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kurds essay Numbering over 22 million, the essay Kurds are one of the largest non-state nations in the world. Health? Their homeland, Kurdistan, has been forcibly divided and lies mostly within the present-day borders of Turkey, Iraq and Iran, with smaller parts in Syria, Armenia and Azerbaijan. Essay On Shoplifting? The greatest number of Kurds today still live in Kurdistan, though a large Kurdish diaspora has developed in this century, especially in the main cities of Turkey and Iran and more recently in Europe as well. Between 10 and 12 million Kurds live in junior club Turkey, where they comprise about 20 percent of the essay consequences population. Between 5 and 6 million live in Iran, accounting for health in midwifery, close to on shoplifting consequences, 10 percent of the population. Kurds in essay Iraq number more than 4 million, and comprise about 23 percent of the essay on shoplifting consequences population. In the modern era, the Kurdish nation, with its distinctive society and culture, has had to in midwifery, confront in all of the “host” states centralizing, ethnically-based nationalist regimes -- Turkish, Arab and Persian -- with little or no tolerance for expressions of national autonomy within their borders. While the essay on shoplifting modes and scale of oppression have varied in time and by place, the conditions of Kurds share some important features. First, the Kurdish areas overlap nation-state borders: They thus acquire significance for usc personal essay, “national security” and are vulnerable to interference and essay on shoplifting manipulation by regional and international powers.
Second, the Kurdish regions of these countries are usually the poorest, least developed areas, systematically marginalized by the centers of economic power. Health Essay? Third, the dynamics of assimilation, repression and essay Kurdish resistance in each country have affected the direction and george outline outcome of the Kurdish struggles in the neighboring countries. A fourth shared feature, and the focus of essay on shoplifting consequences, this essay, is that these Kurdish societies are themselves internally complex, and fraught with differences of politics and health promotion in midwifery essay ideology, social class, dialect and, still in a few places, clan. In spite of a long history of on shoplifting consequences, struggle, Kurdish nationalism has not succeeded in achieving its goal of independence or even enduring autonomy. Do recent events require us to change this assessment? In 1992, a Regional Government of Iraqi Kurdistan was established, but it is economically besieged and functions very much at the sufferance of descriptive, a Western military umbrella. In Turkey, a ten-year-old armed struggle has effectively defied the unrestrained efforts of the essay consequences Turkish state to impose a military solution, but a political solution acceptable to the Kurds does not appear imminent. The Kurdish movement, in contrast to many other national liberation movements, has experienced a persistent contradiction between its traditional leadership and the relatively developed society it seeks to liberate. Only to the extent that this may be changing does the future hold some promise for Kurdish aspirations. Today, about half the population lives in urban centers, and descriptive introductory feudal relations of production in essay rural areas have almost disappeared.
Yet the politics and ideology of much of the leadership can hardly be distinguished from the worldview of landed notables of the past. One reason for this may be that Kurdish nationalism emerged as an ideology long before the formation of the Kurds as a nation, not in a middle-class milieu but in george essay a largely agrarian society with a powerful tribal component. From the sixteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century, much of Kurdistan was under the rule of independent and autonomous Kurdish principalities that produced a flourishing rural and urban life in the seventeenth century.  Kurdish destinies changed radically around this time, when the Ottoman and Persian empires divided Kurdistan into essay on shoplifting spheres of influence, agreeing on a border in essay paragraph 1639. In order to protect their sovereignty, the principalities supported one or the other power, and for most of the next three centuries a prevailing war economy destroyed the agrarian system, devastated villages and towns, precipitated massacres and led to forcible migrations of Kurds and the settlement of essay on shoplifting, Turkish tribes in parts of Kurdistan.
All of this inhibited further growth of urban areas and settled agrarian production relations, reinforcing tribal ways of life. Although the war economy retarded the consolidation of the interview questions Kurds as a nation, the consequences destruction and suffering stimulated apolitical consciousness that was unprecedented in the region. This emerged first in the realms of george essay outline, language and literature when, in the sixteenth century, Kurdish ulama broke the monopoly of Arabic and essay on shoplifting Persian languages over literary production. In 1597, Sharaf Khan, prince of the interview paper powerful Bidlis principality, compiled the first history of Kurdistan, Sharafnameh . Although written in Persian, this text presents historical data on the degree of independence enjoyed by different Kurdish states. Thus, the essay on shoplifting consequences first chapter is about the in midwifery essay dynasties that enjoyed the on shoplifting consequences privilege of club essay, royalty; the second deals with rulers who did not claim royalty but sometimes struck coin and had khutba (Friday prayer sermons) recited in their names, and so forth.  The most important literary manifestation of political awareness was Ahmad-e Khani (1651-1706), who in 1694-1695 rewrote the Kurdish popular ballad “Mem u Zin” in the form of a poetic narrative romance. “Why have the Kurds been deprived, why have they all been subjugated?” he asked. He rejected the view that it was because they were “ignorant” or “without perfection.” They were subordinated, rather, because they were “orphans,” i.e., without a king who would unite the essay consequences discordant principalities and form an descriptive essay independent kingdom. Essay On Shoplifting? Although they excelled in qualities of usc personal essay, munificence and bravery, the essay on shoplifting princes refused to usc personal, unite under the suzerainty of essay on shoplifting, a Kurdish king.
Khani is explicitly modern in his conceptualization of the Kurds as a nation. He referred to Kurds, Arabs, Persians and Turks as milal (plural of milla ) not in the then-prevailing meaning of “religious community” but rather in an ethnic sense.  The second apostle of Kurdish nationalism, Haji Qadiri Koyi (1817?-1897), was also a mullah and poet, but even more secular. By the time he was composing his fiery poems in the late nineteenth century, the remaining principalities had been overthrown by the Ottoman and washington essay outline Persian states. Koyi attacked the sheikhs and mullahs who did not care for the Kurdish language and consequences the notables who ignored the destinies of beta club, their people. Living his last years in on shoplifting cosmopolitan Istanbul, he was familiar with the nationalist struggles and the material advancement of modern nations. He constantly advocated use of the Kurdish language. Although his own medium was poetry, he urged the Kurds to publish magazines and newspapers. Khani and junior club essay Koyi’s propositions amount to a political manifesto: The Kurds are a distinct people with a distinct language, homeland and way of life. On Shoplifting? The road to emancipation is the formation of an essays about the world independent and unified Kurdish state. Ideologically, however, Khani spoke for the ruling princes and sought liberation in unification under a powerful king.
By contrast, Koyi’s ideas reflected budding modern social forces within Kurdish society.  He advocated both national liberation and transformation of consequences, Kurdish society. Although these modernist ideas were constantly repeated in poetry and journalism, social forces capable of translating them into political parties and platforms did not enter the scene until the 1940s.  How can we account for this lag? For one thing, the fall of the principalities had not been due to the rise of new social forces, and did not by any means put an end to feudal relations and tribalism. Rather, the system of Kurdish principalities was overthrown and replaced by two centralizing although loosely integrated imperial regimes in Istanbul and Tehran. The vacant leadership of the princes was filled by paragraph the sheikhs, notables and on shoplifting consequences remnants of princely families who retained property and influence. These are the elements that continued to shape the nationalist struggle until the mid-twentieth century. In spite of the diversity of revolts in the first part of the century, their struggle was for a purely nationalist agenda aiming to replace foreign rule by a native rule that would keep traditional structures intact. Democratic rule, the demands of the peasantry for essays the world, land and water, the hopes of urban masses for a decent life and the freedom of women were ignored.
Militarily, the essay on shoplifting consequences village and the mountains were the main sites of armed resistance, and the leadership tended to rely on outside powers rather than on a strategy of social transformation of their own societies. When opportunistic outside support withdrew, they gave up the struggle. The first organizational break with feudal and tribal politics occurred in 1942, with the formation of the health in midwifery essay Society for the Revival of Kurdistan (known as Komalay J. K. or Komala, the Kurdish word for consequences, society or league) in Mahabad, Iran.  Its leadership and membership were largely drawn from the urban bourgeoisie, large and small, educated youth, and nationalist-minded members of the clergy and landed aristocracy. Komala became the Kurdistan Democratic Party in 1945 in interview to ask paper order to establish an autonomous republic in part of the area then in the Soviet sphere of influence. The Kurdish Republic of 1946 was the nationalist movement’s most important achievement in modern state-building: although it did not claim independence, it had a president, a flag, a cabinet and a national army. Kurdish was the official language. It was ruled by a party whose leaders were drawn mostly from the ranks of the urban petty bourgeoisie, and which showed respect for on shoplifting consequences, the rights of minorities and certain rights of women.  Although formed within the borders of the Iranian state, hundreds of Iraqi Kurds took an active part in the military and civil administration, including Mustafa Barzani, who became a prominent military leader.
The national anthem was a poem composed by a Kurd from Iraq. The US and Britain viewed the Kurdish and Azerbaijan republics as extensions of Soviet influence, and supported the Shah’s military campaign against them. Soviet troops withdrew from Iran in May 1946, and seven months later Iranian forces forcibly suppressed both autonomous republics. Kurds throughout the world still celebrate duy rebendan (January 22), the foundation date of the republic; its anthem has been adopted as the national anthem; portraits of Qazi Mohammad, the head of the republic, today decorate public and private spaces in areas controlled by the Regional Government of Kurdistan in Iraq. Following the fall of the Kurdish republic, Kurdish Democratic Parties formed in Iraq and health promotion later in Syria and Turkey. The majority of leaders and activists were from the modern intelligentsia, but included anyone who was committed to nationalist aspirations. Each party aimed at achieving autonomy for its respective part of Kurdistan and democracy for on shoplifting consequences, the country of which they were part. This was due both to political expediency and to the influence of communist parties in usc personal essay the opposition movements of on shoplifting, Iran, Iraq and Syria. The 1950s were years of major political upheaval in the Middle East. In Kurdistan, feudal relations of production suffered major setbacks, largely due to peasant uprisings and later to land reforms initiated by the central governments. Junior Beta?  A visible change in Kurdish society in this period was the rise of the urban population due to the land reforms and the wars in the countryside. Newly freed peasants moved into Kurdish cities, where the lack of industrial enterprises seriously hindered their transformation into wage laborers.
While some rural migrants engaged in seasonal or temporary construction work (contractual or wage labor), others ended up in on shoplifting consequences street vending activities. Questions For Research Paper? Some migrants maintained their village ties by working in towns while continuing to farm for family consumption.  The differentiation and specialization in urban economies introduced new social strata. On Shoplifting? A small Kurdish working class formed in the oil industry, construction and a few factories. Interview Questions For Research Paper? Small workshops required auto mechanics, electricians, printers, mechanics, plumbers and painters, while services and transport employed many others. A modern bourgeoisie emerged, comprising mainly professionals rather than entrepreneurs -- doctors, nurses, engineers, teachers, bank managers, lawyers and journalists. Migrant labor -- male and female -- traveled as far as Ankara, Baghdad, Istanbul, Tehran, Isfahan and essay Europe. The traditional intelligentsia, mainly ulama and educated landed notables, was displaced by a growing modern intelligentsia. Essay Introductory Paragraph? Another feature of essay consequences, changing social relations was the paragraph increasing access of urban women to education, and their participation in social, economic, political and cultural life outside their homes. These transformations left their impact on the nationalist movement, expanding its social bases and increasing political, ideological and organizational tension.
The urban intelligentsia eventually made their presence felt in the countryside, the traditional domain of the landed aristocracy -- this time not as nationalists who sought protection but rather as political and military leaders. This marked the beginning of consequences, a bitter struggle within the autonomist movement. Conflict between old and new broke out in early 1964 in the Kurdish Democratic Party of descriptive essay introductory paragraph, Iraq. The KDP was headed by a politburo composed of leftist-minded nationalists and a traditionalist tribal leader, Mustafa Barzani. He had a reputation for courageous struggle against the Iraqi state, had been a military leader in the 1946 Kurdish Republic, and spent 11 years of exile in essay consequences the Soviet Union. Factions of the landed notables, threatened by Baghdad’s land reform and other radical measures, supported the autonomist movement, but were apprehensive about the radical politics of the politburo. They supported Barzani, who cared little for party organization or peasants’ unions. The conflict erupted when Barzani, without the knowledge of the politburo, signed what members considered to be a humiliating deal with a weak Iraqi government. The conflict was not over essays about the world, tactics only, but rather over the question of democracy, the role of party organization, and the social component of the movement. But while modernists maneuvered to contest Barzani’s abuse of power, he quickly mobilized peshmerga (guerrilla) forces and replaced the modernists with a loyal politburo. Unprepared for what they called a coup d’etat, the modernists lost the initiative and took refuge in Iran. Essay Consequences? 
Between 1964 and 1975, the reformists failed to achieve hegemony in the movement, in spite of considerable support especially in urban areas. In 1966, they entered an alliance with Baghdad against Barzani. Following the 1968 Baath takeover, Baghdad and Barzani agreed in 1970 on interview questions to ask for research an autonomy plan to be implemented within four years. The modernists again joined the Barzani camp, although a group who described themselves as Marxist-Leninist came together with urban intelligentsia to form an essay on shoplifting consequences underground organization that later took the name of the Kurdistan Toilers’ League (KTL, or Komala). Baghdad stalled on implementing autonomy, making Barzani increasingly receptive to US, Israeli and Iranian offers of essay, support should the KDP take up arms again. In 1974, Baghdad unilaterally decreed a Kurdish autonomous region on its terms and launched a military offensive.
When Tehran and Washington abruptly terminated support for the KDP in March 1975, following an agreement between Baghdad and Tehran, Barzani announced the collapse of the armed struggle. In the absence of any plans for retreat, thousands of peshmerga surrendered to Iraqi forces, while 100,000 to 200,000 peshmerga and their families and supporters fled, mostly into Iran. The KTL and other leftists had long maintained that the KDP, with its traditional structure and social base and essay on shoplifting autocratic leadership, could not successfully lead a campaign for Kurdish self-determination. Together with Jalal Talabani, a leading Barzani critic within the KDP politburo, they formed the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) in June 1975 and resumed armed struggle inside Iraqi Kurdistan. Their success motivated Iran and Turkey to encourage the remnants of the Barzani leadership to resume guerrilla activities in Iraq as well. Essay Introductory Paragraph?  The KDP had its main strength in the Dohuk governorate (Badinan region), while the PUK had the upper hand in the governorates of Erbil, Kirkuk and Suleimaniya, which covers more than 75 percent of the Iraqi Kurdish population. (Kurds in this latter region speak a dialect called Sorani, which is also spoken by most Kurds in Iran; Kurds in Badinan speak Kurmanji, which is essay consequences, also spoken by most Kurds in Turkey.) The period after 1975 was one of heavy repression. Iraqi forces destroyed hundreds of villages in outline order to create a “security belt” along the borders with Iran, Turkey and Syria, and resettled the inhabitants in camps in consequences southern and less mountainous areas. Baghdad also bought support by distributing some of its rising oil revenues, although productive investments were channeled to the center and south of the country. With the outbreak of the Iraq-Iran war in essay September 1980, both regimes tried to use the Kurds against each other.
Baghdad, forced to concentrate its troops on the southern front with Iran, stepped up military conscription, and in the north recruited new lightly armed militias, which Kurds referred to as jahsh (little donkeys), headed by traditional clan leaders. Differences of ideology and political practice as well as tactics produced periods of heavy clashes between the on shoplifting consequences PUK and the KDP. The two came together, at Tehran’s urging, as the Kurdistan Front in questions paper July 1987, just prior to Baghdad’s genocidal Anfal offensive. By 1987, as Iraq began to gain militarily in essay on shoplifting consequences its long war with Iran, it moved to impose a “final solution” in the Kurdish region. ‘Ali Hasan al-Majid, a cousin of Saddam Hussein, took over as head of the Baath Party’s Northern Bureau, with full authority over state and party resources in that region. Baghdad progressively transferred infantry and armored units from the southern front to the north where, together with tens of thousands of to ask paper, jahsh militiamen, they carried out the on shoplifting Anfal campaign in eight stages from in midwifery, February to September 1988. In early March 1991, following Iraq’s defeat by essay the US-led coalition, popular uprisings erupted first in the south of Iraq and usc personal essay then in the Kurdish cities, towns and complexes. The PUK and essay on shoplifting consequences KDP quickly moved to take control. They declared a general amnesty, inviting the jahsh commanders to essay paragraph, join, and in less than three weeks took over virtually all of Kurdistan.
In the weeks that followed, though, Iraqi forces retook much of this territory. After millions of Kurds fled to the mountains bordering Turkey and Iran, Western forces intervened to set up a small “safe haven” zone around Dohuk and Zakho, in the Badinan region dominated by the KDP, and, subsequently, a “no-fly zone” above the thirty-sixth parallel. The KTL, despite its formative role in the PUK, was overshadowed by the personality and influence of Talabani. After the fall of the Soviet Union, and then the formation of the Regional Government of Iraqi Kurdistan in 1992, the KTL dissolved itself into the PUK. Today the KDP and PUK run the government jointly, with small radical and communist groups and newer Islamist groups on the margins. On Shoplifting Consequences?  The 1961-1975 struggle in Iraq overshadowed the Kurdish movements in Iran and Turkey.
Although the armed resistance in Iraq initially contributed to the revival of the KDP in Iran (KDPI), Barzani argued that Kurds in health promotion in midwifery essay Iran should delay their struggle until the KDP had achieved meaningful autonomy in essay consequences Iraq. In exchange for limited support by Tehran, he ordered those Kurdish activists from Iran who had escaped into Iraqi Kurdistan to stop anti-Iranian activism. One faction followed Barzani, but a group of activists split to essays, form the KDPI/Revolutionary Committee. The Iranian army was able to crush their resistance, helped when Barzani closed the borders. The rest of the KDPI leadership remained in essay Baghdad and Europe until the Pahlavi monarchy was on the verge of collapse in george washington essay late 1978. During their absence, Kurdish society and politics had changed.
In 1969, a group of radical intellectuals came together as the Revolutionary Organization of Toilers of Kurdistan, better known as Komala, similar to and helped by the KTL in Iraq. Komala, opposing both pro-Soviet tendencies and the urban guerrilla emphasis of some Iranian revolutionary groups, worked to form peasant unions after the Islamist revolution and acquired much popular support among Kurdish peasants and youth. As in Iraq, organizational conflict reflected the emergence of new social forces and essay radical perspectives in the nationalist movement. Descriptive Essay? The KDPI denounced Komala’s activities to organize the peasantry and recruit women, arguing that issues of class struggle should await the achievement of autonomy. The KDPI began armed assaults on the leftist groups as early as 1980, and in 1984 launched a confrontation against Komala that continued for several years and took a heavy toll on consequences both sides. The KDPI has since split, weakened by the assassination of two general secretaries.
Unlike Iraq, where the KTL eventually dissolved into the modernist front, Komala has maintained itself as an alternative to KDPI with its call for a socialist Iran in which Kurdish rights to self-determination will be honored. However, much like KTL, Komala has not been able to liberate itself from the burden of traditionalism, or to turn the nationalist movement into essay paragraph a social revolution or a people’s war. Since 1984, the leadership and much of the organization of both parties has been based in Iraqi Kurdistan. Although both Komala and KDPI formally demand autonomy within Iran, an increasing number of essay on shoplifting, Kurds in Iran and Iraq are arguing more openly in favor of independence, pointing to the failure of negotiations, and numerous deals between the Kurds and various central governments, government associations of Kurdish leaders, and changing international relations. Questions To Ask For Research?  Turkey’s Kemalist regime was intent on building a Western-type secular nation-state based on Turkish national, linguistic and cultural identity. The Kurdish response was a series of revolts throughout the 1920s and 1930s led by essay a combination of landlords, tribal chiefs, sheikhs and urban-based intellectuals. Essays? By 1939, the last of these was brutally repressed, leading many to believe that the Kurdish “problem” had been solved. Hundreds of thousands of Kurds were forcibly deported to western Turkey. By the early 1960s, however, nationalist struggle resumed, encouraged by the upsurge of Kurdish nationalism in essay Iraq and led by younger Kurdish intelligentsia both in health promotion in midwifery essay Kurdistan and in Istanbul, Ankara and other Turkish cities, which by then had sizable Kurdish, populations.
The political spectrum and agendas, while diverse, were influenced, as in Iraq and essay on shoplifting consequences Iran, by leftist and communist formations. The period between the military coups of 1960 and 1980 is characterized by recurrent crises within the Turkish state, cycles of repression, and continuing proliferation of Kurdish political and cultural groups in health in midwifery essay Kurdistan, in Turkish cities, and among Kurdish workers in Germany. Unlike Iraqi Kurdistan, in Turkey most Kurdish organizations in consequences the 1970s espoused socialism. Descriptive Paragraph? The military regime following the 1980 coup was able to essay on shoplifting, suppress most of these organizations. The Kurdistan Workers’ Party, better known by its Kurdish initials, PKK, survived the repression following the 1980 coup, and launched its first attacks against Turkish military targets in 1984. The PKK is health in midwifery essay, distinguished from other Kurdish political parties by its social base, which includes a sizable portion of workers and essay on shoplifting peasants. It advocates both socialism and independence for paper, greater Kurdistan, and puts a priority on armed struggle. In the past, it has avoided cooperation with other Kurdish political organizations. The PKK has been open to women’s participation, and now claims to have thousands of women in its ranks.
Although it has benefited from some Syrian aid, it has effectively relied on the organized support of the Kurds in Kurdistan and in the diaspora in Turkey and abroad. While the PKK is not the only Kurdish political organization in Turkey, its ability to sustain a campaign of essay consequences, armed struggle against the well-armed Turkish army has won it a leading position and washington popular support in essay both urban and rural Kurdish areas, as well as in the Kurdish diaspora. It is difficult to reach a firm assessment concerning the prospects for the Kurdish movement. The present circumstances -- the survival of the PKK-led movement in Turkey against club essay extraordinary Turkish state repression, and the existence in Iraq of a Western-protected Regional Government -- are unprecedented. Yet the consequences obstacles confronting a political resolution of the junior club “Kurdish problem” are no less daunting than before. In Turkey, the state has launched the most recent of its “final offensives” designed to crush the PKK. The scale of repression and devastation has been awesome. Turkish human rights organizations report that many hundreds of villages -- some estimates go as high as 900 or so -- have been “depopulated” and essay consequences many razed to essay, the ground since the beginning of 1993. Scores of journalists and human rights activists have been abducted and on shoplifting consequences tortured, killed or “disappeared.” The ability of the PKK to survive to this point, and to sustain itself largely on the support of Turkey’s Kurds rather than outside powers, indicates that its claim to questions to ask for research paper, represent a new kind of essay on shoplifting consequences, leadership may be well-founded. Unlike in descriptive introductory paragraph Iran and Iraq, where the movement is led by rival parties, the independence movement in Turkey is led by a single organization, one that can boast leading the on shoplifting longest uninterrupted armed resistance in essays modern Kurdish history.
Also, while the Kurdish parties of Iran and Iraq have not been able to undermine the oil-based financial and economic power of those states, the PKK has been able to strike at Turkey’s economy, particularly the vulnerable tourist industry. In addition, Ankara is anxious to become a full member of the European Union, and if the current offensive fails, it may be persuaded by the Western powers to grant the Kurds some concessions along the lines of token linguistic and cultural rights. But any policy that falls short of genuine autonomous rule is likely to essay on shoplifting consequences, fail. Although the PKK has indicated it is willing to negotiate on the basis of autonomy, Ankara remains determined to crush it. In Iraq, many Kurds view the Regional Government of Kurdistan, with its elected parliament and authority over law enforcement units, as an edifice of genuine autonomy. The experience of the Regional Government is important; elections and the relative freedom of political expression and association have been politically invigorating. Essay? Many Kurds insist that they prefer the excruciating economic deprivations they must endure now to any return to rule under Saddam Hussein. This state-building experiment, though, is threatened not only by external foes -- including Tehran, Ankara, Baghdad and Damascus -- but also by internal conflict.
After several years of cooperation in building the Regional Government, the KDP and PUK began a new round of serious fighting in May 1994 -- ironically on the thirtieth anniversary of the 1964 Barzani putsch against the KDP politburo. As of the end of May, interventions by Kurdish government officials and by the Iraqi National Congress (the Iraqi opposition front of which the two Kurdish parties are the largest and essay on shoplifting militarily most significant part) had been unable to halt the health promotion essay killing. Kurdish public opinion inside and outside Kurdistan has accurately assessed this as a potentially suicidal civil war. It must be emphasized, as this essay has tried to do, that this conflict, much like that in South Africa between the African National Congress and essay on shoplifting Inkatha, is rooted in the persistence of traditional regionally based power in interview for research paper the face of a rapidly changing sociopolitical map. In Kurdistan, while the Regional Government confronts economic blockade and political boycott by neighboring states, the two major parties have themselves weakened it by dividing government offices into their respective spheres of essay on shoplifting, influence. Popular outrage has escalated in Kurdish cities as the paragraph two sides have continued to fight. In late May, women marched from Suleimaniya to Erbil, the essay consequences seat of the Regional Government, demanding that the killing stop. Like other, earlier mass actions including the uprising of essay, March 1991 in Iraq, this illustrates the growing readiness of urban masses to challenge traditional authoritarian leaderships and to demand accountability from the self-centered political parties. In Iran, the regime has won the military contest against the autonomist movement, although Komala and the two KDPI factions continue guerrilla operations even in the cities. The Islamist groups organized by Tehran are seen by most Kurds as collaborators.
While there are no prospects for autonomous rule under the Islamic Republic, any serious crack in the state structure in on shoplifting Tehran will bring Kurdistan under the control of the introductory Kurdish parties once again. Kurdish demands for self-rule constitute a democratic pursuit that is incompatible with the despotism and ethnic-based nationalism of the Middle Eastern states. As for many of the essay consequences democratic and revolutionary movements in the region, Kurdish rights to about the world, self-determination continue to be their blind spot. In circumstances of uneven political and economic development, Kurdistan has offered valuable opportunities as a base for liberation that goes beyond Kurdistan. That these opportunities have not been seized demonstrates the weaknesses of these movements as well as the problems of Kurdish nationalism.  Towns and cities have been a permanent feature of Kurdish life. In the essay mid-seventeenth century, Bidlis had a population of about 26,000 with some 1,200 shops and workshops, five madrasas and about the world 70 maktabs , and a sizable group of ulama . Essay On Shoplifting? Although trade was flourishing in these towns, they were, much like pre-industrial medieval European cities, under the domination of the essay landed aristocracy. Ideology in this context is essay consequences, meant as a more or less coherent set of ideas -- political, philosophical, aesthetic, literary, religious -- that can be attributed to a social class or group.  Although sources ignore the role of lower classes in george washington essay outline history, we know, from the earliest recordings of popular ballads in late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, that the peasantry was conscious of the question of consequences, state power. See Amir Hassanpour, Nationalism and promotion in midwifery Language in essay Kurdistan, 1918-1985 (San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press, 1992), p. 56.  See articles “ Milla ” and “ Millet ” in The Encyclopedia of essays about the world, Islam , vol.
7 (1990), pp. On Shoplifting Consequences? 61-64.  For references to the works of Khani and Koyi, see Hassanpour, pp. 66-99.  “Modernist” refers here to a political agenda calling for an end to feudalist and tribal relations, modern education, economic development and political freedoms. This trend, first recorded in Koyi’s poetry in usc personal essay the late nineteenth century, was radicalized in the 1940s and 1950s under the influence of the Communist movement.  Later formations in consequences Iran and Iraq also had the word for “league” in health promotion in midwifery their names and also became known as Komala. They have no organizational link with the Komalay J. K.  Britain and the Soviet Union entered a tripartite agreement in 1941 with Iran by which their forces occupied the southern and essay northern parts of Iran respectively for the duration of World War II.
The primary objective of Soviet support for the Kurdish and Azerbaijan republics of health promotion in midwifery, 1946 was the security of its southern borders, and Moscow chose to accommodate Tehran rather than encourage Kurdish autonomy or independence. For a brief survey of the Kurdish Republic, see Amir Hassanpour, “The Nationalist Movements in Azerbaijan and Kurdistan, 1941-46,” in John Foran, ed., A Century of Revolution: Perspectives on Social Movements in Iran (University of Minnesota Press, forthcoming).  According to Hanna Batatu, the 1948 revolt in ‘Arbat village was “the first uprising of its kind in the Iraqi countryside -- an uprising against the landed sheikh instead of under his leadership -- and in this sense set the tone for the fervid, if intermittent, agrarian unrest of the 1950s. The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements in Iraq (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982), p. 614.  The scope of capitalist development in Kurdistan has been debated among communist organizations in Iran and Turkey but, interestingly, not in essay Iraq.
 The history of this important conflict has not been adequately studied. According to a contemporary account, Barzani represented “historically and health essay objectively the last traces of tribal and patriarchal mentality in the very bosom of the Kurdish nationalist movement.” Serge Gantner, “Le mouvement national kurde,” Orient 32/33 (1964/1965), p. 101. On Shoplifting? The same issue includes the KDP politburo’s critique of the deal.  The PUK maintains that this was in order to abort a potential leftist hegemony of the Kurdish movement. See the george washington essay KTL organ Komele 6 (Fall 1979), pp. 21-22.
 At the KDP’s Eleventh Congress in 1993, some groups and individuals who had split after its collapse in 1975 rejoined the essay on shoplifting consequences party, which renamed itself KDP United.  A Party for Independence of usc personal essay, Kurdistan (Parti Serbexoyi Kurdistan) was formed in 1990 in the diaspora.
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erotic essay Sex and Sexuality in Islam. by Muslim Women's League. Even though it comprises only part of our identities, the essay consequences, sexuality of interview to ask for research, women represents so much more; such that women's sexuality has been viewed as something to essay on shoplifting consequences be controlled, hidden, or mastered, most often by men. Through the ages, sexuality has an impact on one's identity, self-esteem, relationships with others, societal mores, legal codes and so on. If sexual behavior simply existed to allow for procreation, so much controversy and fascination would have no reason to exist. Unfortunately, in many societies and for junior, many years women have been principally defined by their roles as sexual beings whose chief purpose is to satisfy men's sexual needs; this perception contributed to maintaining women in positions of inferiority and often subservience to men.
Even today, women are singled out essay consequences, as sex objects, either as victims of rape or willing participants in industries such as advertising or pornography, that exploit women's sexuality. The purpose of this chapter is to explore important issues of promotion, sexuality from an Islamic point of view in an effort to essay on shoplifting consequences expose demeaning cultural habits which have no basis in Islam, and to offer alternative understandings of these issues based on the primary sources of Qur'an and about the world, Hadith. The view of sexuality as taboo and shameful is by on shoplifting no means unique to any particular religious or ethnic group. To Ask Paper! The Victorian era in England and consequences, the US(late 19th century) was characterized by such a strong inhibition of sexuality that was subsequently blamed for psychological problems seen in women by psychiatrists such as Sigmund Freud. Breaking free from the oppressiveness of interview questions to ask for research, that era was an important goal for essay consequences, women through most of the 20th century since the prevailing attitudes were not confined to sexual issues as women were denied many other essential human rights. Laila Ahmed addresses some of the misogynistic conditions and beliefs that preceded Islam in the Mediterranean area, heavily influenced by Jewish and Christian thinking at that time(6th and 7th centuries). She points out the church's attitude on abortion and questions paper, contraception . formed part of a broader negative ethos concerning the body and sexuality -- a sense of these as sinful and shameful and of sexuality as legitimate only for procreation. women were evidently perceived as innately more implicated in physicality and sexuality than men. Essay! (Women and Gender in Islam, p.35) Unfortunately, a similar view of women has been adopted by some Muslims and may actually be rooted in the cultural values which existed when Islam was introduced. Human sexual development goes through several well-defined stages. Interview Questions! Throughout growth, opportunities exist to teach children about their bodies, to inculcate values and essay, attitudes, and most importantly to foster self-esteem. The success or failure (as determined by a woman's overall understanding and usc personal, value of herself as well as her ability to maintain a satisfying relationship) can be determined by prevailing attitudes of the family and surrounding culture. Sexual development occurs throughout the life-cycle, beginning in essay on shoplifting, infancy and interview questions to ask paper, childhood.
The healthy progression from on shoplifting, one stage of development to the next is dependent upon fulfillment of in midwifery essay, basic requirements at each stage. For example, an consequences, infant must develop trust that the caregiver will consistently respond to her cries before she can safely venture into the world and test the budding independence of essay, toddlerhood. The ultimate achievement is the development of an intact, secure adult with a high sense of self-esteem and self-worth. If a girl is constantly being told that she is naughty, shameful, stupid or ugly, she will come to believe it and obviously have low self-esteem which will interfere with relationships, school, work and so on. This illustration in general terms introduces the argument that cultural habits which teach girls excessive shame breed guilt and consequences, reinforce a negative self-image contributing to low self-esteem and even dysfunctional sexual lives. This stage of development has been referred to as the latent stage in interview for research, Freudian terms. It was felt that between early childhood and on shoplifting consequences, puberty children had no interest in their or others sexuality; they are essentially dormant in this regard until hormonal changes signal the onset of puberty. However, this argument has been challenged by other experts in the field.
Regardless of psychological theories, certain facts must be considered about children at this age. Junior Essay! They are developing mentally and as such are often extremely curious about themselves, others, animals and so on. Consequences! This is a good time to reinforce concepts of cleanliness, privacy and self-respect and to begin to teach them about sexuality and essays about, reproduction in an age appropriate manner. Some girls will start menstruating as early as age nine and should be prepared ahead of time by essay on shoplifting frank and open discussions with their parents. For many girls, the most significant thing to happen during this time is the onset of menstruation. If a girl has not been prepared for this event, the sight of the first few drops of blood can be terribly frightening. The signs that a girl is entering this stage of development include breast development, growth of hair under the arms and in the pubic area, increase in essays the world, height and essay on shoplifting, finally onset of menses. At this time, cultural and familial attitudes about menstruation are critical in impacting a girl's acceptance or rejection of this milestone in essays about the world, her life. Because of the rapid rate of change and accompanying sense of awkwardness, adolescents are often insecure and preoccupied with appearances, with a strong desire to on shoplifting be accepted by usc personal essay their peers. This stage is characterized by a heightened interest in essay, and awareness of members of the opposite sex.
In the descriptive paragraph, United States and in many other countries, young people begin to develop relationships during the teenage years. Over half of the students graduating from high school have been sexually active. Many communities are working hard to essay consequences teach abstinence before marriage but they are working against difficult odds especially when dating is viewed as normal, age-appropriate behavior. Yet, a primary task at this stage is to achieve a healthy, intimate relationship, which, for Muslims, can only interview paper exist in the context of marriage. Once women become sexually active, they then must deal with issues related to essay on shoplifting pregnancy, such as attitudes toward child-bearing, timing and spacing of children, and contraception. Ideally, decisions are made within a mutually supportive monogamous relationship.
Also, during this time, sexual satisfaction as well as sexual dysfunction or incompatibility become important issues as part of an george washington essay outline, overall relationship and can contribute to its well being or be a source of tension and stress. Historically, older women and essay, men were considered asexual as aging and sexuality seemed incompatible. Especially today, as women and men live well into their eighties, sexuality is still an important part of essay, many people's lives. While some may experience a decreased sex drive, others do not notice any change at all. Early in life, children become aware of their sexuality even to the point that infants can experience sexual pleasure (see Your Baby and Child, P. Leach, p. 212). Infants develop awareness of the function and form of all body parts as they grow. To a child, the penis or vagina is just another part of the body, like arms and legs. The focus on essay on shoplifting, the genitals is particularly evident during the toilet training years. Essay! If a child is taught that her genitals are dirty and shameful , but she wants to explore them just the same, naturally she will feel ashamed and naughty if she does so. Therefore, early on she sees part of essay consequences, herself as negative. Most child development experts encourage parents to remain neutral about george washington essay outline, a child's interest in her genitals to avoid preoccupation with that body part and to enhance the development of a positive sexual identity.
As the child grows, it becomes important to teach her about essay on shoplifting, privacy and to ask, appropriate behavior when around others. Oftentimes, parents fear that by not discouraging their children from touching themselves, they are encouraging them to essay explore sexuality at an early age. But teaching children to respect and understand their bodies will more positively impact their self image compared to emphasizing the sense of shame ('ayb) that many children are taught. Such a sense of shame can be taken to extremes; for example, a mother refuses to apply necessary medication to her three year old daughter's vagina because to touch her there is 'ayb. Other girls are afraid to descriptive introductory paragraph cleanse their genitals properly because to touch themselves is 'ayb. The concept of shame or disgust regarding one's body has no basis in Islam. During adolescence, sexuality becomes of interest to young people as their bodies experience hormonal upheavals which result in physical and essay consequences, emotional changes.
Again, a girl's experience through childhood will influence her passage through this difficult time. If she is taught that the onset of menstruation is a curse, then her experience and coping mechanisms will be affected negatively. A positive attitude will enable a young woman to view it as a milestone, not a hindrance. Unfortunately, much folklore and negative cultural beliefs abound regarding a woman's menses. Indeed, for some women menstruation is a physically difficult, unwelcome disruption every month. But it is a simple biological process that can be managed like any other physical condition, and needn't impair a woman's ability to function. Several hadith exist regarding menstruation. The only Qur'anic reference is found in Surah 2, verse 222 where Muslims are told to avoid sexual intercourse during a woman's menses: And they will ask thee about essay, (woman's) monthly courses.
Say, 'It is a vulnerable condition. Essay On Shoplifting Consequences! Keep, therefore, aloof from women during their monthly courses, and do not draw near unto them until they are cleansed; and when they are cleansed, go in unto them as God has bidden you to do.' In a hadith found in essay, Muslim (No. 592, also reported in Sunan Abu Dawud, No, 258), a discussion occurs whereby the Prophet emphasizes that the Islamic view of menstruation differs significantly from the Jewish attitude during his time, which strongly restricted women from several arenas while they were menstruating. In this hadith he says, Associate with them in the houses and do everything except sexual intercourse. Aisha and the other wives of the Prophet were instrumental in pointing out his attitude of tolerance; for example, Maimuna recalled an occasion when she was sitting near him while he was praying. She happened to on shoplifting be menstruating and during his prayers he knelt on essays the world, her garment but did not displace it, meaning that being in essay on shoplifting consequences, the presence of a menstruating woman had no impact on his prayers ( Mishkat ul Masabih, No. Usc Personal Essay! 550; for other hadith along similar lines see Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 212-213, 267-273; Muslim, Nos.
269, 577-588 and Bukhari, Vol. 1, Nos. 293-300) Also, the Prophet commanded menstruating women and those observing purdah to participate in Eid festivities. They sat behind those who prayed but joined in takbir ( Muslim, Nos. 1932-34; Bukhari, Vol.1, No. 321). Exemptions from Rituals.
Today, as in the time of the Prophet, women do not pray or fast while on their menses. The Qur'an does not address this practice at all; several hadith exist which expressly forbid women to pray while on their period. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 271-287, Bukhari, Vol.1., No.327). Several traditions show that menstruating women were not supposed to perform tawaf (circumambulation) around the Kaaba during Hajj while they were menstruating (Bukhari, Vol. Essay On Shoplifting Consequences! 1, Nos. Junior Beta Club Essay! 302,321,325; al-Muwatta, 20.16) The menses were viewed as a temporary illness such that days not fasted had to be made up as any ill person would do after Ramadan.
The Qur'an states that those who are ill or on a journey can desist from fasting and make the days up later (2:184). There are no hadith which expressly forbid women from fasting while menstruating, but based on the text from the following, one concludes that menstruating women did not fast: Aisha is reported to essay on shoplifting have said that during menstruation in the time of the Prophet, the questions to ask, women were commanded to complete the on shoplifting, fast (abandoned during menses) but were not commanded to complete the (abandoned) prayer (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 262-3, Muslim, Nos. 660-662). Usc Personal! Women who have prolonged menses because of an underlying medical problem can resume prayers , fasting, and intercourse after a certain number of days (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos.
274-306, Bukhari, Vol. 1, Nos. 303,306,322,324). In view of the essay consequences, verse mentioned above which admonishes against sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman in order to avoid causing her harm, the exemptions from the washington essay, above-mentioned rituals could be viewed as an extension of God's consideration of women. Perhaps abstention from prayer and fasting during one's menses is a divine acknowledgement of women's increased difficulty during that period. God gave them permission not to consequences pray or fast as a sign of mercy, just as He allows travelers to shorten their prayers to ease their burden. Many Muslims believe that menstruating women are not allowed to enter the mosque or touch the Qur'an.
This relates to the view of the usc personal essay, menstruating woman as unclean. Since she cannot be purified with ablution until after her menses stop, she is not in the proper state to enter a mosque or recite Qur'an. Essay On Shoplifting! Conflicting hadith exist regarding these habits. When looking at the whole body of descriptive paragraph, hadith regarding the subject of menstruation, it appears that many of the essay on shoplifting consequences, injunctions were made because of the physical problems associated with active bleeding. Women at that time did not have access to essay modern amenities which protect a woman and essay on shoplifting consequences, her garments from the health, blood flow. One hadith points out that one of the Prophet's wives (Um Salamah, who was having irregular bleeding) needed a dish underneath her to catch the menstrual blood while she was observing I'tikaf in the mosque during Ramadan (Bukhari No. Essay On Shoplifting! 306, Sunan Abu Dawud, No.
2470, Muslim, No. 2470). Therefore, practically speaking , women might have been restricted in their activities if they did not have the means to the world deal with a heavy period, for example. Today, women have so many options so that there are rarely fears of such difficulties. In addition, the Prophet once asked Aisha to fetch his mat which was in the mosque.
She said, But I am menstruating to which he replied Your menstruation is not in on shoplifting consequences, your hand. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 261) However, another hadith exists which states that menstruating women should not enter the essay, mosque: The Prophet is reported to have said, I do not make the mosque lawful for a menstruating woman and for essay consequences, a person who is junub. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 232) The act of not touching the Qur'an while menstruating is based on the hadith that the Prophet wrote a letter in introductory, which he said that no one should touch the consequences, Qur'an but one who is pure. (Mishkat-ul-Masabih, No. Interview Paper! 465;). Essay On Shoplifting! Also, in essay, Surah 56, verses 77-79 we find: That this indeed is a Qur'an most honorable, in a Book well-guarded, which none shall touch but those who are clean (tahir). In Mishkat-ul Masabih a hadith from Tirmidhi states that the Prophet said that the menstruating woman and one who is consequences, junub should not recite anything from the Qur'an (No.
461). In general, since, in either of descriptive essay introductory, these states, women or men are not yet physically purified (tahir) they cannot touch or formally recite the Qur'an until that state comes to an end. By performing ghusl (complete ablution) after the menses are over, one achieves the prerequisite physical state which allows for the resumption of prayers, fasting, reciting Qur'an and sexual relations. This does not imply impurity of spirit nor does it necessarily have to mean that a menstruating woman is unclean or dirty. The Prophet was known to perform ghusl after intercourse before reciting Qur'an, and he also would recite Qur'an while resting his head in Aisha's lap and consequences, she happened to be menstruating. (Mishkat, No.
460, Muslim, Nos. 260, 591) It is possible to the world understand why Muslims might view menses as a negative aspect of the female identity. A well known and oft-quoted hadith which leads to consequences the conclusion that menstruating women neither prayed nor fasted is found in Bukhari with several versions: The Prophet is interview to ask paper, reported to have said, Isn't it true that a woman does not pray and does not fast on menstruating? And that is the defect in consequences, her religion (Vol.
3, No. 172, see also Vol. 1, No. 301). For Research! The conclusion usually derived from this hadith is essay on shoplifting, that women can never achieve the same level of faith or spirituality as men because they cannot fulfill their religious duties all the time. Health In Midwifery! The weakness in essay on shoplifting, this argument and therefore in the hadith is about the world, that it contradicts the undisputed image expressed in the Qur'an of women and men as equal in essay, terms of their duties and expectations as Muslims, servants of God. To say that one's faith is introductory paragraph, determined only by the extent to which she can carry out the rituals negates all of the other aspects of faithfulness and observance that cannot be quantified. God rewards or punishes according to deeds and intentions; how, then, can something that is biologically determined, not chosen or willed by the individual, serve as a measure of faith?
Would God punish women for something that He created? Because this hadith is found in Bukhari, it is rarely questioned or reinterpreted and unfortunately reinforces a negative view of women in Islam. The large volume of hadith regarding menstruation reflects the essay, need for practical guidance on junior club, the part of the Muslim community at the time of the Prophet. After reviewing all of the texts, one can't help but feel the burden of menstruation for the Muslim woman. Regardless of the essay consequences, deficiency hadith and in view of modern advances, Muslim women today can view menstruation as a simple fact of interview questions to ask, life that has no negative bearing on her value as a human being. Modern medicine has enabled us to manipulate the consequences, menstrual cycle in a myriad of ways so that women can continue to carry out their activities without being disabled once a month. Indeed, many women take advantage of medical technology to avoid menstruating during Hajj which, for many, is truly a once in a lifetime event not to washington outline be missed because of bad timing. Virginity and the Hymen: The Double Standard. Throughout childhood and adolescence, girls are sometimes prohibited by their parents from engaging in essay on shoplifting consequences, any activities that might interfere with the integrity of the hymen which is a small circular membrane at promotion in midwifery the opening of the vagina which allows the passage of menstrual flow.
The opening is very narrow and is torn when penetration occurs (as in sexual intercourse). This is occasionally accompanied by bleeding. Such blood loss has been required in some cultures to on shoplifting consequences prove that the usc personal, woman is a virgin at marriage so a blood stained cloth would be given to essay on shoplifting consequences the groom's family on the wedding night to verify the about the world, bride's pure state. If a woman did not bleed, the essay consequences, repercussions could be severe. So it became vitally important that the hymen remain intact as a sign of virginity with the family's honor at stake. While many of the essay, cultural traditions involving proof of a woman's virginity are less prevalent than in the past, one can still find a persistent concern about the hymen as a marker for virginity today throughout many parts of the Muslim world. Essay On Shoplifting Consequences! (It should be noted that the concern about the hymen is not limited only to Muslims.) As a result, any activity that might cause tearing of the hymen would be forbidden, such as bicycle riding, horseback riding, gymnastics, etc. Essay! Unfortunately, the prohibitions against these activities are rarely accompanied by an explanation (most likely due to on shoplifting shyness on the part of the parents); thus, the young girl learns that because she is a girl she cannot participate in activities enjoyed by other children. Again, such an attitude promotes a negative self-image. These attitudes are culturally entrenched and not based on Islam. While virginity of both men and women is emphasized in usc personal essay, Islam, there is no text in Qur'an or Hadith which specifically addresses the intactness of any part of a woman's anatomy as a marker for virginity.
As will be discussed in detail later, the Islamic position on sexual behavior is explicit. Both men and on shoplifting, women are required to essays be chaste and to seek fulfilling relationships in marriage. Essay Consequences! Consequently, pre- and extra-marital relations are prohibited (Qur'an, 17:32, 24:26, 25:68; Bukhari, Vol. 8, Nos. 798-802). Of course, then, there is no debate that Muslims, male and female, must be virgins before they enter into their first marriage.
Each individual is responsible and accountable to God for maintaining a state of interview to ask paper, purity prior to matrimony. Why should a woman have to prove that she is a virgin with physical evidence, when the man is taken on his word? Naturally, a woman who marries for the second or third time cannot give the essay, same proof, meaning the status of the beta club, hymen is essay on shoplifting consequences, truly irrelevant for determining sexual purity. The hymen exists as a remnant of embryological development which serves no purpose physiologically speaking (K. L. Moore, The Developing Human). If it tears because a girl goes bike riding or uses a tampon or even has a pelvic exam by a physician as part of an usc personal, evaluation of essay consequences, a medical condition, must it then follow that she is essays the world, no longer a virgin? The restriction against vaginal penetration applies to premarital sexual behavior with a member of the opposite sex. The prohibition against premarital sex exists because of multiple negative social, psychological and physical consequences that do not apply if the hymen is torn by an act that does not involve sexual intercourse.
An unfortunate consequence of focusing on the shamefulness of sexuality is the inability of many women to enjoy a fulfilling sexual life once married. If a woman is taught from childhood that her genitals are unclean, untouchable, and essay on shoplifting, basically an area off limits, and if inadequate discussion takes place to prepare her for her first sexual experience, then naturally she would be horrified to imagine the penetration of that area by interview for research another person such as her husband. And if the essay on shoplifting consequences, first encounter is painful, the questions to ask paper, stage is set for inhibition and fear so that a fulfilling sexual relationship is practically impossible. On Shoplifting Consequences! Problems that ensue include the inability to consummate a marriage, vaginismus (spasm of the vaginal muscles which causes pain and prevents penile penetration), dyspareunia (painful intercourse), and the emotional and psychological consequences for essay, the individuals involved in essay consequences, the relationship. Also, the strong sense of fear and shame often prevents adequate medical evaluation during pelvic examinations because some women are unable to beta club essay sufficiently relax even if they are married and have already borne children. While our religion stresses the importance of mutual sexual satisfaction between marriage partners, negative cultural factors can prevent such an outcome. By educating children and young adults properly about sexuality, and by consequences eliminating the descriptive essay introductory, features or habits which contribute to a negative self-image, and by essay on shoplifting focusing on the positive language found regarding these issues in Islamic literature women and men will be able to health promotion essay enjoy a fulfilling sexual relationship in marriage that is each person's right. Sexuality in Qur'an and Hadith. The references to essay consequences sexuality found in Qur'an and beta club essay, hadith will now be discussed. In the following verse, men and essay, women are referred to as the garments of one another, implying a sense of balance and the world, mutual nurturance from one to the other.
It is lawful for you to go in unto your wives during the night preceding the on shoplifting consequences, (day's) fast: they are as a garment for you, and you are as a garment for them. God is aware that you would have deprived yourselves of this right, and so He has turned unto you in His mercy and removed this hardship from you. Now, then, you may lie with them skin to skin, and questions to ask paper, avail yourselves to that which God has ordained for you.(2:187) Also, by reviewing this and the verses below one appreciates the on shoplifting consequences, fact that sexual relations are sanctioned by God and descriptive paragraph, are viewed as part of the spiritual relationship that exists between a husband and essay on shoplifting, wife. As mentioned earlier, the Qur'an specifically prohibits intercourse during a woman's period (2:222) to avoid causing her discomfort.
In verse 223 of the same Surah, the Qur'an says: Your wives are your tilth; go, then, unto your tilth as you may desire, but first provide something for usc personal, your souls, and remain conscious of God, and know that you are destined to meet Him. And give glad tidings unto those who believe. Based on these verses and on shoplifting, some hadith, Muslim couples are encouraged to enjoy sexual relations in any manner the two prefer. The only george washington outline prohibitions involve avoiding intercourse while a woman is menstruating, and avoiding anal penetration (Muslim, No.3365); this explains the text in the verse mentioned above since it was revealed when one of the Sahaba was concerned about having sexual intercourse from behind. Essay Consequences! He was worried that he committed a sin. So the Prophet said that any position was lawful as long as anal penetration did not occur. Therefore, if the health in midwifery essay, couple is mutually agreeable, no other restrictions apply. Other verses that address sexuality focus on essay on shoplifting, the unlawfulness of extra-marital sexual relationships which will be discussed later. Sexual Rights of the Wife. Several hadith also address the issue of sexual satisfaction with reference to the wife's rights in this matter.
The Prophet advised Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-As (who spent all day fasting and junior beta essay, all night in prayer) to fast sometimes and not at other times; to pray at night and to sleep at night. Essay Consequences! Your body has a right over you, your eyes have a right over you and junior beta essay, your wife has a right over you. Consequences! (Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 127) The wife's rights include a right to george essay companionship from her husband and fulfillment of her sexual needs. A woman's satisfaction is particularly referred to in the interpretation of the hadiths which discuss penile withdrawal as a method of contraception. Consequences! One stipulation is junior club, that the essay consequences, woman must consent because such a practice could interfere with her sexual fulfillment to which she is entitled. Also, if she desires to bear children, coitus interruptus practiced by her husband would violate that right as well. This viewpoint is based on a hadith transmitted by Umar ibn-al-Khattab who said that the Prophet forbade the junior club, practice of coitus interruptus with a woman except with her permission This reference is found in Sex and Society in essay on shoplifting consequences, Islam, by descriptive B. F. Musallam who also points out that this hadith was considered weak by some Medieval jurists (see also al-Muwatta, 29.34, No. 100).
Nevertheless, the position regarding the essay, woman's right to orgasm was developed over time by several Muslim jurists during the same period (Busallam, Chapter 2 and health essay, footnotes). Also, one undisputed justification for divorce on behalf of the wife is her sexual dissatisfaction. The most explicit discussions of on shoplifting, sexual relations with respect to fulfilling the wife's needs are found in the Book on club, the Etiquette of Marriage, part of Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali's larger work, Revival of the essay on shoplifting consequences, Religious Sciences (Ihya Ulum al-Din), written in the eleventh century. In spite of some of promotion essay, his comments that are generally disparaging of women, he argues forcefully regarding the essay consequences, wife's right to sexual fulfillment. He quotes the Prophet as saying, Let none of you come upon his wife like an animal, let there be an emissary between them. When asked what is the emissary, he replied, The kiss and sweet words.
In another hadith, the Prophet points out essay, that one of the deficiencies of a man is that he should approach his wife and have sexual contact with her before exchanging words and caresses, consequently, he sleeps with her and fulfills his needs (i.e. orgasm) before she fulfills hers. Al-Ghazali further elaborates on the importance of a woman achieving orgasm by stating, Congruence in on shoplifting, attaining a climax is more gratifying to her because the man is not preoccupied with his own pleasure, but rather with hers. Rights of the Husband. The sexual rights of the husband are also elucidated in the traditions, but the language is such that it appears that his rights supersede those of his wife. For example, in Bukhari, AbuHuraira reports that the Prophet said, If a man invites his wife to sleep with him and promotion in midwifery, she refuses, then the angels send their curses on her till morning. (Vol. Consequences! 7, No. Junior Essay! 121-2; in Muslim, the text reads that God is displeased with her until the husband is pleased with her Nos. 3366-68). In Riyadh-us-Salaheen, a hadith attributed to Tirmidhi and Nisai states that the Prophet said, When a man sends for essay consequences, his wife for the satisfaction of his need, she should go to him even if she may be occupied in baking bread. (No. 284) Similarly, Muslim women are advised not to fast without the essay introductory paragraph, permission of their husbands since fasting would interfere with sexual relations (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 2452-3; Muslim, Nos.
3366-68; Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 120). Clearly, Islamic literature stresses the importance of the sexual relationship between a husband and on shoplifting, wife, but the essays the world, above traditions seem to show that the husband's right to have sex is more important than the wife's right of refusal if she is not willing for on shoplifting consequences, whatever reason. The only time she can refuse intercourse, then, is usc personal, during menstruation. The verse (2:222) commands Muslims to avoid sex during that time because it may be associated with discomfort on the part of the woman. A logical conclusion would be that sexual relations are better avoided for any circumstances (physical or otherwise) that would lead to discomfort. A common view of sex is on shoplifting, that the stronger sexual urges of junior beta club essay, men (compared to women) can be controlled only to a certain extent; according to some, this justifies the practice of on shoplifting consequences, polygamy even though the Qur'an makes no mention of sexual desires in george, the verses on polygamy (4:3-5). Also, the same argument is made to justify forcing women to have sex against their will, as they are forbidden to essay on shoplifting consequences refuse to have sexual relations. Since the husband's urges are so strong, and to prevent him from acting out on them illicitly, a wife's duty therefore is to submit in order to preserve the marriage. Yet, human beings are endowed with self control not seen in any other species, such that we do not act on essay, every instinctual impulse because of some uncontrollable force.
This is essay consequences, what distinguishes humankind since God gave us the ability to usc personal essay think and make choices. Therefore, there is no justification for forcing women to consequences have sex against their will, even in marriage. One does not find any traditions that show the Prophet as an aggressive or coercive husband. Similarly, behavior involving coercion and essay, force goes against the philosophy of mutual satisfaction outlined in consequences, the Qur'an (see verses above) and against essays about, the hadith which states that the essay on shoplifting consequences, best among Muslims are those who are best towards their wives (Riyadh-us-Salaheen, No. Essays About The World! 278). Also, the essay consequences, Prophet expressed his strong disapproval of health in midwifery essay, those who physically beat their wives and then had sexual relations that night (Bukhari, Vol. 7, No. 132, Vol.9, 81-82; see also Riyadh us-Salaheen, No. 274). The example of the Prophet clearly reveals that he and his wives enjoyed physical affection not necessarily related to intercourse thus reflecting an attitude of loving behavior in a variety of circumstances.
Based on essay on shoplifting consequences, the hadith transmitted by his wives (particularly regarding physical intimacy while they were menstruating), this behavior included kissing, caressing, embracing and bathing together. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 267-273, 2376-2379; Muslim, Nos. 577-586, 629) Husbands and wives should strive to satisfy one another's sexual needs as much as possible. This can be achieved by honest, open discussions; care, kindness and a desire to please one another. Viewing sexual intimacy as an health in midwifery essay, important part of the relationship will enable a couple to achieve mutual satisfaction that enhances the overall success of the marriage. Clearly, coercion and lack of consideration for one's spouses feelings will result in tension that can have negative effects on the rest of the relationship. Unfortunately, if a Muslim woman is raised to abhor and fear any matters related to sex, then in essay on shoplifting consequences, most instances of sexual contact she would be a passive and perhaps unwilling participant, and definitely not one who derives pleasure from sex. Also, the essay, general view of sex as a shameful and dirty act contributes to inhibitions of both men and women, preventing them from enjoying an act sanctioned by God.
The following hadith highlights the essay consequences, importance of privacy in sexual relationships: the Prophet is reported to have said, The most wicked among the people in the sight of God on the Day of essay, Judgement is the man who goes to his wife and essay on shoplifting, she comes to him, and then he divulges her secret. (Muslim, Nos. 3369-70). Consequently, Muslims would be very unlikely to discuss matters of their sexual lives outside of the home. By keeping sexual issues private, the couple ensures mutual respect and avoids the chances of george washington, violating trust by divulging personal tastes and practices to others. However, this attitude would also prevent couples from seeking necessary help, thus diminishing opportunities for on shoplifting consequences, alleviating any problems related to sexual dysfunction.
Consultations with professionals, such as physicians, would not violate the code of privacy, and could help the essay, individual or couple in matters that significantly impact the marriage. Sex Outside of Marraige. As mentioned earlier, the Qur'an specifically prohibits sexual acts outside of marriage (zina). Interestingly, the text does not go into essay detail to explain why such behavior is sinful. George Washington Essay Outline! The verses which mention illicit sexual relations do so while admonishing Muslims to avoid other grave sinful deeds such as murder and stealing (Qur'an 25:68, 60:12). Muslims acknowledge and believe in on shoplifting, Divine wisdom which is understood, to some extent, by the application of common sense and an exploration of the ramifications of fornication and adultery which include but are not limited to unwanted pregnancy, transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, negative emotional and psychological consequences, and physical intimacy without emotional commitment. In addition to Qur'an, numerous hadith exist which point out that zina is considered a major sin (Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 148; Vol. 8, Nos. 798-802).
The issue of extramarital sexual relations takes on even more profound importance because laws exist in Islamic jurisprudence which outline the punishment (hadd) for this behavior which is considered a sex crime. Usc Personal Essay! Clearly, the consequences, threat of punishment authorized by essays the world God serves as a very effective deterrent for illicit sexual behavior which results in negative social consequences beyond those experienced by the couple in question. Even though the text is clear regarding the essay on shoplifting, unlawfulness of zina, the following references point out how difficult it is to accuse someone of such a crime. According to the Qur'an, those who accuse another of zina are required to produce four eyewitnesses of the act of genital penetration (meaning the act of intercourse would practically have to be committed in junior beta, public view). According to hadith, other incriminating evidence include confession and essay, pregnancy (Bukhari, Vol.
8, No. 816; Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4518; Muslim, No. 4194). While the promotion in midwifery, seriousness of the crime is not in question, the Prophet himself demonstrated reluctance in reacting to accusations and essay on shoplifting, even confessions without giving individuals the opportunity to avoid punishment and to ask, repent to God, with the hopes of essay consequences, avoiding punishment in the hereafter as well. In addition, the Prophet himself advised the believers not to make public their misbehaviors. Essays About The World! When a man came to confess that he had been with a woman and did everything except sexual intercourse, Omar ibn al Khattab said, Allah has concealed your fault; it would have been better if you had concealed it yourself.
The Prophet then quoted the on shoplifting, verse, And be constant in praying at the beginning and the end of the day. for, verily, good deeds drive away evil deeds: this is a reminder to all who bear (God) in mind. (11:114). In addition, the Qur'an elsewhere clearly stresses the importance of sincerely repenting as God is ever merciful (4:15-16). Several hadith refer to descriptive essay introductory paragraph an instance in which the Prophet tried to give a man the opportunity to avoid punishment. Maiz ibn Malik came to the Prophet insisting on confessing his sin of fornication with a slavegirl. The Prophet responded by turning away from on shoplifting, him, then insisted that the couple must have just looked at essays each other, or only embraced or kissed; but Maiz persisted with his confession of on shoplifting, actual intercourse. The Prophet gave him ample opportunity to conceal his sin, and repent privately with the hopes of receiving God's forgiveness. Yet, Maiz also knew that punishment in this life would replace the possible punishment awaiting in the Hereafter. Usc Personal Essay! So upon acknowledgement and confession of fornication, the Prophet ordered the punishment. (Bukhari, Vol. 8, Nos.
806, 810, 812-14; Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4413). A similar story involves a pregnant woman who also wanted to confess and receive punishment. Again, the Prophet first told her to Go back to her tribe, but she returned again wishing to confess. The Prophet told her to go back until the child was born. She returned again with the infant and he told her to suckle him until you wean him. She returned when the boy was weaned, again confessing fully, resulting in consequences, the prescribed punishment. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4428). For a couple (or individual) convicted of zina, the punishment would be harsh. According to junior beta club the Qur'an , 100 lashes for each (24:2).
In several hadith collections, the punishment of stoning to death is described for essay on shoplifting, those guilty of adultery. This divergence is significant because stoning resulted in death while flogging did not.. The Qur'an does not distinguish between fornication and adultery but uses one word to describe both, zina. Belief in the Qur'an as the final word would argue that the use of stoning to death instead of flogging is inappropriate; indeed a hadith in junior essay, Bukhari states that a transmitter of one of the stoning hadiths did not know if stoning was practiced before or after the essay on shoplifting consequences, revelation of the above Qur'anic verse (Vol. .8, No. 804).
Interestingly, both Bukhari and Muslim report a hadith transmitted by Ibn Abbas who narrated that Umar ibn al-Khattab feared that in future times Muslims would not use stoning as punishment because it is not mentioned in the Qur'an. But he spoke to confirm the obligation of its use as punishment for proven cases of adultery. (Bukhari, Vol.8, No. 816; Muslim, No. 4194). All of these issues dealing with punishment must be reviewed by modern Islamic jurists to develop laws (in those countries where Islamic law is junior club, applied) that incorporate the Islamic principles of justice, due process and essay on shoplifting consequences, compassion. In countries where Muslims live as minorities (where Islamic law does not prevail), these punishments cannot be carried out by zealous individuals or communities who may feel that they are required to carry out God's law in spite of the prevailing legal system. Yet, the system of Islamic jurisprudence must guarantee basic rights of individuals accused of serious crimes: these rights cannot possibly be upheld without a court system with checks and balances to ensure enforcement of the law while respecting the rights of individuals. The main point is that, while the punishment for zina is severe and extreme, the requirements for proof of guilt are so strict that the chances of one actually being convicted and then punished are very small. Junior Beta Club! Thus the consequences, individual Muslim who commits such acts in private, without fear of retribution should pay heed to in midwifery essay the following verses:
Verily, God's acceptance of repentance relates only to those who do evil out of essay, ignorance and then repent before their time runs out. And it is they unto whom God will turn again in interview questions to ask for research, His mercy - for God is all-knowing, wise; whereas repentance shall not be accepted from those who do evil deeds until their dying hour and on shoplifting consequences, then say, Behold I now repent; nor from those who die as deniers of truth; it is these for whom We have readied grievous suffering.(4:17-18) While it may seem obvious to some, the definition of zina is not without controversy. Again, using the hadith mentioned above(Bukhari, Vol. 8, No. 806, etc.), the Prophet did not consider Maiz ibn Malek of usc personal essay, a crime until he confessed of actual sexual intercourse involving penile penetration. On Shoplifting! This does not mean that other behaviors such as kissing, heavy petting, oral sex are not prohibited but that the requirements needed to paper justify a harsh punishment are strict. Obviously, many couples can engage in all of these activities without being exposed to witnesses and thus avoid punishment in this life. But they still must answer to God who, in no uncertain terms, admonishes against any sexual contact outside of marriage. False Accusations and Honor. If a husband accuses his wife of adultery by swearing four times and she denies any wrongdoing under oath, then she is vindicated (Qur'an 24:6-9).
According to Muhammad Asad (footnote 10, Surah 24) the same applies if a woman accuses her husband. If the essay on shoplifting consequences, accusation is found to be false the punishment of the accuser is severe: And as for usc personal, those who accuse chaste women (of adultery), and then are unable to produce four witnesses (in support of thier accusation), flog them with eighty s stripes; an ever after refuse to accept from them any testimony- since it is they, they that are truly depraved!- excepting only those who afterwards repent and made amends for, behold, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace. And as for those who accuse their own wives, but have no witnesses except themselves, let each of these (accusers) call God four times to witness that he is indeed telling the truth, and the fifth time, that God's curse be upon him if he is telling a lie. (As for the wife, all) chastisement shall be averted from her by her calling God four times to witness that he is indeed telling a lie, and the fifth (time), that God's curse be upon her if she is telling the truth . (24:4-8) These verses were revealed in response to accusations against Aisha, the Prophet's wife, who was left behind the essay on shoplifting, caravan when she went looking for a lost necklace. A young soldier happened upon her and escorted her to the camp where they arrived the following day. Rumors about sexual misconduct spread, causing great upheaval and emotional distress in introductory, the household of the Prophet. The above verses point out that a woman's word to swear to her innocence is essay consequences, sufficient to both preserve her reputation and result in essay, punishment of her accusers.
The following verse admonishes the community for not questioning the rumors and giving Aisha, the accused, the benefit of the doubt: Why do not the believing men and women, whenever such (a rumor) is heard, think the best of one another and say, 'This is an obvious falsehood'. and consequences, were it not for God's favor upon you, and His grace in this world and in the life to come, awesome suffering would indeed have afflicted you in result of all (the calumny) in george outline, which you indulge when you take it up with your tongues, uttering with your mouths something of which you have no knowledge, and deeming it a light matter whereas in the sight of God it is an awful thing. Consequences! Verily, as for those who like (to hear)foul slander spread against (any of) those who have attained to faith - grievous suffering awaits them in this world and in the life to come: for God knows (the full truth), whereas you know (it) not (24:12-19). Slander is considered a grave offense since it taints the reputation of health essay, individuals and disrupts relationships The verses, while referring to Aisha's particular case, universally applied, serve to protect women from any unfair accusations about their chastity. Unfortunately in many communities throughout the Muslim world the, honor of the entire family is essay on shoplifting, caught up in and determined by the reputation of the female members, who can be accused of sexual misconduct, even if it is only suspected. As is clear from the above verses, singling out women for punishment based only on accusations or assumptions has no basis in Islam. Even if a woman is accused of questions, fornication, and she denies the accusation, no punishment is carried out (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4451). Thus, even the suggestion of misbehavior (usually acts other than intercourse) cannot possibly serve as evidence of wrongdoing to Islamically justify retribution (such as honor killings) on the part of the woman's family.
The sin of false accusations and essay on shoplifting, the focus on absolving the interview questions for research, one who is falsely accused has become problematic regarding the essay on shoplifting, punishment of rape. If a woman accuses a man of raping her and he denies that he did, she is basically confessing to illicit sexual contact and therefore punishable. This is junior club essay, even more problematic if the woman has no other evidence besides her testimony. This is the essay on shoplifting, current state of affairs in Pakistan where rape victims are punished for the crime committed against them. According to Imam Malik, if a man is health promotion in midwifery essay, convicted of rape, he receives the punishment as mentioned for zina and also must pay a mahr (bride-price) to consequences the victim (al-Muwatta, 36.16). Imam Malik also states that if an unmarried woman is pregnant and claims to have been raped, unless there is physical evidence, she is presumed to be guilty of fornication and therefore punished (al-Muwatta, 41.4). Again, based on earlier interpretations, the about the world, woman is made to suffer for a crime committed by another because the focus is erroneously on on shoplifting consequences, the sexual act and not on rape as an act of violence.
Rather than viewing the george washington essay outline, act of essay on shoplifting consequences, sex as the essay introductory, issue requiring jurisdiction, the judges should view rape as an act of violence perpetrated against an unwilling victim who cannot be considered guilty of a sex crime. Along the lines of sexual behavior arises the issue of homosexuality about which the Islamic position is clear. Based on on shoplifting, numerous verses in the Qur'an which refer to Prophet Lot and the sins committed by his community, one concludes that homosexual relations are prohibited. (7:80-84, 11:77-83, 15:57-77, 26:160-175, 27:54-58, 29:28-35)) Again, the Qur'an does not go into great detail to explain why; and again Muslims first accept God's wisdom and then apply reason to come to an understanding. The most basic argument is that homosexual behavior is ultimately detrimental to the survival of usc personal essay, thehuman race. Also, it is contrary to the Islamic position of the importance of the bond between husbands and on shoplifting, wives which is a goal for junior club essay, which Muslims are encouraged to strive. On Shoplifting Consequences! (based on a well known hadith that marriage is half of one's religion.) Like zina, punishment has been described for those who are found to engage in homosexual acts. The World! The Qur'an is essay on shoplifting consequences, somewhat vague on the issue of punishment. The only verse which alludes to this behavior again calls for four witnesses to confirm the immoral conduct (fahishah) between two women or two men; if they are found guilty, they are to be punished, but if they repent they are to be left alone (4:15-16). The type of punishment is not defined. The hadith are more specific. In Sunan Abu Dawud, Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet said if anyone is found doing as Lot's people did, to kill the one who does it (sodomy) and to whom it is washington, done (No.
4447). In the footnote to this hadith it is pointed out that the jurists differed in opinion regarding how the punishment would be carried out. Basically, homosexual acts are considered illicit and if verified by witnesses or confession, then the individuals would be punished like those who commit zina. On Shoplifting! What occurs in private is the world, between individuals who are ultimately accountable to God. Naturally, sexual feelings can arise for people who are not yet married. An oft quoted hadith advises fasting to essay on shoplifting consequences help quell the sexual appetite (Bukhari, Vol. Essay Introductory! 3, No. 129). On Shoplifting Consequences! For some this may not really help.
But feelings of frustration do not justify acting them out with someone outside of the marital relationship. Therefore, one could argue for the benefit of masturbation which would relieve the frustration and prevent illicit sexual contact (see Musallam, p.33 and descriptive paragraph, Qaradawi, pp. 170-1). According to Al-Qaradawi in essay consequences, The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, the majority of questions paper, scholars consider masturbation haram (forbidden). But, he does point out on shoplifting consequences, that the Hanbali jurists permit masturbation for those afraid of usc personal essay, committing fornication or adultery or for those without the means to marry. While the value of family and raising children is undisputed among most Muslims, it is well known that contraception is permitted and can be practiced for a variety of reasons at the discretion of the couple.
This is consistent with the on shoplifting consequences, view that the purpose of sexual behavior between husband and wife is not limited to procreation. The Prophet did not prohibit contraception (the withdrawal method or coitus interruptus practiced at essays about the time) and did not mention any stipulations in any of the hadith except one mentioned earlier which refers to the importance of obtaining the wife's consent before practicing withdrawal. Similarly, use of on shoplifting consequences, female controlled methods, such as the birth control pill, would require the husband's consent in consideration of his desires for bearing children. (Bukhari, Vol. 7, Nos. Promotion In Midwifery Essay! 135-6; Muslim, Nos. 3371-88; al-Muwatta, 29.34) While withdrawal was the essay, method practiced during the junior essay, Prophet's time, by analogy, contraception by the means available today is on shoplifting consequences, also permitted. In almost every hadith that discusses withdrawal ('azl) the Prophet is beta essay, reported to have said that even if it is practiced, if God intends a child to be born she/he will be born. Essay On Shoplifting Consequences! Although the methods used today for contraception are very effective, not a single one provides 100% assurance that pregnancy will not occur; so, as always, God's will prevails when He so ordains a matter such as conception. Some Muslims argue that sterilization of men or women is not allowed as a method of contraception because it alters the human body.
They use the hadith which admonish against altering one's features for cosmetic reasons (Y. Al-Qaradawi, The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, pp. 88-9). Usc Personal! Surgery done for beautification is essay on shoplifting consequences, clearly not the same as that done for contraception so the about the world, connection is essay on shoplifting, flawed at best, and does not offer a convincing argument against about the world, sterilization. Like the on shoplifting, other monotheistic religions, Islam prohibits the taking of the life of another human being without just cause (i.e. in self-defense, see 5:32) Therefore the question arises, at what point in gestation does the fetus become a human, such that to remove it would be described as murder.
The debate in modern Western society centers around the issue of choice. Since the pregnancy is part of the woman's body, she has the right to make decisions regarding the outcome. Interview Questions To Ask Paper! On the other hand, the fetus is a potential human being who has rights of her/his own, one of them being the right to life. By the early third trimester, when an infant born can survive outside of the womb, to terminate a pregnancy is considered illegal. Prior to essay on shoplifting consequences that stage of gestation, the fetus definitely cannot survive, therefore, it is usc personal essay, not yet considered a human being . Others believe that the fetus's status as a human begins at conception. In spite of the positions of the consequences, major jurists, many Muslims today ( and some earlier jurists) believe that abortion is unlawful under any circumstances unless the woman's life is health in midwifery, endangered by the pregnancy.
Modern technology (not available to early jurists) enables the physician to see the beating heart of essay on shoplifting consequences, a 21 day old embryo; whether the embryo qualifies as a person is really only essays about the world known by God. Many feel that life and essay on shoplifting, the human spirit are present at conception meaning pregnancy termination at any stage would involve the unlawful taking of a life ( see Islamic Perspectives in Obstetrics and Gynecology, by Dr. Hassan Hathout, pp. 61-78 ). While some modern day scholars also feel that the fetus' right to life prevails even in cases of incest or rape, others consider those situations exceptional and think abortion is allowed to preserve the emotional and psychological well-being of the woman. Female Genital Mutilation. Since female genital mutilation (FGM , known also as female circumcision). is a custom among some Muslims, the Islamic position must be made clear. This practice which involves varying degrees of mutilation (from removing the clitoris to removing all labia and sewing the vagina to such an extent that only a small opening exists to allow passage of menstrual blood) presumably is performed to limit the sexual activity of women . By eliminating their ability to experience orgasm , they will be less likely to misbehave before or during marriage. This practice pre-dated Islam and is currently a custom in the world, a few Muslim countries, particularly in Africa. Only one hadith exists which specifically addresses FGM.
In Sunan Abu Dawud, Um Atiya said that the Prophet told a woman who performed circumcision in Medina to not cut severely as that is better for a woman and more desirable for a husband (No. 5251). According to Abu Dawud, this is a weak hadith (mursal). In the footnote of this hadith, the translator, Ahmad Hasan, points out that all of the major scholars maintained that FGM was recommended (but to what degree was not specified). As mentioned throughout this chapter, focusing on sexuality in a positive manner can be a difficult task for Muslims. Cultural views of on shoplifting, women in general, fear of committing and being punished for sin, and the use of sex as a means of domination have all contributed to the silence and repression that prevent people from junior beta club, being comfortable with their sexuality as individuals and in relationships. Through education and understanding, a more positive approach can lead to a better outcome. Teaching children to accept their bodies and sexuality contributes to essay developing strong self-esteem which is a major determinant of future sexual activity. Young people, particularly women, with low self-esteem are more likely to engage in sexual behavior at a young age.
Fostering self-esteem occurs mainly within the family unit and also in schools and society at large. Informing children and interview to ask, young adults about the changes that occur as they grow and then teaching them about on shoplifting, developing healthy relationships with others is possible through formalized educational settings (especially if the parents feel too uncomfortable discussing sexuality.) Also, a willingness on the part of adults to answer questions openly and to discuss difficult issues such as homosexualty or sexually transmitted diseases will enable young adults to approach their parents and educators and therefore be less likely to obtain inaccurate information from their peers or the media. The Prophet was well-known for his frankness in discussing all issues, including those related to sex and sexual development. In one hadith, he is asked by a woman if, when a woman has an orgasm while asleep (during dreaming), does she have to perform complete ablution (ghusl) prior to doing her prayers. The Prophet answered that she does because such an experience is akin to the nocturnal emissions of men which require ghusl. (Muslim, Nos. 607-613; Bukhari, Vol.1, No. 280) This is a well known hadith which shows that the early Muslims felt no inhibition about usc personal essay, addressing the Prophet about sensitive issues such as female orgasm (see also Muslim, No. 649). Muslims today must follow the example of the Prophet to use wisdom and beautiful preaching to talk to one another and their children about all matters. On Shoplifting! Teaching about sexuality from an Islamic perspective is necessary for Muslim young people who are growing up in a society full of tremendous pressures.
Regarding menstruation, it is health promotion essay, important to teach our daughters that this is a special part of development that signals the onset of adulthood and possible future child-bearing. A supportive attitude by parents is essential as girls struggle to essay consequences deal with a change that may leave them feeling uncomfortable and junior beta club essay, sometimes embarrassed. Pre-adolescents are usually preoccupied with the opinions of on shoplifting, their peers. So, a Muslim girl who isn't praying or fasting because it is that time of the month naturally feels exposed and maybe even isolated. Again, this points to essay introductory paragraph the importance of teaching respect to all children to minimize the potential for hurt feelings and on shoplifting consequences, shame. Also, discussing this in appropriate sex education courses for young Muslims enables them to be educated and informed so that mature attitudes will be engendered among boys and girls. One could argue that the strong language found in the Qur'an and Hadith against unlawful sex contributes to a negative attitude regarding sex in general. Indeed, fear of retribution is often used to discourage young adults from engaging in premarital sexual behavior, thus contributing to inhibition, guilt and repression that interfere with healthy sexuality in marriage. Muslims must be willing to discuss these issues openly with their children to point out the wisdom of postponing sexual behavior until marriage and to focus on all of the positive aspects that a healthy sexual relationship contributes to that union. Rules without explanation only stimulate a young person's curiosity and interest in health in midwifery, risky behavior that is glorified by the media and often practiced by one's peers.
Also, when instilled with a strong sense of self esteem and identity, young people are better equipped to deal with the pressures they face particularly during adolescence when many of their friends are experimenting sexually.