I am currently enrolled in tutorial one of those expensive graduate schools that you refer to, and of course, you can afford because you’re such a wealthy chingon. And, this university is very well-known – top 10 in the country in my degree program. The tuition reflects its reputation – more than $800 per credit hour. With all that said, I have homework every night. I don’t have anymore 20 questions on an open book test; I’m writing 2-3 page papers every other day.
The course is rigorous, forces me to think, and prioritize my day to teacher interview essay meet the assignment deadlines. This is what I would expect out of both sides punishment essays graduate school. And yes, I did join the military for education benefits. Teacher Interview Essay Questions. But, the pay was good too, so I stayed for more than a decade, on active duty. And, you can’t receive education benefits, and decide to back out when it’s time to go active duty. it doesn’t work that way. You join active duty or reserve, and that’s it. Cover Letter Outline. Depending on interview your status, you are ELIGIBLE to receive education benefits. Sides. It doesn’t always mean that you will receive money from programs like tuition assistance guaranteed.
By the way, I love the comment you made that by getting a good education, I’ll end up at teacher interview questions taco bell. That made my night. Your logic is essay about fast food food, reflective of the education you’re receiving. Now, I’m done with you. To everyone else: CSU is recognized by essay questions the U.S.
Department of Education and is genuinely accredited. The only problem is that it is nationally accredited. I took five graduate courses at CSU and couldn’t transfer one of them to my new graduate school. I had to essay structure tutorial start all over again. If you start a degree program at CSU, make sure you finish it, because chances are, if you see another academic program you like from a regionally accredited university, your credits will not account for nothing when you try to transfer them. Even University of Northern Alabama, their partner, would only accredit one of my five courses I took from CSU. And, I think the only reason why they did that is because they have a partnership.
Customer service wise, CSU’s staff was very helpful and essay courteous. I loved dealing with them. Essay About Food. The professors were courteous as well. I don’t dislike CSU, although it seems like I do from teacher essay questions, my posting. I may end up finishing off my MBA program at example of outline paper CSU once I complete the teacher essay graduate school I am currently enrolled in. But the only reason why I would is because I’ll have money remaining on my G.I. Bill, CSU is cheap, and my MBA is half-way finished. However, I wouldn’t brag about it on my resume – it would be more like a wall ornament.
Thanks for that comment….I am a working professional, single mom of 1, and I will be starting classes at CSU in the next month. Example Research. This fits well in my budget and gives me the time to be a working mom, allowing me to interview essay spend time with my family and not have to worry about breaking the bank. I was really worried about the scools accrediation. I also started going to a local university and they do not accept CSU as a transfer due to statement accredidation. Every school has their own acceptance standards; when I transferred to interview essay questions Hawaii Pacific University a few years ago they accepted a lot of reference page for research my transfer credits from interview essay, other schools-both regionally and nationally accredited schools-, but they did not accept them in lieu of their own courses, so I had to re-take classes anyway. Essay Structure. You just need to teacher essay questions be smart and do some research.
When you begin your graduate studies, most schools will only thesis deffinition accept 9-12 transfer credits from any other school, regardless of teacher interview questions their accreditation. I am currently enrolled at essay CSU and I find it a great fit for my life. As a full time worker in interview the manufacturing field, the flexibility CSU offers really comes in handy. My sister graduated from CSU a year ago with a Bachelor’s Degree and has a great job working as an administrator with a large telecommunications/engineering company in our state. To go right from an for a research, online school to starting out at 49k a year is amazing. Guess it doesn’t really depend on teacher where you get your degree but on how much you apply yourself to learn what you want and need to learn.
Both John and BC sound as fake as fake can come! No one who has earned a “Bachelor’s Degree” refers to it as such! You state, “I had fun earning my BA/BS” or “I majored in ______, with a minor in _____”. Their writing skills, and outline vague terminology for where they worked, and where is pathetic. Of course if no one remembers “Columbia State University” back in the late 90’s, or the douche-bag who ran that scam… he’s currently serving prison time for a ridiculously long charge sheet!
What do you know about Columbia Southern University? You mentioned Columbia STATE University. Was this the original name for Columbia Southern University, as we know it now….I am interested in essay questions what you got to say! Definately not the same school. Columbia State University and Columbia Southern University have no comparison. I would also love to thesis statement deffinition hear what you know about Columbia Southern. I do know for interview questions a fact that Columbia STATE University was a scam with no faculty, curriculum, classes, courses, tests, etc. What can you say about fast food and healthy food, Columbia SOUTHERN University? Hi Val! Columbia Southern is accepted by certifying entities and I belive that is what matters over all.
Acceptance in ones field is what make a degrees value. Val is correct, just because names are simular does not mean they are related. Also people are different and interview use different terms for the same thing. Just because you would say BA/BS doesn’t mean everyone would. Brian is correct that the person and essay structure tutorial some of the staff which ran that Columbia is in prison. I believe that school was located in Louisiana and interview essay was shut down many years ago.
The schools are not connected in any way, shape or form. Just unlucky for both punishment CSU to teacher essay questions share a similar name. What really bothers me is the ignorance of the thesis subject matter and proclamation by some of being an expert. This is disrespectful to the staff at CSU, myself being one of them who do their very best to assist students in achieving their goals. We do not hide our accreditation. As a matter of interview fact, we encourage prospective students to about fast food learn more about accreditation. If a prospective student expresses they are considering taking part of their degree program with us, we encourage them to contact the teacher questions school they plan on transferring to for verification of credit acceptance. Tansparency, honesty and statement deffinition simply doing the right thing by our students! I am currently attending CSU in teacher interview the Fire Science field. I have a BS in biology which won’t help me in the fire dept. till I take the captain’s test. A degree in Fire Science will help tremendously and both sides of capital the class schedule works well with my work schedule.
The courses seem pertinent to degree and the professors are helpfull. total scam, the president doesn’t even have a BS degree. the name says scam,, columbia? evoking Columbia, for low end people whpo wpuldn’t know. Employers laugh at certification? Hmmmmm! maybe you should elaborate. Accreditation nhas little to do with whether a degree is accepted in the business world, it is certifications. CSU degrees are accepted by the top certifying entities in there respective areas. Do some real research before making such comments. The only reason an interview, accreditation matters is if you are a school jumper.
The president of the school has an M.B.A degree from Capella University which is essay about fast and healthy food, a regionally accredited school. Essay Questions. You really need to do some research before you start to of outline for a research paper attack someone’s or an organization’s credibility. It really shows your lack of professionalism. Do you have any education yourself? Your punctuation and spelling are horrid! Perhaps you need to look on the bright side on occasion instead of knocking a university that has helped many people achieve their dreams of earning their degree from a nationally accredited institution. Not everyone can afford thousands of dollars per teacher interview essay questions credit hour and tutorial CSU is a splendid alternative. They have ACE membership under their belt.
Their credits are likely to be accepted by essay schools regionally accredited. Although it is essay, not a given that credits will transfer. People looked at University Of Phoenix the same way, but they are equally legitimate. I am dropping out of the interview questions school because I am in engineering letter the MBA program, but it’s like being in Jr. College! If you want a cheap and easy degree, Columbia Southern University is the place to interview questions get a degree! I wouldn’t want that anywhere on letter my resume!
The school is a joke! Stop hating and start learning. CSU is teacher essay, accredited and reference page paper apa a perfectly fine school for those who must utilize online school due to teacher interview a busy work and home life. Give credit where it is example of outline for a research, due! Columbia Southern University is a very good school.I can’t understand the negative comments been said.I have a MBA from a very well recognized regionally accredited school and teacher interview essay is presently doing a MSc degree at CSU and see no difference it the quality of work required.I find in many instances the standard of work demanded at CSU to be higher than my well recognized regional school.A lot of this negative argument is cover letter, not based on facts. School is awesome, the professors are fully certified to teach their subjects… Stop knocking them because the charge less than other schools. I have been with this school for interview essay questions 3 years now and believe me, it’s not a “buy my diploma” school. You still have to work for it. They have tutor sessions if you are not getting the material.
Great school. Of Outline For A Paper. Never had an issue with them. Teacher. The class schedule accommodates my work/family. As an admissions representative from a regionally accredited school, I can tell you that I speak with CSU graduates on a daily basis. Unfortunately, on a daily basis, I also have to tell these students that we do not accept CSU credits. I am aware of engineering cover a few institutions that do accept CSU credits, but they will not be your major well known Universities. An alternative I always suggest is to transfer to Waldorf University prior to graduating with your CSU degree. CSU purchased Waldorf, which is regionally accredited. That way, you will have no issues pursuing your graduate degree.
I wish you all luck! Transferring credits is always a tricky task. Most schools will only teacher interview accept credits from other similarly accredited institutes, Reg-Reg, Nat-Nat, but once you have a degree in hand they don’t really care as long as your degree comes from an accredited program. I am currently searching for both punishment essays a PhD program to teacher jump into with my MSOL from CSU, and I have not had anyone question my credentials. In fact, I just copied this from Liberty University’s website: Admission Requirements: Regionally or nationally accredited master’s degree with at minimum a 3.25 GPA. So, if you want to spend a fortune on an expensive degree so that in a few years you can stand on Wall-Street holding a sign that asks for thesis statement deffinition your student loans to be forgiven, knock yourself out.
What university accepts credits from CSU for Phd program? Thanks. Consider the previous statement: “transfer to Waldorf University prior to graduating with your CSU degree.” Where is the teacher essay integrity in of outline for a paper that plan? If your institution does not accept credits from CSU why would your institution accept them once they were laundered by inclusion in a Waldorf College degree? Your institution has paper thin standards. It makes sense that you decided not to teacher interview identify the school where you work as an advisor. I transferred credits from this school to Portland Community College and paper they counted for a bulk of my general education. So DETC transferred to regional. Howwever, I would assume it depends on the school.
This is teacher interview questions, a very fair write up on the school. Columbia Southern University is an approved institution for about food food using Department of interview essay questions Veterans 911 GI Bill and structure tuition assitance. It is accredited thorugh DETC and its college credit are approved and referenced in the ACE guide. Now, if CSU isn’t your cup of teacher interview essay questions tea, don’t drink! However, for those in the Military who move continuously, professionals who work fulltime and example for a research paper have families, this is teacher interview essay, a viable option. Good luck to all and reach for your dreams. A person can also go to University of essay structure tutorial Phoenix with the Post 9/11 GI Bill. The acceptance of the interview questions institution by the VA isn’t the gold standard, the essay about food standard by the VA is if it is an institution of “higher” learning…you’re good to go. I attended CSU as well. The course work is fairly simple to say the essay questions least. This may not be the best school for those seeking step by step preparations for their future career of choice.
However, it is a great school for active and non active military men and women. Structure. Military men and women obtain many years of training and experience that the average person wouldn’t, it’s called life experience, they are already trained in communications, leadership, technology, and teacher interview human relations just to name a few. Reference Page For Research Paper. I find it appropriate to teacher questions have a school that acknowledges those things; a school that allows them to match academics with the skills and knowledge they already posses so they they may advance in their future endeavors. I am not a service member. I have not obtained enough life’s experience to coincide with a degree from CSU.
This school would not prepare me for a future career. I have since chosen a different school. However, my sister is an active member in the US Army, she attends CSU. CSU is the perfect school for her. This school allows her to match academics with her 10 years of service training and leadership.
I have no doubt whatsoever that when she decides to cover letter outline retire, she will be competent enough to succeed in any career, with a degree from CSU. The Board that certifies Safety Professionals (CSP) recognizes a degree from CSU and that is a difference in making 65,000 a year to 200,000 a year and the BCSP is a nationally recognized board and designation for ALL employers regionally or nationwide that is accepted and required for a job in Occupational Health and Safety. I just graduated from CSU w/ BS Information Technology. I’ve been accepted for MS Information Assurance @ a regionally accredited university with no problem… That’s interesting! What regionally accredited university accepted credits from CSU?
I know Grand Canyon University just accepted credits from CSU. Saint John’s University. Any other schools? Liberty University and Western Governor’s University do as well. Any other school for the Masters degree? Jefferson State Community College in Birmingham, AL accepts credits from CSU.
I was able to transfer 27hrs from CSU to JSCC and Waldorf College will accept all CSU credit hours toward their Graduate Program. So Glad to hear this..I am currently working in questions the IT field and wanting to get my BS in Information Technology and cover letter eventually my MS. Congrats!! CSU sucks, point blank. They rob stupid people, and are all about making money.
Have you ever heard of a university that locks all the doors and does not allow access to the general public? They also have a department that specializes in scrubbing the internet of negative or truthful comments about the teacher interview questions “school”. Of Outline For A Research Paper. The place is run like a cult, and they have “motivational” meetings on a weekly basis to keep the employees in check. Yes, I agree that something strange is going on at Columbia Southern. My girlfriend worked there for interview a couple of weeks and she said that the security and example secrecy is odd for an educational institution.
She was told that the teacher questions building is kept locked because of the sides essays many threats that they face from interview, former students who are upset. The woman that told her whispered it to her like she would get in trouble if anyone heard her. And CSU goes through a lot of engineering employees too. Two people quit while my girlfriend was in training, and when she asked someone about it they told her not to ask about it again. Then my girlfriend discovered that her job was basically a tele-marketer and she had to call and annoy people all day with no breaks and a half hour lunch. She has a good job now and she is happy. I am currently enrolled at CSU in its MBA program. I have five courses down and I’m pulling out teacher essay of the program at the end of the month. I am in the military (active duty), and was lured into CSU’s program by a colleague of mine. I received by bachelors from a regionally accredited college, and knew how much effort was needed to about fast food food maintain a simple 3.1 GPA.
However, once I started taking courses at CSU, I noticed that there was literally no effort required on my part. I mean, everything I submitted turned into an A; a person with an eighth grade education could maintain a 4.0 GPA at CSU. Now, is questions, CSU a diploma mill? It depends on example of outline for a research the views of the person. There is teacher questions, some work required from you, but as long as you know how to use the index and glossary a the end of the essay structure tutorial book, you will never have to read a complete chapter. If your goal in essay life is to thesis statement simply earn a degree and not be competitive for future employment, then CSU may be the interview essay college for you. A fellow service member friend of mine retired from the Navy a little while back, and he found difficulty getting a job with his CSU degree. It may have been the about fast food economy and not his degree, but I found it interesting that the company he ended up getting a job with was Waldorf College. Now does regionally vs. nationally accredited degrees matter to employers? It depends on the employer.
Often times employers, HR managers, are looking for those with the most qualified resumes. This includes past work experience, competency, and academic degrees. With the economy in such bad shape, and with any job opening attracting numerous applicants for that same position, it would make sense for you to have the best qualifications possible. Let’s be truly realistic. If you were an employer, would you hire somebody with a degree from New York University (NYU), Michigan State University, or some other more known university, or would you hire somebody with a degree from teacher interview essay, CSU? Finally, being that I am military, let me speak to my fellow service members.
We are being targeted by a herd of nationally accredited colleges offering worthless degree programs for the guaranteed paycheck of our TA. How often do colleges like CSU, Grantham, or University of thesis Phoenix call you if you express just a hair of interest? Check this article out: Again, CSU is great if you want a degree to put on your wall. But, if you plan to use the degree for something, or if you want to pursue further academic programs at more well-known colleges, go to a regionally accredited college. Teacher Essay. You may often find that there are regionally accredited colleges that cost just as much as some of these nationally accredited colleges. For graduate degrees, let’s be frank – you get what you pay for. I respect other people’s rights to freedom of speech and not every student is going to essay structure tutorial have a pleasant experience. In my experience, CSU has been a great school all the way from interview questions, my Bachelor’s program into structure, my Master’s program as well. I have went to a top university and paid the high prices of books and tuition.
I have came to find it was not what all it seemed to be, classes that were overcrowded and essay I found it hard to talk face-to-face with professors about deffinition, assignments. Interview. I kept an A average, but I felt like I wasn’t really learning anything or being challenged enough. At CSU, my professors take their time in commenting on my assignments and where my strengths and weaknesses are. Discussion boards were nice to have because I had the time to look into other students’ comments and opinions of what we were discussing. This school is not a cult and it is not a scam. This school has been recognized by the U.S Department of Education and they provide the school funding as well- Pell Grant, Federal Loans, etc. Most employers will accept a national accreditation because it provides flexibility on a national scale versus regional. However, regional accreditation is a must in some career fields and that is why CSU has partners that are regionally accredited to transfer to in order to thesis statement deffinition complete your desired course.
Times are hard enough and money is tight so what is so terrible about paying lower cost tuition and having a top-notch education. It also makes me upset that I work really hard to interview essay further myself for a better future for my family and myself. Let us try to be reasonable and look at all the unbiased facts and determine the true answer of page for research apa this topic-at-hand. Is CSU a scam? The answer I can give from my personal experience as a student is no. As a graduate of CSU in the near future, I will tell you that their Fire Science program IS the gold standard in the Emergency Services career field.
Not too many schools do offer a degree in Fire Science. Interview Questions. Most departments only require you to engineering letter earn IFSAC certifications and interview essay your EMT license. Having a diploma only enhances your opportunity to outline become an officer after years of working on the floor. Additionally, if you choose not to continue in the Fire Service, you at least have a piece of teacher essay paper showing that you have accomplished something. I have worked with many graduates from thesis statement, many colleges. A degree does not make the employee…..it is the employee who creates their opportunities. Teacher Interview Questions. I love my wife till death do us part, but she graduated from FSU and then Law School and has been un-employed for 2 years in that career field.
You can turn in papers you find online for any class and still get a good grade. This program is only interested in taking your money and reference page for research apa handing you a not so impressive piece of paper in questions return. This school borderlines on essay fake, and interview essay questions under the deffinition new directives being put forth by the Obama administration should be closed down or required to provide actually training! I disagree. I have submitted papers and actually had points deducted due to teacher questions the “orginality report” having a high probability of plagiarism. The text was copied, however it was cited appropriately. Then again, it all depends on of outline for a research the instructor. I have had some very lazy and worthless instructors at CSU. Most, however, are very helpful and love what they do. No it is not.
You cannot turn in online papers you find online. Teacher Questions. Are you a angry former student? I attend this school and so far I have had only good experiences. My professors are very interested in my education and make comments on all papers I have written pointing out what I can do to improve it . TURN IT IN IS USED ON ALL PAPERS! Be aware that a Fire Science degree from CSU, or any other school accredited by DETC, is not recognized by the National Fire Academy. This is an important consideration if you might want to enroll in the Executive Fire Officer program. I’ve been a student since 2002.
At my own pace, I am close to punishment essays my B.S in interview essay questions Organizational Leadership. Thesis Statement Deffinition. I understand that this degree will not hold the same weight as “brick and mortar” campuses. Teacher Interview Essay. It does serve my purposes though, promotion in cover letter outline the U.S Army. Senior NCO promotion boards only teacher look for degrees, they don’t distinguish between CSU and Yale. The greatest thing about CSU is that I was able to complete my A.S in Business Administration while simultaneously conducting combat operations in Iraq as an Infantryman during “the surge”. I’ve been able to plug away at page for research apa my degrees over the years, even when interrupted by 3 years in combat, months away for training and interview essay the normal daily duties of my profession. I can tell you from experience; this is not a diploma mill. These courses are challenging enough for their accreditation level. Example Of Outline For A Research. You will have to work for your credits. Prospective students need to teacher do their research and understand what they’re getting at of capital punishment CSU.
If they won’t get you where you want to be, look elsewhere. If you’re in a situation similar to mine, I recommend them. I have a traditional MBA and I will tell you I learned more getting my MS in teacher questions Organizational Leadership than I getting my MBA. Reference. Columbia Southern is a GREAT SCHOOL! I do wish they would go for regional accreditation. I currently hold a MS in Adult Education and I am looking at essay Columbia Southern’s DBA degree.
At my point in the educational pursuit, what do I have to gain or lose with this education instituion? […] While you are a busy working in engineering cover outline the internet is a great view; you get the teacher essay campus. About Food And Healthy. Modern IT Facilities Computer and log on in Glasgow has Stephen Lawrence gallery is equipped with the teacher interview essay questions management’s fields namely Acquisition is the first university of apa North Alabama. If you can gain an industry changes in a weekend graduate from home. Surveys conducted[citation near their beanies during this course programs Payment programs. Summing up it’s important section. The letter is teacher essay questions, something remarkable about your teen’s grades before leaving date in their practice. […] I have attended college at East Mississippi, Shelton State, and Jefferson State Community Colleges. With the cover outline addition of the Community College of the Air Force I transferred 75 semester hours to Columbia Southern University and by far it’s the interview most difficult school I have attended to date. It is true that the school is not a regional accredited school but the University is accredited by the DETC and as stated by the article “DETC accreditation is a legitimate form of accreditation that is recognized by the US Department of Education”. As such the training provided by Columbia Southern University is engineering letter outline, recognized by the Federal Government for employment.
So, that being said one has to teacher essay be careful not to find themselves in a situation like mine where as a member of the Air National Guard the military will recognize my CSU Degree (when earned this year) but my employer the State of Alabama does/will not. From my experience…stay away. Many other quality online programs out food food there. CSU is a good school. I attended Ivy Tech first, it’s a joke, a moron could get a degree. At CSU my classes are HARD. I have learned a lot there and my teachers actually respond to me.
The student aid department can ACTUALLY be reached when you need them. I have been reading the teacher interview negative comments, please excuse me in advance for any misspelled words… smh. Essay Structure. I see CSU as an teacher interview essay questions, alternative to the typical higher learning institutions. As far as a occupational safety and health major, some professionals consider CSU one of the best. The Dept. of Labor accepts degrees from CSU, therefore allowing me to work towards my CSP certification. Example For A Research. I can’t speak for other degrees at CSU, but the instructors are experienced professionals. Teacher Questions. I compared CSU instructors from other instructors from of capital punishment, major universities and interview essay questions couldn’t notice a difference.
A college degree can open up doors by meeting certain requirements for potential employers, but it won’t get you a job. If you can’t hold your own during a job interview, how are you going to get that job? Most employers understand the hardship in balancing a career, family, and having the courage to go back to deffinition school. I am one class away from my B.S., was CSU easy? No it wasn’t. It has pros and cons just like every aspect of life. Teacher Interview Essay. The teacher isn’t there telling you what to do, you have to both essays be self motivated. Teacher Essay Questions. You do have to study and you do have to put forth an effort. If your more proud of the name of the college you graduated from rather than the information obtained while in college then you have a problem. Punishment. I rather show my potential employers my CSU degree and interview demonstrate the skills I have to for research support my degree. CSU is not a diploma mill.
FYI, there are several well known universities that have partnered up with CSU and will accept CSU degrees for acceptance into their graduate programs. Temple University and USF to name a few. Yeah the 20 some odd partners of CSU may not be alot, but it is a start. For the people reading these comments and may be wondering if you should attend CSU, yes you should. I rather have a distance learning degree than no degree at all.. It is teacher interview questions, what you make of fast and healthy it….. They are nationally accredited. I am currently a student at interview essay CSU.
So far it has meet all of my expectations and I couldn’t be happier with what I have accomplished so far! So far I am really enjoying my time with CSU. Food And Healthy Food. I have attended a lot of online universities, and though those schools are regionally accredited, they’re a total scam and annoyance all at the same time. I rarely receive annoying phone calls from teacher interview essay questions, CSU. The blackboard is essay, easy to interview essay questions access and page paper the assignments are easily structured for you to get your work done. What is the questions purpose of attending a university with DETC accreditation? That all depends on the individual. Do I wish I had $0 debt, perfect credit score, and graduated at the average college age of 22-23? Of course! But, that did not happen. Instead, I attended American Intercontinental University, put myself in debt by $35,000 and did not earn a degree.
I came in to CSU with 66 credits, which means, I am a little more than halfway from completion. Sides Punishment. I had attempted to take my credits from AIU and transfer to another university, but they were only teacher essay questions going to accept half of my credits, which meant that I would have gone over my limit of $55,000 and for research I’d have to pay out of pocket, of which I cannot afford. My current employer asks us to earn an accredited college degree for the OPPORTUNITY (notice I did not say guarantee employment) but, the OPPORTUNITY for advancement. I emphasize OPPORTUNITY because just because you earn a college degree does not guarantee you you’re going to questions be promoted. You have to sell yourself during the engineering cover letter interview, and teacher interview essay questions you have to distinguish yourself as an individual who has picked up a book and read it once in his lifetime.
So, CSU was my best and cheapest option. Again, if I had to start all over and I just graduated High School (class of for a paper 2000) I would have attended Arizona State University, as I am sure many of you have seen their advertisements everywhere; however, that did not happen, so if you add everything up and as I observe myself at this stage in my life: married with an 11 month old; my best bet has been Columbia Southern University, again, not the interview essay questions most recognizable name, not the most prestige, not a school I would have attended if I had just graduated High School, but at paper apa this stage in my life, with an opportunity for advancement, this is the BEST school for me personally. This may sound taboo, but I honestly do not care about how rigorous or non rigorous my assignments are. In fact, the easier the assignment, the easier the school, the better for me. It just means I get to spend less time writing papers and studying, and more time with my family. Look, I’ve met plenty of questions people with degrees that should not have college degrees. They cannot spell, they cannot write, they speak as though they just attended a rap concert or a rock concert, so if you are one of for research those I highly suggest you attended a university that will challenge you to teacher essay questions learn. As for me, I am an avid reader, a writer, someone who considers himself a book geek. I enjoy reading daily. I enjoy writing daily. For A Paper. I enjoy learning something new everyday, so regardless of whether or not I put much effort into my education with CSU it doesn’t change the fact that I am already well educated.
Like most, we just need that piece of paper to say we have a college degree and questions have met the essay fast and healthy food requirements for us to essay questions have an opportunity to interview for that job we want. Good luck to page all and God bless! I’m a student at CSU and I’m very happy. I complete my BS degree last year and now I’m working on my MBA in Marketing. Yes people might say CSU is teacher questions, a fake or its just taking money. But people don’t realize how others feel walking across the reference page for research paper apa stage when they called your name to received your degree. So if you going to judge CSU just because DETC accreditation please do your research on other different on-line colleges around the teacher essay questions world. NOT A SCAM, MY DAUGHTER GRADUATES FROM THEIR ON HER BACHELOR’S DEGREE IN SAFETY MANAGEMENT (OSHA) DEGREE ON FRIDAY-OLIVER NORTH THE SPEAKER, SO TOO, NO SCAM. SHE HAS GOTTENED A JOB IN OSHA, YET, SHE WANTS OIL REFINERY SAFETY DEALING WITH SAFETY MANAGEMENT..
I have read the comments and I understand that some may not. like the school or feel that it is reference page for research apa, a degree farm. Interview Questions. They say that you cannot get. a job with a degree from CSU. Well I have been working on my master’s degree in. Occupational Safety and Health and engineering letter outline I have a B.S. in interview questions Fire Science from CSU. Well.
I landed a job with the federal government working in the safety department. This is the largest employer in the United States and since I have been at this. job for two years I have been promoted once and getting ready to be promoted. again. So my degree from CSU has provided me a better job with better pay. If.
the government will accept the degree, then that was good enough for me. Any. degree is reference for research paper apa, what you make of it. I know people out teacher interview questions there that have degrees from. major schools that cannot find work and have the student loans that are killing. them. You have to find the degree that works for you and will allow you to.
advance and meet your goals. CSU did that for me and fast and healthy food I am thankful for the opportunity. to be able to allow myself to teacher interview essay better my life along with that of essay structure my family. It. comes down to teacher essay research and if you didn’t do your research then that is one you, not the school. For myself I like the online programs and it works for thesis statement me. True. they do not have the normal school atmosphere that some enjoy, but for me I see.
that as a distraction. My wife has two degrees from the University of North. Carolina and she is working in a job that doesn’t even require a degree. Questions. It was. because of the of outline research job market in her field. I have a degree and interview essay getting ready to.
finish my second from CSU and I have landed a great job. Maybe if they change their negative attitude they will find a job and essay stop blaming others for their failures. The grammar in these posts is horrific. I think it all depends on a persons life. Questions. I am a father of 4 and a single income household. I did not have time to sides essays go and sit in teacher class because I had a family to provide for.
I have completed my BS, MS, and essay food and healthy almost done with my MBA through CSU. All of my experience to date has been positive with them and I do not regret it one bit attending this school. I have worked for large companies as a safety manager and I am now a safety director for a large oil and gas company. Essay. A degree does not make the person. I have friends that have degrees from Harvard and engineering I make more money because they do not have a degree that is in high demand. With my degrees I was able to pursue my CSP, and CIH certifications. Teacher Interview. If the BCSP will accept it then it was good enough for me. As a current student at CSU it is important to state that my current employment is solely due to of outline for a paper the Bachelors Degree received at Columbia Southern University. In fact, I was offered a position as an EHS manager the same week that I finished the program. It was possible to finish this degree within 15 months (while working full-time) since they offered course credit for professional certifications and accepted all transfer credits from my Associates Degree in teacher Liberal Arts. Having never worked in the safety field it was amazing how this piece of paper made such an both sides of capital essays, impact.
I am now working on finishing my Master’s degree in teacher interview essay questions Occupational Safety and Health: Environmental Management and am hopeful that this will even further my employment potential. Low tuition rate. OSHAcademy credits for professional learning and tuition discounts upon research completing a qualifyinng program.
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Essay: The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini. The Kite Runner, written by Khaled Hosseini, is teacher interview essay, a famous novel for both sides punishment its devastating and painfully honest depiction of identity, betrayal, deception and teacher questions, atonement. The narrative portrays the journey of a boy escaping from his haunted childhood while torturing himself with his own contrition. These two concepts of identity and redemption play a vital role in essay tutorial creating the string that binds the characters together. As a reader of essay questions, The Kite Runner, one embarks on a journey that leads through the life of the glamorous prosperous Afghanis, as well as the structure treacherous horrific life of those less fortunate. Most importantly, however, one encounters face-to-face the good and evil that comes out when these two very distinct lives are intertwine.
This bildungsroman narrated by the protagonist Amir is the tale of the relationship between the narrator and Hassan, his Hazara servant. It’s a journey through the interview essay war ravaged Afghanistan and the conflicts ridden mind of Amir. The memory plays a central part in reconstruction of the both sides punishment essays tale as the protagonist lays bare his inner conflicts and foibles. The simple act of running after kites finds a different and a strangely problematic voice in the narrative. Loyalty, conflicts, fear, strength, weakness mire together to give a colour that is Hussein’s Kite Runner. Amir as a child is physically weak and lacks natural courage and he finds resort in the arms of books and the world of essay, letters. Essay About Fast And Healthy? But his father fails (rather refuses) to interview questions, see his talent outside the thesis deffinition physical world. Amir’s soul mate is Hasan. Teacher? Though being very close to him yet Amir always felt himself to be superior to Hassan because of his higher birth. Their lives takes a different turn when his inner weakness makes him betray Hassan. Amir realises his inner weakness but he refuses to accept the both of capital flaw even as it continues to.
eat him from inside. He feels staying away from Hassan would cure him of his weakness. He fails terribly. The tale is teacher interview essay, Amir’s journey of structure, redemption and his attempt to win back his nang and namoes (honour and pride) in teacher questions his own eyes. The use of the narrative I not only gives the novel its basic unity, it also helps in creating a web which personalizes the tale and colours it with an honest inner view. One may often try to identify one’s own inner flaws as personified in others but such an example, act invariably ends up fragmenting the self and interview questions, its relationship with the other becomes all the more complicated.
Hosseini brings out this aspect deftly in the novel. Hosseini has created a moving tale that is not only very engaging but also invites us to look inside ourselves. A painfully honest story. Amir’s ‘unatoned sins’, as they are described in the novel’s opening chapter, have plagued his conscience and cast an essay tutorial, oppressive shadow over teacher essay questions his joys and triumphs. The phone call interrupts Amir’s seemingly comfortable life as a married man and sides of capital essays, newly-published novelist in America, and launches an epic journey back to Afghanistan in search of redemption. The present paper explores guilt and perseverance in The Kite Runner as the teacher interview questions motivation for an individual to seek redemption and attain the satisfaction of self-fulfillment. Unfolded through the first person narrative mode , the novel is structured like the memory lane of the protagonist Amir whose sense of example of outline for a research paper, remorse and guilt over the sin of leaving behind his ever loyal friend Hassan, for reasons far too vague , force him to commit acts of expiation through return . Amir’s return to homeland, tarnished and tattered by war, fundamentalism and teacher interview questions, the turbulence of structure, a Taliban led regime unfolds his journey towards self identity and teacher, redemption. Unlike Changez in The Reluctant Fundamentalist, in The Kite Runner, Amir faces no sense of identity crisis in the adopted homeland.
Rather he feels himself a stranger when he returns to the changed. realities of his home town, Kabul. Letter Outline? Amir’s journey home in search of Hassan’s surviving son, Sohrab is replete with conflict, violence and violations. In the novel, the teacher essay questions border between Afghanistan and Pakistan is a volatile plane of essay structure tutorial, clash and confrontation of identities and loyalties. As Seyham describes,’ border carries intrinsically within itself an idea of perpetual motion and confrontation (201). The border thus turns almost into a real space in which the confrontations between cultures , nationalities and teacher questions, languages take place , and in fast food and healthy which , ideally the culture of hybridization replaces the traditional idea of a national identity. Amir is a cultural hybrid which makes him distinct and unique. Thus the novel revolves around the teacher interview essay central axiom of personal selves permeated by political prejudices and page paper, permutations.
In a lifetime, everyone will face personal battles and guilt, some large and some small.Such as guilt over sneaking out, not doing homework, or telling your parents a little white lie. Interview Essay Questions? People find peace of mind through redeeming themselves, in other words, we do something that makes up for the cause of guilt. Essay Fast Food And Healthy Food? Khaled Hosseini’s novel ‘The Kite Runner’ revolves around betrayal and redemption. Redemption is the act of saying or being saved from sin, error or evil, which the main character Amir seems to need the most. Interview Essay Questions? Amir lives with the reference page guilt he has built up over the years because of one incident from his childhood. Amir’s fathers words still echo through his head “A boy who won’t stand up for himself becomes a man who can’t stand up to teacher questions, anything.” ‘pg.
24. Although Amir destroyed the lives of many people, and he has had more than one opportunity to redeem himself of his guilt, he is not the statement selfish little boy he once was. How often does one stop and think, “How will this affect everyone else in my life?” Amir had a chance in the alley, to put Hassan first and change the path of both their lives, but he made the decision to turn around and run because it was what he thought was best for him: “I had one last chance to make a decision. One final opportunity to decide who I was going to be. Essay? I could step into essay fast that alley, stand up for Hassan ‘ the teacher essay questions way he’d stood up for me all those times in the past ‘ and accept whatever would happen to essay about food and healthy food, me. Or I could run. Interview Essay Questions? In the sides punishment essays end, I ran. I ran because I was a coward. I was afraid of Assef and what he would do to me. I was afraid of teacher interview essay questions, getting hurt.
That’s what I told myself as I turned my back to the alley, to Hassan. That’s what I made myself believe. I actually aspired to cowardice, because the alternative, the real reason I was running, was that Assef was right: Nothing was free in this world. Maybe Hassan was the price I had to pay, the of capital lamb I had to interview essay, slay, to win Baba.” Amir’s selfish ways were a result of the lack of his father’s affection in his life. As a young boy, he was forced to deal with his father’s disinterest in him, which made him incredibly jealous of Hassan. Amir could not understand at the time, why his father adored his servant’s son more than his own son.
As the tension increases between Amir and Hassan, Amir can no longer stand to see Hassan everyday because of what Amir had not stopped and he could not bare seeing his father showing Hassan love and not him. Hassan and his father are forced to leave their home after Amir places his watch under Hassan’s pillow and accuses him of stealing it. Hassan did not even deny the accusations because he had figured out what Amir was doing. Essay Structure Tutorial? “Hassan knew. He knew I had betrayed him and yet he was rescuing me once again, maybe for teacher the last time.” ‘pg.111Even after the alleged theft of the essay structure tutorial watch, Amir’s father is teacher essay, willing to structure tutorial, forgive Hassan, which stunned Amir, and made him see that the love his father has for teacher Hassan is reference, greater than he imagined. Amir did not just ruin Hassan’s life; he also ruined the lives of many people with his decisions after the incident in the alley. Baba lost a chance to watch his son, Hassan, grow up and essay questions, also lost the statement chance to bring him to America so he could start a new life.
Sohrab lost both his parents to war because they were still living in Afghanistan, lost his childhood to teacher interview questions, war, and tried to commit suicide as a result of Amir going back on his promise to keep him safe from orphanages. Tutorial? Soraya lost her right to the truth when Amir. kept his past a secret even though she opened up to him about hers. It is one thing to teacher essay questions, destroy your own life with guilt, but it is a completely different issue when you destroy the lives of others. Before Amir can go on the road to redemption, Amir must realize that he can’t go back and change what he has done as a child, and he must find inner peace. Although if it was not for Amir’s actions as a child, Sohrab never would have needed to structure, be saved in the first place but by teacher essay questions, saving Sohrab, the last piece of Hassan’s life, does make a difference. From the reference apa moment he chose to turn his back on Hassan, there were many chances where “There’s a way to be good again” ‘pg.238 for all his wrongdoings, but he chose not to take any of these.
Sohrab was his last and only chance for redemption. “I have a wife in America, a home, a career and a family”. But how could I pack up and interview essay questions, go back home when my actions may have cost Hassan a chance at those very same things? And what Rahim Khan revealed to me changed things. Made me see how my entire life, long before the winter of 1975, dating back to when that singing Hazara woman was still nursing me, had been a cycle of lies betrayals and secrets.” ‘pg.238. Amir admits that he cost Hassan a chance at a good life and that he had many opportunities to change the page for research paper apa outcome of Hassan’s life. But at teacher questions, this moment he realized he. could lose everything he has built in reference for research America, but for teacher interview essay the first time in his life, Amir did not care about only himself, he came to terms with what he had done, and he was ready to redeem himself at any cost. Amir finally became the man who stood up for himself and his sins.
Throughout his childhood, Amir looked for his father’s affection and structure tutorial, he never could get it. His father. had said “I’m telling you, Rahim, there is something missing in that boy.” ‘pg.24 Amir’s father would have been proud of him at this very moment because that was all he had wanted from him. The guilt that was built over the years was finally put to rest at the safety of Sohrab. In Afghanistan when Amir stood up for Sohrab and Assef aggressively beat him up, Amir had said “My body was broken’just how badly I wouldn’t find out until later’but I felt healed. Healed at last.
I laughed.” ‘pg.289 which showed Amir had come to terms with what he had done as a child and was finally felt relieved. Although he was getting beat up, it did not matter anymore, he just wished he had stood up to Assef years ago, and maybe he would have earned his redemption in teacher essay questions that alley. In chapter seven, an unthinkable things happens: Hassan is raped in an alley by a bully, Assef, and Amir does nothing to stop it. He allows Hassan to be abused and is secretly a little happy that Hassan is being punished for all of the essay about food and healthy attention he has stolen (at least in Amir’s mind) from teacher interview essay questions Baba, Amir’s father. He runs away from the essay about fast food and healthy food awful scene and says,
‘ The real reason I was running, was that Assef was right: Nothing was free in this world. Maybe Hassan was the price I had to pay, the lamb I had to teacher interview questions, slay, to win Baba’. Things get even worse in chapter nine when Amir’s guilt, shame, and anger are so great that he wants nothing more than for food Hassan to be gone. Teacher Questions? Amir tries several tactics, but. none of of capital punishment essays, them work. Finally he frames Hassan by planting a watch and some money under Hassan’s bed. Baba is finally forced to ask Hassan directly about the incident. Baba came right out and asked. Teacher Essay Questions? ‘Did you steal that money?
Did you steal Amir’s watch, Hassan’? Hassan’s reply was a single word, delivered in a thin, raspy voice: ‘Yes.’I flinched, like I’d been slapped. My heart sank and I almost blurted out the truth. Then I understood: This was Hassan’s final sacrifice for cover me. If he’d said no, Baba would have believed him because we all knew Hassan never lied.
And if Baba believed him, then I’d be the accused; I would have to explain and I would be revealed for what I really was. Teacher Questions? Baba would never, ever forgive me. And that led to another understanding: Hassan knew He knew I’d seen everything in that alley, that I’d stood there and done nothing. He knew I had betrayed him and yet he was rescuing me once again, maybe for the last time. Amir wanted to cover letter, get rid of Hassan, and teacher interview, Baba now sends Hassan away because of Amir’s lie. Example Research? We find out questions, later that Hassan is also Baba’s son, so Hassan is being betrayed by statement, both Amir, his brother, and Baba, his father. Despite that, Hassan remains loyal and loving to them both. The opening lines of the book speak of Amir’s guilt and remorse:That was a long time ago, but it’s wrong what they say about the past, I’ve learned, about how you can bury it, Because the past claws its way out. Looking back now, I realize I have been peeking into that deserted alley for teacher interview essay questions the last twenty-six years. Amir lives with this guilt for a long time; more than two decades later, a family friend, Rahim Khan, offers Amir a chance for redemption.
He wants Amir to come back to Afghanistan to rescue Sohrab, Hassan’s son, from an orphanage. Reference For Research? Hassan died. in another act of loyalty to the family. Amir finally agrees to rescue the questions boy who, it turns out, is in a much worse place than an orphanage by the time Amir finds him. That was supposed to be the end of his obligation: Amir would rescue his nephew, Baba’s grandson, and leave him with a nice family in Pakistan. Instead, Amir is moved to bring Sohrab back to the United States and raise him as his own son. This act of and healthy food, rescue serves as an questions, act of essay about fast food, redemption, both for essay his own sins and his father’s against the true and loyal Hassan.
Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Literature essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is essay, qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and interview questions, we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised English Literature work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This English Literature essay was submitted to engineering, us by a student in interview order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of both sides essays, this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/english-literature/essay-the-kite-runner-by-khaled-hosseini-2/ [04-10-17].
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