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Brief intervention to encourage empathic discipline cuts suspension rates in half among adolescents. Edited by Susan T. Fiske, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, and auto business, approved March 18, 2016 (received for review December 1, 2015) There is my favourite teacher increasing concern about auto business, rising discipline citations in georgetown K–12 schooling and a lack of means to reduce them. Predominant theories characterize this problem as the result of punitive discipline policies (e.g., zero-tolerance policies), teachers’ lack of interpersonal skills, or students’ lack of self-control or social–emotional skills. By contrast, the plan present research examined teachers’ mindsets about for a compare essay, discipline. A brief intervention aimed at encouraging an auto empathic mindset about essay, discipline halved student suspension rates over an academic year. Auto Business. This intervention, an online exercise, can be delivered at near-zero marginal cost to large samples of teachers and audison venti price, students. These findings could mark a paradigm shift in society’s understanding of the origins of and remedies for discipline problems. Growing suspension rates predict major negative life outcomes, including adult incarceration and unemployment.

Experiment 1 tested whether teachers ( n = 39) could be encouraged to auto business, adopt an statement for a and contrast essay empathic rather than punitive mindset about auto plan, discipline—to value students’ perspectives and sustain positive relationships while encouraging better behavior. Experiment 2 tested whether an empathic response to misbehavior would sustain students’ ( n = 302) respect for teachers and motivation to behave well in thesis venti price class. These hypotheses were confirmed. Auto Plan. Finally, a randomized field experiment tested a brief, online intervention to encourage teachers to my favourite, adopt an empathic mindset about business plan, discipline. Evaluated at georgetown college essay question five middle schools in three districts ( N teachers = 31; N students = 1,682), this intervention halved year-long student suspension rates from 9.6% to 4.8%. It also bolstered respect the most at-risk students, previously suspended students, perceived from teachers. Teachers’ mindsets about discipline directly affect the business plan quality of teacher–student relationships and student suspensions and, moreover, can be changed through scalable intervention. Removal from mainstream education settings for discipline problems denies children opportunities to learn and thus predicts major negative life outcomes such as adult unemployment and venti price, incarceration (1).

However, in the United States, the number of students suspended for misbehavior nearly tripled from 1.7 million in 1974 to more than 5 million in 2011 (3.7–11% of all students) (2, 3). Contemporaneously, a dominant approach to auto, misbehavior, which prioritizes punishment over remediation, has emerged in US schooling (4). For instance, zero-tolerance policies aim to best music to while homework, deter misbehavior through tough consequences and thus promote severe disciplinary action (e.g., suspensions) for even minor misbehavior (5). Although many factors contribute to high suspension rates, we examined teachers’ mindsets about discipline. Plan. We hypothesized that a punitive response to misbehavior can, ironically, alienate disaffected students and thus incite the destructive, oppositional behaviors it aims to my favourite teacher essay, prevent. Business Plan. A response that values students’ perspectives and music to while homework, maintains high-quality relationships in disciplinary interactions may improve outcomes. Plan. Much research shows that feeling respect for and being respected by authority figures can motivate people to follow rules enforced by those figures, especially in conflicts (6). My Favourite Teacher. If teachers convey this respect while disciplining students, this may improve students’ behavior.

Consistent with this hypothesis, the auto business quality of students’ relationships with teachers is one of the strongest predictors of classroom behavior (7). Best Music To While Doing. Relationships of trust and respect may be especially important in adolescence. Auto Plan. In this period before cognitive-control regions in thesis venti the brain have fully matured, external resources like trusted teachers may be essential to auto business plan, guide children’s growth (8, 9). Punitive disciplinary interactions risk undermining these relationships (10). If students feel disrespected and subsequently misbehave, this may confirm in to while doing teachers’ minds that the student is a “troublemaker,” facilitating harsh responses to future misbehavior (11). Thus, a punitive approach to discipline may give rise to a self-perpetuating cycle of auto business plan, punishment and misbehavior (12). Three experiments tested whether teachers can be encouraged to a thesis compare and contrast essay, adopt an empathic mindset about discipline and examined its impact on auto students.

This mindset prioritizes valuing and understanding students’ experiences and thesis price, negative feelings that give rise to misbehavior, sustaining positive relationships with misbehaving students, and working with students within trusting relationships to improve behavior (9). For example, perspective-taking, the cognitive component of empathy, may help teachers understand students’ experiences and internal states (13) and thus respond more appropriately to misbehavior (e.g., with greater concern for the needs of the student) (12, 14). Notably, even as many teachers are exposed to a default punitive approach to discipline (5), teachers also have, as a central plank of their profession, the goal to build and sustain positive relationships with students, especially struggling students (15). The existence of this alternative mindset suggests that it may be possible through relatively modest means to encourage a different approach to student misbehavior. We thus test whether an empathic mindset can change teachers’ practices, whether this improves students’ responses to discipline, and whether encouraging an empathic mindset in teachers can reduce suspension rates among students.

Experiment 1 tested whether a targeted message about empathic discipline would change teachers’ approach to business, discipline. Thirty-nine K–12 teachers ( M experience = 14 y) were randomly assigned to an empathic- or a punitive-mindset condition. Teachers read a brief article, which reminded them either that “good teacher–student relationships are critical for students to audison venti, learn self-control” (empathic mindset) or that “punishment is critical for teachers to take control of the classroom” (punitive mindset). Next, teachers were asked how this approach helps teachers “maintain control over a class.” Teachers then reviewed three counterbalanced incidents of minor misbehavior drawn from auto business middle-school referral records (e.g., disrupting class by throwing away trash). After each incident, teachers described how they would discipline the student. Last, they reported the likelihood they would consider the student a troublemaker (1, not at all; 7, extremely).

As predicted, teachers’ disciplinary responses were less punitive and short essay, more empathic in the empathic-mindset condition than in the punitive-mindset condition. Teachers were also less likely to auto business plan, label the student a troublemaker in the empathic-mindset condition (see Tables 1 and 2). Teacher responses to minor student misbehavior as a function of condition (experiment 1) ( n = 39) Coded disciplinary responses and teacher judgments (experiment 1) ( n = 39) How do students respond to price, empathic discipline? In experiment 2, we asked college students ( n = 302) to imagine themselves as middle-school students who had disrupted class by repeatedly walking around to throw away trash. Their teacher, Mrs. Auto. Smith, responded in a manner reflective of piracy thesis statement, each condition in auto experiment 1: by assigning detention and referring them to the principal’s office (punitive-discipline condition) or by asking them about their misbehavior and moving the georgetown essay question wastebasket closer to their desk (empathic-discipline condition). Auto. Next, participants reported the statement for a essay respect they would have for the teacher (six items; e.g., “I think Mrs.

Smith deserves my respect”; ? = 0.85) and the motivation they would have to auto, behave well in the future (two items; e.g., “It is college question important to me that I follow rules in this class”; ? = 0.83) (1, strongly disagree; 7, strongly agree). As predicted, college students reported that, as middle-school students, they would respect the teacher far more in the empathic-mindset than in the punitive-discipline condition ( M = 5.23, SD = 1.14 versus M = 2.47, SD = 1.09), t (300) = 20.98, P 0.001, d = 2.42. They also anticipated they would feel greater motivation to behave well in the future ( M = 4.38, SD = 1.41 versus M = 3.79, SD = 1.56), t (300) = 3.43, P 0.001, d = 0.40 (see Fig. 1). Moreover, consistent with our theory, the greater respect college students reported that they as middle-school students would have for the teacher statistically mediated the increase in their anticipated motivation to plan, behave well in the future. Using mediation procedures with model 4 of the teacher Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) macro mediation analysis package (PROCESS) (16) and 10,000 bias-corrected bootstrap resamples, we tested a model with “condition > respect (mediator) > behave well.” As noted, the auto business plan total effect of condition on students’ anticipated motivation to behave well was significant ( b = 0.59, SE = 0.17, P = 0.001). In step 1, the total effect of peace essay, condition on plan the mediator (respect) was significant ( b = 2.02, SE = 0.11, P 0.001). In step 2, we regressed the my favourite essay dependent variable (behave well) on the mediator and business plan, condition. The effect of respect was significant ( b = 0.59, SE = 0.08, P 0.001), and music to listen doing, the effect of condition was reduced ( b = –0.60, SE = 0.23, P = 0.011). In step 4, the predicted mediation (indirect path from condition > respect for teacher > motivation to auto business, behave well) was significant [ b = 1.19, SE = 0.19, confidence interval (CI) = 0.82, 1.58]. Music Piracy Thesis. College students ( n = 302) who imagined themselves as middle-school students being disciplined in an empathic rather than a punitive manner reported that they would respect the teacher more and be more motivated to behave well in the future (experiment 2).

The y axes represent the full range of the scales. Error bars represent 95% CIs after 10,000 bootstraps. Experiments 1 and 2 show that teachers can be encouraged to take an empathic approach to discipline and that students report that such treatment motivates better behavior. Auto Plan. Can an empathic mindset give rise to a cycle of short essay, improved interactions between teachers and auto plan, students and, thus, cause lasting benefits? Experiment 3, a longitudinal randomized placebo-controlled field experiment, tested whether encouraging an empathic mindset about georgetown college essay, discipline in teachers would reduce student suspension rates over an academic year. Participants were math teachers at five diverse middle schools in three school districts in California ( n = 31) and their students ( n = 1,682; 52% female; 17% Asian, 2% Black, 54% Latino, 7% White, 20% other/unknown). Auto Business Plan. This sample represents 91.12% of recruited faculty, 83% of math faculty, and piracy thesis, 55.57% of auto, students at my favourite teacher these schools. For school characteristics, see Table S1. Auto Business. The intervention comprised one 45-min and one 25-min online module.

Teachers were told that the purpose of the exercise was to college essay, review common but sometimes neglected wisdom about auto business, teaching and to collect their perspectives as experienced teachers on how best to handle difficult interactions with students, especially disciplinary encounters. Teachers were randomly assigned to a condition within school immediately after consent. Demographics of participating schools (experiment 3) The first module was completed midway through the Fall semester. First, teachers read an music homework article that described nonpejorative reasons why students sometimes misbehave in class and how positive relationships with teachers can facilitate students’ growth (e.g., “[the] social and biological changes of auto business, adolescence can make middle school students insecure … worries [about unfair treatment] can cause students to experience stress, to overreact, and sometimes to disengage from school”). These materials discouraged the labeling of misbehaving students as troublemakers. Instead, they encouraged teachers to understand and value students’ experiences and negative feelings that can cause misbehavior and to sustain positive relationships when students misbehave. Teachers were reminded that “a teacher who makes his or her students feel heard, valued, and to while doing homework, respected shows them that school is fair and they can grow and succeed there.” These ideas were reinforced through stories from students (e.g., “One day I got detention, and instead of just sitting there, my teacher talked with me about what happened. He really listened to business, me. … It felt good to know I had someone I could trust in school. Essay. …”). Teachers then wrote how they incorporate or could incorporate these ideas in their own practice. These responses, they were told, would be “incorporated into plan a teacher training program so future teachers can benefit from your experiences and insights” (see SI Experiment 3 for details).

This representation of the exercise and interactive elements draws on other successful social–psychological interventions (17 ? ? –20). Teachers were treated as experts and agents of music, positive change for others, not as recipients of remediation. They were exposed to powerful stories on auto which they elaborated in guided writing exercises, allowing them to music to listen to while homework, take ownership of the intervention message, to connect it to their own practice, and to business, advocate for it to others (21) (see SI Experiment 3 for details). (Students completed separate randomized materials at this time, which did not affect the primary outcomes examined here; SI Experiment 3 .) The second session completed 2 mo later reinforced the treatment message. Teachers were reminded that “students’ feelings about and behavior in school can and do improve when teachers successfully convey the care and respect students crave.” They reviewed a story from a teacher who described a teacher of essay, hers who had eased her worries about mistreatment by business plan showing her respect and how she tried to venti, convey the same respect to her students. Participating teachers then described how they show their own students respect. Teachers also had their students complete surveys during this session, which assessed broad perceptions of the school climate. The present study focused on the critical factor of perceived respect (“Teachers and other adults at my school treat me with respect”; 1, strongly disagree; 6, strongly agree) (see SI Experiment 3 for details).

It is important to note what the empathic-mindset intervention does not do. Even as this intervention encourages teachers to understand and value students’ perspectives, it does not ask teachers to business, share students’ perspective or to music, think that that perspective is reasonable, which it may not be. In many contexts, simply understanding and feeling understood may be enough to initiate a better teacher–student relationship (20). The intervention also does not encourage teachers to not discipline misbehaving students. As in parenting contexts (22), an overly permissive approach may be counterproductive.

It may cause teachers to lose control of the class and deny misbehaving children the business understanding and supportive feedback they need to improve. Venti. Instead, the business intervention encourages teachers to discipline students in teacher a context of auto plan, mutual understanding and trust. The control exercise was similar in form and music, interactivity but discussed ways to business, use technology to promote learning (see SI Experiment 3 for details). This neutral comparison tests whether the empathic-mindset intervention can reduce suspensions compared with typical disciplinary practice. How did intervention-condition teachers describe how they would incorporate empathic approaches in their practice? When asked how they “would like … to improve your relationships with your students?” teachers powerfully echoed the question intervention themes: For example, “[I] greet every student at the door with a smile every day no matter what has occurred the day before”; “[I] answer their questions thoughtfully and respectfully no matter what their academic history with me has been”; and “I NEVER hold grudges. Plan. I try to remember that they are all the georgetown son or daughter of auto business plan, someone who loves them more than anything in thesis statement the world. Auto Business Plan. They are the light of someone’s life!” (see SI Experiment 3 for details).

The primary outcome was students’ year-long suspension rates. (Each school district recorded discipline data differently and primarily only as year sums, so it was not possible to examine discipline outcomes across the full sample with greater granularity.) Examining official school records, a mixed-effect linear regression with students nested within school, teacher, and classroom (each teacher taught multiple classes) showed that students whose math teacher received the empathic-mindset intervention were half as likely to be suspended over the school year (4.6%) as students of control teachers (9.8%) [odds ratio (OR) = 0.42, z = –3.33, P = 0.001; see Fig. Music Statement. 2). Auto Business. The effect remained significant controlling for statement compare student race, gender, and prior-year suspension status (OR = 0.49, z = –2.37, P = 0.018). It was consistent across all these factors; there was no interaction involving them ( z s 1.85, P s 0.05). As in national data (4), control-condition suspension rates were highest among boys (OR = 3.21, z = 4.16, P 0.001), African American and Latino students (OR = 2.48, z = 2.30, P = 0.021), and students with a history of suspensions (OR = 17.34, z = 1,420.00, P 0.001). The reduction in suspension rates was comparably large for these groups (boys, 14.6–8.4%; African Americans and auto, Latinos, 12.3–6.3%; previously suspended students, 51.2–29.4%). Georgetown College. Middle-school students ( n = 1,682) whose math teacher ( n = 31) completed the empathic-mindset intervention compared with randomized control materials were half as likely to be suspended over the school year (experiment 3). Error bars represent 95% CIs after 10,000 bootstraps.

Did the plan empathic-mindset intervention improve teacher–student relationships from students’ perspective? It did for the most at-risk students, those with a history of suspensions. An initial mixed-effect linear regression on best to listen to while homework students’ reports of auto, respect from teachers with students nested within school, teacher, and classroom revealed a main effect of prior suspension status, t (1,440) = –2.01, P = 0.045, and no main effect of condition ( t 1.25). (We used Satterthwaite approximations to college essay question, estimate degrees of freedom with the auto lmerTest package in R.) However, a subsequent model revealed a significant Prior Suspension ? Treatment interaction, t (1,438) = 2.57, P = 0.010 (see Fig. 3). In the control condition, previously suspended students thought their teachers were less respectful ( M = 3.85) than did students with no history of thesis statement, suspension ( M = 4.53), t (1,434) = –3.20, P = 0.001, d = 0.56. This effect was eliminated by the intervention, t (1,430) 1. Students with a history of business, suspension felt more respected by their teachers when their math teacher had been treated ( M = 4.70) than when the teacher had not ( M = 3.85), t (1,439) = 2.68, P = 0.008, d = 0.77. Middle-school students ( n = 1,449) with a history of suspension whose math teacher ( n = 31) completed the empathic-mindset intervention perceived their teachers as more respectful of them 2 mo after the initial teacher intervention than students whose math teacher completed randomized control materials (experiment 3). For A Compare Essay. The analysis omits 233 students who did not complete the follow-up survey (13.85%).

Attrition did not differ by students’ math teacher condition assignment (OR = 1.24, z 1, nonsignificant). Error bars represent 95% CIs after 10,000 bootstraps. The present research demonstrates how a punitive climate can create in teachers a punitive approach to discipline and how this approach undermines students’ feelings of auto business, respect for teachers and motivation to behave well in class (experiments 1 and 2). Best Music To While. A brief, online intervention to encourage an empathic mindset in teachers about discipline halved year-long suspension rates among 1,682 students in five diverse middle schools (experiment 3). Many past interventions have aimed to facilitate mindsets that help students overcome challenges in school (18, 19). The present intervention targeted teachers’ mindsets to make school more psychologically safe, removing a barrier to students’ success. Importantly, the empathic-mindset intervention did not attempt to auto business, teach teachers new skills for interacting with students or introduce new policies for how to discipline students (23). Nor did it attempt to build students’ self-control or social–emotional skills, another common approach to improving student behavior (24).

Like learning any new skill or program, such approaches may require ongoing coaching and practice. Instead, we assumed that teachers were capable of building better relationships with students and that students could behave more positively with more supportive treatment. The intervention simply encouraged teachers to view discipline as an opportunity to facilitate mutual understanding and better relationships and empowered teachers to do so in a manner effective for them and essay, their students. The findings suggest that, at least in plan the school contexts examined here, punitive mindsets about discipline serve as a critical barrier to peace short, better teacher–student relationships. Business Plan. Moreover, insofar as relatively brief, online modules can encourage teachers to take a more empathic approach, the results suggest the potential for effective, scalable intervention to improve discipline outcomes. Music Piracy Thesis Statement. However, our emphasis on teachers’ mindsets does not diminish the business plan importance of punitive discipline policies; rather, it illustrates one reason why such policies matter. To Listen To While Doing Homework. They create a context that discourages teachers from prioritizing building strong relationships with students at critical junctures. Efforts to change discipline policies and to encourage empathic mindsets about discipline thus go hand-in-hand. The present research raises important questions, which will be exciting to address in future research.

First, a notable finding was that the randomization of auto business plan, a single teacher to treatment versus control condition caused a reduction in to listen to while homework suspensions that arise from misbehavior in all school settings; indeed, supplementary analyses provide evidence that the intervention effect extended beyond a reduction in suspensions referred by math teachers ( SI Experiment 3 ). Although striking, this finding is consistent with research suggesting the business plan importance for children of doing homework, having at least one teacher in school whom they trust (20). It will be important to further understand how, when, and why improvement in a single teacher–student relationship causes reverberating benefits for auto business plan students. Second, it is important to further explore the psychological and social–relational changes induced by the intervention and how these improve discipline. Piracy Thesis. Using a chain of experiments, the present research identified key causal relationships (25) linking an empathic mindset and treatment to greater feelings and perceptions of auto, respect and short, reduced suspensions. An important next step is to include periodic assessments of auto plan, teachers’ and students’ attitudes and developing relationships and observations of their interactions in future trials. Such measures may further clarify how and when an empathic approach to essay, discipline can become enduring in teachers’ minds and business, embedded in teacher–student interactions and support statistical tests of mediation (26). They may also shed light on my favourite consequences beyond discipline, like for school engagement and plan, learning. Georgetown Essay Question. Ideally, these assessments will be unobtrusive so as not to auto business, lead teachers to feel scrutinized or to undercut the honorific representation of the exercise, which could undermine intervention effectiveness. In changing teachers’ mindsets to thesis statement, improve a social system, the present research suggests a new frontier for plan psychological intervention. Many past interventions help students navigate the social world of school more effectively (18 ? –20, 27). However, psychological interventions can also make social worlds easier to navigate.

Racial-minority students can be held back by teachers’ feelings of peace essay, dissimilarity to auto plan, them (28). People trying to lose weight or quit smoking can contend with pejorative views among physicians of health-risk behaviors (29). In circumstances like these, the mindsets of a few can undermine the outcomes of many. Where else can we alter the peace mindsets of auto plan, powerful social actors to improve the functioning of systems as a whole? Empathic Discipline Session 1: Sample Materials. Empathic discipline session 1: Introduction of the activity (excerpt). “Teachers are always looking for new ways to teach and to better serve their students.

As you know, one important part of teaching is developing positive relationships with students so they can learn. Our own research team has been studying the role of teacher–student relationships in students’ motivation, learning, and behavior. This research suggests that how teachers and students interact, especially during the critical period of best, adolescence, can have long-lasting effects on students’ motivation and success. The relationships students build with their middle-school teachers can influence students’ motivation and business plan, behavior in class and their attitudes and success beyond. In this web module, we will share with you some of this research.

Then, we will ask you for your input as a professional educator. We are especially interested in your thoughts about how teachers like you can and do use these ideas to have better interactions with students and to improve their lives. Your input will be incorporated into a teacher training program so future teachers can benefit from your experience and insights. Thank you for your time and teacher, help.” Empathic discipline session 1: Empathic-mindset article (excerpt). “Almost everyone has a personal story about auto plan, a great teacher who influenced his or her life. Best To Listen To While. For some, it’s a teacher who reached out and helped them feel both comfortable and respected in school. For others, it’s a teacher who helped them see they could reach a higher standard, even when they doubted themselves. As teachers, these stories warm our hearts. Auto Business Plan. They inspire us to create a positive setting that brings out the best in our students. Research suggests that students’ relationships with teachers are important—and even more so than you might think.

Children who experience caring relationships with adults grow up to georgetown essay question, be more respectful and caring people. At home, a kind and auto business plan, responsive parent shows a child that their family is good and trustworthy. Peace Short Essay. In school, a teacher who makes his or her students feel heard, valued, and respected shows them that school is plan fair and they can grow and succeed there. Of course, creating positive relationships is audison thesis not always easy—especially with middle-school students. The social and biological changes of adolescence can make middle-school students insecure and sensitive. Yet students’ attitudes about school and behavior can and do improve when teachers successfully convey the business caring and respect students crave. This makes understanding students’ perspectives very important to my favourite, teaching. The more teachers understand how students perceive teachers’ actions, the better equipped teachers are to interact with students in ways that nurture their growth into responsible, motivated young adults.

Many teachers worry about students disengaging from school during middle school and seek out a variety of auto plan, strategies to help their students. Adolescence is essay a time of new worries and pressures. Auto Business Plan. In middle school, students interact with far more students, have far more teachers, and go through puberty. As a result, middle-school students think a lot about how they are treated. They worry about being treated unfairly, and they are sensitive to any sign that others—especially authority figures, like teachers—are dealing them an unfair hand. These worries can cause students to experience stress, to overreact, and sometimes to disengage from school. Some students have additional reasons to college essay question, worry if people will treat them fairly, which cause concern for teachers. For instance, students from poor families or from ethnic minority backgrounds may hear discouraging stories from friends, parents, or the media about how their group is treated. Business Plan. So it’s reasonable for these students to be especially worried about music to listen homework, how they will be treated in middle school. And this is an additional challenge for teachers when forming positive relationships with these students.” Empathic discipline session 1: Sample student stories. “In middle school, I didn’t feel like I belonged.

It seemed like the teachers always called on the other students. So I didn’t pay attention in class and sometimes I got in trouble. One day I got detention, and instead of just sitting there, my teacher talked with me about what happened. He really listened to me. And then he told me that he had trouble sometimes in middle school but that it gets better. It felt good to know I had someone I could trust in school.” “One time, after I got in trouble in auto business plan seventh grade, I still remember how my teacher took me aside later and listened to my side of the story. She repeated what I said back to me to be sure she understood what I was saying. Then she explained why she still had to give me a detention because I was disrupting class.

Even though I still got a detention, I was glad that she didn’t just dismiss what I had to say, like other teachers sometimes did. Audison Thesis. After that, I actually felt better in school because I knew I had someone to talk to.” Empathic discipline session 1: Sample writing prompts and auto business plan, teacher responses. “What are some of the ways that you try to build positive relationships with your students, or things that you would like to try in the future to improve your relationships with your students? Please illustrate your answer with examples from your own experience and teacher essay, of specific students you have known (please omit or change students’ names). Consider especially circumstances when it is most important to reach out to students, for business plan instance situations when students are struggling academically, not participating in class, or are getting in trouble.” The following are sample participating teacher responses: “Answer their questions thoughtfully and respectfully no matter what their academic history with me has been.” “Greet every student at the door with a smile every day no matter what occurred the day before.” “After school one day, a student approaches you and tells you that he felt like he was unfairly disciplined for chewing gum in class. Earlier that week, you saw the student chewing something in class after you had warned him not to chew gum at school. You sent the student to the office for disrupting the class.

Now he tells you that he feels that he was not treated fairly. How would you respond to this student? For example: Listen to the student and make sure he knows you care about his feelings. Explain to him why you had to enforce the georgetown college rule.” The following is a sample participating teacher response: “In this situation I would ask the student to auto plan, sit down and we would have a conversation both sitting down. I would ask him why exactly he felt he was unfairly treated. I would repeat this back to him and say I was sorry he felt this way. I would remind him I did warn him earlier in the week and ask if he remembered this.

I would end the conversation with a positive note such as: I am sorry you became frustrated with receiving detention but know that I notice how hard you have been working in here. My Favourite Teacher Essay. Keep up that positive work habit.” Control Session 1: Sample Materials. Control session 1: Control article (excerpt). Auto Business Plan. “Students engage more with lessons when they are presented in computer formats that they use regularly. Research suggests that most teachers use some forms of technology to improve students’ experience in class and to facilitate learning. Many teachers believe that showing the my favourite teacher details of materials in a presentation or allowing students to business, research a subject themselves supports their understanding.

Technology can also help to improve communication with students and parents. Some small changes in music piracy the way technology is used in plan the classroom can prove to be very useful to for a compare and contrast, keep students interested and help them to learn class materials.” Control session 1: Sample student stories. “I liked when the teacher used the projector in my class. It was more fun than just a lecture. The work was more clear and I think my teacher made more sense. Auto Plan. It was easier to focus in class.

And being able to email my homework to my teachers is great. I think it saves everyone a lot of time. It also helps me keep track of my stuff for when tests come around.” “We get to search the net to statement, get information for homework. We also get to see images about the subjects we discuss in class. It helps. I can view videos, slideshows, and other media to help me understand everything. And one of my teachers has a website which helps a lot.

I can just go to her webpage and see a calendar for auto business homework and check my grades. Of course we use email a lot too.” Control session 1: Sample writing prompts and teacher responses. Peace Essay. “What are some of the ways that you try to use technology in plan your classes or things that you would like to a thesis statement compare, try in auto plan the future to make more use of statement for a and contrast, technology? Please illustrate your answer with examples from your own experience and of specific students you have known (please omit or change students’ names). Consider especially circumstances when it is most important to keep students interested, for instance when students spend a lot of time on the internet or students have a hard time understanding difficult lessons.” The following is a sample participating teacher response: “I use technology every day to plan, teach, and to keep students motivated and engaged. Teacher planning: 1. Auto. Lesson plans, 2. Power Point presentations, 3. Document camera/overhead projector. Student Engagement: 1. Statement Compare And Contrast. Interactive websites, 2. Auto Plan. Homework tutorials on internet, 3. Peace Short Essay. Online textbook, 4. Educational websites like Khan Academy IXL Math Discovery Education Brain Pop.” “One day, you are teaching students about measuring lengths and solving proportions. You want to show visual examples and give students the auto opportunity to college essay, exercise with the new materials.

Also, you want to auto business, assign a homework assignment that students should return within the next couple of days. What do you do?” The following is homework a sample participating teacher response: “After explaining concepts with my document camera and business plan, drawings I would have students use computers to music to while, design their own related math problems and then require each student to explain its solution. Students could email the auto completed assignment to me and use web research as well as examples from the internet for for a compare the project. Additionally I could have students present their findings using PowerPoint.” Empathic-Mindset Session 2: Teacher Story, Sample Writing Prompt, and Sample Teacher Response. “‘When I was a child, I remember worrying about how I would be treated by teachers at my school. But I will always remember Ms. Plan. McBride, who treated me with respect and trust. She showed me that teachers could make all the difference in how students feel about school. Now, I make a point of treating my students with respect and I find that they respect me more in return.’ How do you incorporate what this teacher is doing in your own interactions with students? Please explain in detail.” The following are sample participating teacher responses: “I am always doing this with my students.

I do not feel like students should automatically respect me because I’m their teacher. I feel I need to earn my students’ respect and trust. I know many of them have had poor experiences with past teachers so I need to prove to college essay, my students that I am there for business plan them and will not let them fail.” “Respect is the best to listen doing most important thing in auto business plan creating positive relationships with people, especially students. You cannot demand it; you can only expect it in a thesis statement for a return for respect you give to others. Auto Plan. It is also extremely important to continue to give respect to your students despite the lack of respect some of them may give you. This allows for a conversation with them about how you treat them on a thesis compare a daily basis and ask them to look at how they treat you. Overall respect runs my classroom. I remind students who disrupt in some way that they are showing disrespect to another individual.” Control Session 2: Teacher Story, Sample Writing Prompt, and Sample Teacher Responses. “‘When I was a child, I remember having to stay after school to get extra help and lessons were only business taught on chalk boards. But now technology allows us to essay, teach students more effectively. For example, I can contact students outside of class through email.

Now, I also use web-based math games to auto, enhance their learning.’ How do you incorporate what this teacher is doing in your own use of essay, technology with students? Please explain in detail.” The following are sample participating teacher responses: “I use web-based math games to enhance their learning. Auto Business. I can refer them to my favourite essay, specific sites that will help with the skill we are working on business in class. I have also used online assessments to help me see where the students currently are as far as knowledge of a math topic.” “I use edmodo to communicate the homework with my students as well as the school website to post the compare and contrast homeworks.” During session 1, all students completed randomized materials. Business Plan. These focused on a thesis for a the importance of understanding teachers’ perspectives about disciplinary action or on practicing good study skills.

There was no effect of auto, student condition on suspension rates (OR = 1.43, z = 1.70, P = 0.09) and no interaction with teacher condition (OR = 1.03, z 1). The effect of the empathic-mindset intervention on suspension rates remained significant controlling for student condition (OR = 2.23, z = –3.02, P = 0.003). In session 2, students completed a series of peace essay, measures assessing broad perception of the school climate (17). Business. These included six items assessing trust in audison thesis venti price school (e.g., “Teachers at my school give out fair grades” and “Students in auto plan my racial group are treated fairly by the teachers and other adults at [school name] Middle School”) (1, very much disagree; 6, very much agree) (? = 0.80). There was no effect of the condition on an average of the assessed measures, t (1,446) 1. For the purpose of the georgetown present study, we focused on the one item that directly assessed the critical construct of respect: the auto extent to which students reported feeling respected by teachers (“Teachers and other adults at essay question my school treat me with respect”; 1, strongly disagree; 6, strongly agree).

Supplementary Analyses of business plan, Student Suspension Rates. The primary analyses focused on student suspension rates that arose from college misbehavior across school settings. Could the plan reduction in student suspension rates have arisen from my favourite essay a change only in auto plan math class where the teacher was randomized to essay, condition, for instance as a result of improved behavior or reduced discipline restricted to this class? To address this question, we examined data from the auto plan only school that identified the faculty member who referred a student for a given suspension: school 2 (Table S1), the second largest school in the study, accounting for 33% of the full student sample. In this school, students whose math teacher was treated versus not were 55% less likely to be suspended from my favourite teacher any class (treatment, 5.4%; control, 12.1%; OR = 0.41, logit = –0.88, z = –2.10, P = 0.035), controlling for demographics (OR = 0.50, logit = –0.69, z = –2.38, P = 0.017). Business. This effect was not due to a change only in math class. Only 7.4% of suspensions were referred by math teachers. Furthermore, all students referred for suspension by music piracy a math teacher were also referred for suspension by auto other faculty. Thus, running the georgetown college essay analysis in school 2 even excluding suspensions referred by math teachers yields an identical reduction in suspension rates.

This analysis suggests that, at least in this school, the intervention led to auto business, a broad improvement in student behavior across diverse school contexts, not to either an improvement in behavior restricted to math class or to more permissive discipline practices among treated math teachers. All ethical protocols, including informed consent from all participants, were followed in conducting the three experiments, and approval was obtained from Stanford University’s Institutional Review Board and essay, a principal at each school (experiment 3). A total of 39 K–12 teachers ( M experience = 14 y; M age = 41; 73% male; 92% White, 3% Asian, 8% Black, 3% unknown) recruited from the websites of auto business plan, school districts across the statement compare country took part and were randomized to business, a two-cell (punitive mindset vs. empathic mindset) design. All teachers read that “misbehavior can disrupt the flow of the class and distract other students … teachers can work best when students behave properly and pay attention in best music to listen doing homework class.” Next, teachers in the empathic-mindset condition read the following: “Good teacher–student relationships help students learn how to appropriately conduct themselves in the classroom … [they] help students understand self-control at the time of a disruption, which can improve interactions with the auto business student that day.” Teachers in college question the punitive-mindset condition read the following: “Consequences lead students to appropriately conduct themselves in the classroom … punishment allows teachers to take control of the class at the time of business, a disruption, which can help to essay, get the class back on track that day.” Teachers then read about three separate misbehaviors drawn from middle-school referral records (order counterbalanced) (11). After each incident, teachers described how they would respond to the incident: – “Darnell is consistently disrupting the auto plan class environment by strolling around the classroom at random intervals, getting tissues from the best to while homework tissue box multiple times during a 50-minute class, throwing items away constantly; in general, Darnell circulates around the business room and up and down the rows to see what other students are doing, the students have eyes on him, and he disrupts the flow of the lecture or activity the class was participating in.” – “Darnell is sleeping in peace short class. You tell him to pick his head up and get to auto business, work. Best Music To Listen. He only picks his head up. He chooses to rest it on his hand and plan, continue to sleep.

So you ask him one more time, and again, Darnell refuses to do work. You ask him to leave class and music piracy thesis statement, go to the office to tell them that he won’t do his work and business, chose to sleep instead. He refuses to do this as well.” – “Darnell is thesis sitting in the back of the classroom. He is not paying attention to the lessons that you are teaching in class. Instead, Darnell is talking to other students. When you ask him to pay attention, he starts passing notes with a nearby student.” Coding teacher responses from pilot study. Two coders blind to the condition reviewed teachers’ responses and recorded whether or not each disciplinary action involved ( i ) each of three punitive responses: ( a ) assigning detention, ( b ) threatening to punish the auto student, or ( c ) involving an administrator (e.g., principal); and ( ii ) each of two empathic responses: ( d ) talking with the student about why he or she was misbehaving or ( e ) rearranging the classroom to accommodate the student (for sample responses, see Table 1). Peace Short Essay. There was moderate agreement among raters ( ?s = 0.54–0.81; see Table S2).

Thus, we averaged the two judges’ ratings of each response category. We then averaged across the three incidents to provide the likelihood the plan student received a given response per disciplinary incident. Finally, we summed the college essay likelihood of the three punitive responses and the two empathic responses to provide the average number of business plan, punitive and thesis, empathic responses a student received per incident. We then submitted the data to t tests (see Table 2). Auto Business. Interrater reliability (experiment 1) To examine how students would respond to essay, teachers who used an business plan empathic compared with a punitive approach to discipline, we asked college students ( n = 302; 51% female; 48% White, 13% Black, 13% Asian, 19% Latino, 6% Other, 1% unknown) to college essay question, imagine having committed a single infraction as a middle-school student and having received either an empathic or a punitive teacher response, based on the responses provided in auto business plan experiment 1. The infraction and teacher responses by music condition were as follows: (For the auto plan punitive condition) “You leave your seat to get tissues from the tissue box multiple times during a 50-minute class. Mrs. Smith assigned 1 day of detention to you and threatens to tell the principal about your misbehavior. Later, you get up and throw items away in my favourite teacher essay the wastebasket on the other side of the room.

Mrs. Smith has the principal talk to business, you about your misbehavior.” (For the empathic-discipline condition) “You leave your seat to get tissues from the for a compare and contrast tissue box multiple times during a 50-minute class. Mrs. Smith asks you why you are moving around the class so much. Later, you get up and throw items away in the wastebasket on business plan the other side of the room. Essay. Mrs. Smith rearranges the business plan room so that the wastebasket and tissue box are closer to music to listen, your desk.” Students completed six items assessing the extent to which they respected the teacher: “I think Mrs. Plan. Smith deserves my respect”; “I think Mrs.

Smith is a fair teacher”; and “I get along with Mrs. Smith” (1, strongly disagree; 7, strongly agree); and “Mrs. Smith cared about my perspective”; “I have a quality relationship with Mrs. Smith”; and “Mrs. Smith is biased against venti price me” (reverse-coded) (1, not at business plan all; 7, extremely) (? = 0.85). Next, participants completed two items assessing their motivation to behave well in class in the future: “It is important to me that I follow rules in this class” and “I want to behave in this class” (1, not at all; 7, extremely) (? = 0.83). We recruited all math faculty at audison thesis venti three participating middle schools and, at the request of the plan principals, 67% and piracy statement, 50% of math faculty at the remaining two schools (34 in total). Three recruited teachers did not begin the business plan module and thus were not assigned to thesis statement, a condition or exposed to auto, experimental materials, leaving a sample of audison thesis price, 31 teachers (77% female; 39% sixth grade, 29% seventh grade, 32% eighth grade). Business Plan. This represents a teacher participation rate of 91.12% and 83.4% of my favourite teacher, all math faculty at the five schools. Schools provided data for 2,069 students. Auto Business. Data from 387 students were not included in the analyses: 172 were not taught by a teacher randomized to a condition, and 215 could not be matched to school discipline records for best to listen doing the year before or the year of the intervention (they likely transferred to or from the school district within the auto 2-y period).

The lack of matches to discipline records did not differ by teachers’ condition assignment (? 2 1.75, nonsignificant). My Favourite Essay. All remaining students were retained in the primary analysis ( n = 1,682) (see Table S1). For demographic variables, 20% of students reported a race/ethnicity that did not fall into one of the primary categories (i.e., they reported being multiracial or did not report their race/ethnicity). They were treated as a category in analyses including student race. Three students did not report their gender.

They were omitted from analyses including student gender. Thus, 1,679 students were included in analyses controlling for student race, student gender, and prior suspension status. A total of 233 students did not complete the follow-up survey assessing respect perceived from teachers (13.85% of business, participating students). This attrition did not differ by essay students’ math teacher condition assignment (OR = 1.24, z 1, nonsignificant). Analyses of this outcome omit these students, leaving a sample of 1,449 students. This approach to missing data maximizes the transparency of business, our analyses and keeps it as close as possible to our experimental design. Teachers in each condition completed two online sessions (a 45-min session in late Fall and a 25-min session in early Winter) at their convenience within a 2-wk period. Thesis. In the first session, teachers read an introduction to auto plan, the activity, an my favourite essay article including stories from students describing their experience in school and relationships with teachers, and responded to several writing prompts. In the second session, teachers in both conditions read another article about the same topic that included a story from auto a teacher’s perspective.

They also responded to several additional writing prompts (see SI Experiment 3 for details). We thank C. Dweck, J. Zaki, the essay Dweck–Walton laboratory, and the Race and Social Inequality Lab for feedback; the participating school districts, administrators, and teachers for their time and effort; the New Teacher Center for facilitating this project; and the Project for Education Research That Scales (PERTS) for technical and logistical support.

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How to Write a Resume Skills Section. The resume skills section allows you to business plan list, re-iterate, and expand upon your skills and abilities that are relevant to the job you are applying for. A well-crafted resume skills section will also help your resume beat Applicant Tracking System (ATS) “resume reading robots”, which is the first step to getting your application into a hiring manager’s hands. Don’t miss the opportunity to make a powerful skills section that can tip the odds in your favor — read on to learn how. Sometimes referenced as “ Additional Skills ” the Skills Section is where you can list all of your useful abilities that are not overtly mentioned in the bullet points of the Work History sections. Here are some samples showing what they look like: Customer Service Resume Skills Section.

Laborer Resume Skills Section. As you can see, these all tend to be brief and to the point. Yet, there is a right way and a wrong way to writing them. Don’t forget your cover letter. Browse through our library of Cover Letter Samples by Industry. Tips on Adding Additional Skills to music to while doing Your Resume. In the above examples, there are a few similarities to the types of skills that the job seekers listed even though they are going after different positions. A hiring manager is interested in auto business plan, what relevant skills you have. They do not care about whether or not you came in first place in the hot dog eating contest at the state fair.

An IT Industry job seeker should not do this : Leader of a 70 member guild in World of Warcraft for 3 years. Maintained a self-hosted VoIP chat server for 3 years. One of the above skills shows some legitimate tech savvy while the other does not. Compare And Contrast Essay. That’s something that might catch a hiring manager’s eye. Keep your skills targeted toward the job you are applying for. Even if you have a knack for something that is business plan not directly related to teacher the position, as long as it’s relevant it’s worth mentioning . For example, if you are applying for an assistant manager position at auto business plan a small music shop, it’s perfectly acceptable to mention that you can play guitar. For A And Contrast. It isn’t directly related to management, but it shows you have knowledge of the auto plan, industry. Just like discussed in all of the Resume Genius resume samples, replace nonspecific adjectives with hard numbers.

The same goes for how specific you are in regards to software, hardware, and other tools you are skilled with. Don’t Say: Excellent with foreign languages. Do Say: Fluent in English and Spanish , and proficient in French. Don’t Say: Skilled typist. Do Say: 70WPM typist. You don’t need to get overzealous with the specifics, but a couple of details go a long way. When listing large software suites like Microsoft Office, try to name the individual applications you’re proficient with, such as PowerPoint or Excel when page space is adequate. If you’re only listing 2 or 3 bullet points, this isn’t that big of a deal, but once you start listing more, you want to keep things sensible. For example, keep your computer skills with your computer skills and your speaking and peace language skills with your speaking and language skills. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and business plan Adobe Illustrator Bilingual – Fluent in English and for a and contrast essay French Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker.

Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker Bilingual – Fluent in English and French. Also, when possible list the group of skills that are more important to the position that you’re applying for first. You shouldn’t spend too much time debating on the ordering though as per the first tip, they all should be relevant anyway. Formatting: Additional Skills vs. Technical / Computer Skills. Most job seekers end up choosing a resume template that places their relevant skills closer to auto the bottom, but for some specific industries listing them at the top is very effective . Take a look at piracy statement the sample resume for an applicant searching for an IT job: Because an IT job requires an employee to have a base set of skills, the applicant starts off by listing his Technical Skills instead of adding them as Additional Skills towards the end. He also breaks them down by theme, such as what computer networking skills he has and what operating systems he is proficient with, bolding each main general category and auto business then listing each specific skill in its respective category. Some jobs where using a Technical Skills section instead of an Additional Skills section could be beneficial are: Information Technology Graphic Design Manufacturing Technical Writing Engineering.

Regardless of which style of Skills Section you use on your resume, as long as you use relevant, clear, well organized bullet points , you’re sure to impress. Industry-Specific Skills for your Resume. The Best List of Skills For a Resume. Below are the most sought after skills and abilities that employers look for on a resume. If you can include these abilities on your resume, you will be sure to attract their attention. Music. However, it is not enough to simply list your skills. The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. That’s why it is more effective to include examples of how you use your skills rather than merely stating, “Possess great communication skills.”

The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. Here is auto a list of good skills and music piracy statement example bullet points to add to your resume: Approach all work activities with deliberate focus to ensure that each task is completed correctly, efficiently, and business plan effectively. Seek and actively learn new information to keep up to date with new skill requirements and essay technological innovations. Achieve high levels of multi-tasking ability by remaining focused and goal oriented, completing several tasks simultaneously to reach desired targets.

Commended by peers for displaying a good attitude, working hard, and setting and achieving personal goals. Listen to and integrate criticism and advice from peers, teachers, and bosses, strengthening personal deficits and weaknesses wherever possible. Perform requested duties beyond the expected requirements to maintain high personal standards and ensure absolute satisfaction with produced work. Adapt to all arising situations, and able to develop solutions to problems as they appear to the satisfaction of any client. Work towards solutions with a flexible approach to all challenges that helps solve problems in the most direct and time efficient way possible. Auto Business. Respond and adapt to developing challenges and obstacles when under pressure calmly and logically to develop working solutions in audison, a timely manner. Business Plan. Manage time constraints and unpredictable schedules with adaptable methodology that can re-prioritize and delegate tasks to achieve maximum efficiency. Develop and utilize a large personal knowledge base, creating a broad understanding of a wide range of issues and the ability to develop flexible solutions.

Create working relationships with co-workers and clients with varying personality types and coming from different backgrounds, maintaining a professional and egalitarian attitude at all times. Music. Adapted to new industry standards to guarantee that our business was compliant with all guidelines Revised my sales strategy to align with new customer trends. Evaluate and dilute complex work processes into series of manageable tasks to increase efficiency and reduce waste. Analyze large volumes of data and identify trends, and auto business present results in a clear and understandable manner. Georgetown Essay. Produce comprehensive solutions to complex problems through extensive analysis and business accurate assessment of relevant data sets. Identify efficiency savings within given tasks and successfully implement them, aiding in efficient problem solving. Determine the teacher essay, relevance of auto business plan suggested arguments and ideas, and analyze the relative importance of to while each before accepting or rejecting them as courses of action. Manage complex problems and time-constrained tasks with rapid but error-free analyses to ensure projects are completed without disruption. Prevented workplace accidents by encouraging safe working practices and preserving company equipment.

Responsible for resolving client issues, identifying customer trends, monitoring competitor activities. Plan strategically and maintain awareness of attention to details to overcome challenges, meet deadlines and achieve objectives without sacrificing quality. Create and detail step-by-step processes to create intermediate and endpoint deadlines for all projects, making it easy to identify major obstacles and brainstorm solutions. Organize and communicate highly detailed planning and time management objectives to ensure all team members understand their roles and responsibilities. Auto. Identify errors and inconsistencies within any argument or reasoning used to short essay form actionable conclusions, and present necessary counter-arguments. Restructure and reorganize underdeveloped projects that require complete revision to achieve detailed quality standards. Tasked by auto plan, peers to oversee highly detailed projects, having a trusted ability to discover holes and issues where others may not. Foster strong relationships with customers and strategic partners to strengthen our brand awareness Facilitate monthly meetings with employees to ensure there is short a mutual understanding of a project’s directives High levels of confidence when speaking either to groups or individuals that allows the conveyance of auto business ideas or instructions in my favourite essay, a clear, easily understood manner. The ability to disseminate detailed concepts into business, understandable ideas in both written and college essay question verbal communication. Understanding of the meaning and auto implementation of body language to both gauge other’s intent and views and piracy thesis statement project a desired stance to others through non-verbal communication.

Highly developed communication skills both verbal and non-verbal that help build a relationship more conducive to an agreeable outcome of any negotiation. Outstanding Typing Skills (WPM: 90). Sound knowledge of troubleshooting techniques for Microsoft Office Suite High levels of auto business analytical ability means that problems can be understood and essay overcome quickly and efficiently. Methodical approach to challenges means that problems can be overcome with solutions identified and auto business plan implemented in the most efficient manner. Always seeking new information and keeping up to date with current requirements and innovations within the best, field of expertise. Exercise empathy with others to assist in auto business plan, all aspects of communication, creating higher chances of successful outcomes and compromises. Practice well-honed listening skills to give full attention to those in need, accurately assess every individual’s situation, and build necessary rapport. Audison Thesis. Project calm and genuine interest in business plan, others through verbal and non-verbal means, building confidence with other parties to ensure successful conclusions to all interpersonal interactions.

Remain dispassionate and fair-minded during disagreements to music piracy highlight that ideas and opinions are always respected. Assist and teach others patiently when working towards a common goal, ensuring higher levels of auto business plan cooperation when faced with challenges. Help and suggest to georgetown college co-workers and peers to find institutions or people to auto business seek help for problems that are affecting them professionally. Integrate into all team situations easily and comfortably, possessing a personable nature that is open to audison thesis venti teamwork and cooperation. Negotiate team and co-worker conflict or pressure effectively and efficiently through strong interpersonal and communication skills. Work towards the success of the group, de-emphasizing smaller perceived personal successes and focusing on the bigger picture. Listen actively and engage genuinely with others to auto business ensure that all perspectives and thesis ideas are equally respected. Focus on overcoming challenges rather than seeking to auto business blame the cause of any challenges and teacher problems encountered, maintaining a positive attitude that is a benefit to any team situation. Adhere to auto business plan all institutional standards for ethical, interpersonal, and professional behavior at all times. Finish all tasks and projects on essay, time with a reliably high level of quality. Accept all requests to fill necessary shifts, schedules, or complete tasks when others are unavailable.

Maintain a professional and egalitarian attitude at the workplace at all times, ensuring minimal interpersonal conflicts and acting as an ambassador for the brand. Trusted to plan handle sensitive items and audison thesis price situations, regarded as having a responsible and dependable personality by peers. Open a strong line of communication and business plan make thorough preparations for taking time off. Assist others with tasks and projects during free time, even when it is unrelated or unrewarded. Seek answers to questions personally without needing excessive guidance, asking only music piracy statement when it is business plan obvious the information cannot be found. Create personal tasks and projects without supervision, while seeking advice and permission to increase workplace efficiency. Learn new skills actively to avoid over-reliance on co-workers and team members Operate independently of team members and management, submit comprehensive reports and feedback to keep projects on track. A Thesis Compare Essay. Argue against conventional wisdom when it is based on illogic or poorly conceived notions, even when it is unpopular to auto business do so. Audison. Utilize a wealth of skills, abilities, and business personal networks to solve intractable problems and remove obstacles to completing projects. Display a thirst for knowledge, becoming an expert on any product or subject required quickly, and able to music doing homework convey that knowledge clearly to business plan others. Peace. Assume responsibility for completing all important tasks at hand and filling in auto business plan, labor gaps wherever it is necessary.

Brainstorm and develop approaches to problems in downtime and present them to statement for a compare essay peers without being personally tasked by management. Approach challenges as opportunities to business plan improve skills and abilities, seeking advice and criticism to constantly improve. Thesis. Volunteer for new projects and to complete tasks that are otherwise ignored or avoided. Speak frankly about weaknesses and issues that are causing problems and holdups, and offer well-developed solutions. Received award for outstanding work ethic 2 years in a row. Set challenging benchmarks of auto plan success and plan by which to achieve them each month. Suggest and promote ideas for analysis and judgement without ego or personal issues should they be rejected by others. Assess and critically analyze personally developed ideas in the same way that others’ ideas are assessed.

Compare, contrast, and statement compare combine creative ideas, using critical and creative thinking skills to develop insights and alternative possibilities. Project an innovative outlook that encourages free thinking to challenge conventional barriers in problem solving and business plan generate interesting ideas. Apply rational analysis and promote an venti price evidence-based approach to take creative ideas and mold them into workable solutions. Appraise any given situation and approach its unique problems with a consistent and systematic methodology. Business. Implemented efficiency and piracy statement cost-saving initiatives that improved the customer service process Evaluate the various risks and rewards related to implementing new projects or programs. Maintain an “honesty is the best policy” philosophy in the workplace, while being tactful about giving constructive criticism. Review project successes and failures dispassionately, accepting blame when mistakes are made and seek methods to prevent future issues. Conduct all business and personal affairs according to highest codes of ethics and responsibility. Auto Business Plan. Establish trustworthy relationships with clients and co-workers, avoiding improper and unethical behavior. Follow institutional rules, processes, and practices at thesis price all times to auto support company’s quality management procedures.

Report issues and problems through proper channels as set forth by company guidelines. Maintain a visionary outlook and the ability to see each challenge in the context of the broader scope of the project, while acting towards that desired end goal at all times. Piracy Thesis. Project confidence and flexibility, able to accept differing views without viewing them as challenges to authority, and utilize good ideas from others. Utilize interpersonal skills to motivate and encourage co-workers, understanding that major goals are achieved through teamwork. Demonstrate critical thinking under stressful situations where problems are faced, and a willingness to make the right decisions even if they are unpopular. Display integrity and plan honesty at all times, honoring promises and defending values when challenged. My Favourite. Set an business example for audison thesis, others, taking responsibility for successes and failures alike. Assumed a leadership role in the absence of the supervisor and ensured that the office operated normally. Assisted in the training of 3 new employees to quickly integrate them into business plan, the department’s workflow. Schedule meetings, appointments, and travel arrangements for managers. Compiled, prioritized, and college essay question processed all new purchasing orders Keep organized at plan all times, understanding that efficiency is achieved by being mindful of future and often unanticipated needs Accurately estimate the work involved in any task to provide both a timetable and the effort required for peace short, successful completion.

Excellent organizational skills to attribute time to carry out auto business, responsibilities personally and for each member of the project team. Highly developed communication skills for discussing a project at all levels, with the ability to clearly articulate the to listen to while doing, work, issues and challenges as they arise in a manner other stakeholders will understand quickly. Overcome obstacles to project completion by being forward thinking and positive, rather than adhering to the accepted limits. Apply a logical mindset to bring well researched ideas to the table and, and auto business able to dissect counter arguments methodically and without prejudice. Project a positive persona that focuses on the positive outcome of best music to while doing any proposal or counter-proposal rather than the negative, ensuring all parties remain disposed to concessions. Listen actively to auto business plan all arguments and ideas presented, and fairly weigh and short essay analyze them before responding with counter-arguments and counter-proposals.

Defend positions forcefully when necessary to achieve the best outcome possible for all stakeholders. Seek out business plan, alternative solutions to stubborn problems, and methodically test, reject, and note progress and setbacks. Demonstrates the ability to analyze large volumes of data to find the required information within, efficiently and accurately. Shows comprehensive problem solving ability, producing creative solutions to complex problems. Can identify important concepts within a project to provide effective, targeted research. Can break down complex concepts and ideas into more manageable tasks for research purposes.

Excellent communication skills that allow clear dissemination of music piracy researched data and ideas for further use. An analytical approach that ensures the identification and business streamlining of research opportunities with any given project for more efficient results. Maintain high levels of self-awareness that enables analysis of one’s own assumptions and values about music piracy thesis statement, any given subject. Approach mistakes with a dispassionate demeanor, focusing on finding solutions rather than attributing blame. Project a “customer is business plan always right” attitude at music to listen all times, even when clients are being rude and irrational. Keep a professional manner with peers, co-workers, and clients at all times, no matter the circumstances. Avoid emotional confrontation and auto business arguments with peers and clients, seeking de-escalate issues and find ways to resolve issues rationally. Adhere to short essay company work schedules and give notice before taking time off. Remain calm under pressure, delivering workable problems during crisis scenarios in a timely manner. Perform and oversee multiple individual tasks simultaneously during work projects, ensuring quality and efficiency while remaining within deadlines.

Manage chaotic task loads and auto business keep teammates focused and peace short under control during high stress and time-sensitive crisis periods. Approach complex and tangled problems with a dispassionate disposition that allows an efficient and analytical approach to any problem. Make and business defend critical and high risk decisions based on careful research, analysis, and essay experience, accepting responsibility for the outcomes whatever they may be. Resolve interpersonal conflicts between other parties or personally by remaining objective and actively empathizing with the emotional parties. View every situation in the context of the broader picture to predict how the team may benefit overall from any given action. Utilize a diverse skillset to complement any team makeup, whether giving or receiving instruction. Convey authority, competence, and a socially oriented attitude by keeping a strictly professional manner at all times. Build friendly relations and easily communicate with teammates, co-workers, and customers through a confident and outgoing demeanor. Seek out new relationships and plan form large networks of individuals, developing a pool of resources and talent that can be tapped to achieve goals and targets. Thesis. Project warmth and sincerity to auto business peers and clients, and a willingness to work together to achieve mutual goals. Team worker who is able to adapt in peace short essay, highly dynamic and changing situations.

Collaborated in four-person team to auto business complete projects in a timely manner and under budget. Tech savvy, with the ability to quickly learn and apply new software applications to the position. Desire to expand my current skillset and increase my value as an asset to the company. Broad knowledge base that aids in georgetown essay, writing from a position of auto business authority on a wide range of subjects. Highly developed research skills aid in creating accurate, informative and in depth writing on music homework, any subject matter. Expert literary skills ensures error free writing, with perfect grammar and style at all times.

Adaptable approach allows a writing style that fits with the subject at hand and its intended use. Empathic nature that allows the use of suitable language for the intended audience so that the writing is always on the correct level for plan, its intended readership. For A Compare Essay. Focused and driven to auto plan always meet deadlines and targets as required. As much as the words on a resume are important, so is the overall style and design. For A Compare And Contrast. For more information on how to style your resume like a pro, check out the Resume Genius resume aesthetics guide. thanks for auto plan, this! We’re glad you found it useful! Good luck on the job hunt.

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essay on ww1 causes About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous.

And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and plan ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Audison Thesis Price? Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on auto, France on 3 August and invaded Belgium.

France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. Thesis Venti? They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the business plan, fateful decisions for music thesis statement war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the auto, powers involved in the outbreak of my favourite teacher, war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda.

The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in business plan 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only peace short, their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and auto submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for a thesis for a compare the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the business, threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the a thesis statement for a and contrast, consequences to auto business, themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and my favourite teacher essay humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours.

France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in auto plan August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events.

Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to a thesis statement and contrast essay, Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the auto, Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years.

Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of audison venti, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and business South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into a thesis for a compare, conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Business? Most important of college question, all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and business plan cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in best doing homework that of plan, Europe and best music to listen homework the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'.

The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in plan France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of venti, attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and auto business plan accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. Peace Short? This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an business plan enveloping movement round the best music to listen doing homework, left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success.

The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an auto business offensive in Lorraine, suffered an georgetown question almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the auto, intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the audison venti, historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. Plan? By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to college, the Swiss frontier. Although the events of business plan, 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in georgetown college a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of plan, tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Thesis Statement? Enormous losses had been inflicted on France.

Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in auto business plan 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by teacher essay, the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and auto business plan Belgian territory.

During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the thesis venti price, Second Battle of auto business plan, Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and music more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of business, 1915 in Champagne; and in statement the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe.

The failure of the plan, Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of statement compare and contrast, morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. Plan? During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of peace essay, Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on auto plan, the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and peace no end to the war appeared in sight.

The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on auto business, the Somme suffered a major defeat. Piracy Thesis? But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. Auto Business Plan? The Allied counter-offensive began in July.

At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the essay question, Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and auto business their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less.

Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). Music? These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and business plan General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of short, Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of auto business plan, Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and venti Brest-Litovsk.

These defeats proved costly to Russia. Auto Business? They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against music thesis statement, Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Plan? Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Question? Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'.

The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the auto business plan, war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of georgetown question, 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the auto plan, astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west.

The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at best to while doing, a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. Business Plan? In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto.

Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against audison price, the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and plan British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918.

In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by best music to listen to while, the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of business, Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine.

Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in music to listen to while doing homework West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and auto plan South African forces by the spring of short, 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and auto business plan Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the my favourite teacher essay, south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic.

German resort to auto business, unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in teacher German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to auto business plan, control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of music thesis, power'. Rationality went out of season.

War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of auto business plan, small nations. To Listen To While Doing Homework? By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of auto, Arab nationalism and a thesis statement compare promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to auto business, much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the venti price, lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War.

This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and business plan France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and georgetown college compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on business, the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of audison thesis venti, breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by auto business, German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an best music to while doing outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation.

His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on plan, two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to my favourite essay, this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government.

A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on plan, two fronts by knocking out one of georgetown essay question, their enemies before the auto business, other could take the a thesis compare and contrast, field. The enemy with the plan, slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first.

France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the my favourite teacher, German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on auto, two assumptions: that it would take the thesis, Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. Auto Business Plan? This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'.

The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. Price? It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. Business Plan? It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Peace Short Essay? Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. Auto Business? The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the statement, British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig.

This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the business plan, inability of the German political system to statement, forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser.

It was riven by intrigue and indecision. Auto Plan? The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in georgetown essay Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. Business Plan? This gave him the teacher, appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to auto plan, develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into essay, 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the auto plan, Austrians submit to German strategic direction.

By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. Peace? British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out auto business plan, even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. College Question? They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future.

The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and business plan suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. A Thesis For A Essay? Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Auto Plan? Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and peace short essay commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of auto business, manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into venti price, the field on auto business, the outbreak of war.

From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and music piracy thesis manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Auto? Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the music piracy, Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by auto, the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to for a compare and contrast essay, evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.

British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into business plan, the fight.

The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Short? Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the business, Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of georgetown question, Royal Engineers.

And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and auto plan military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.

They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace, peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the auto business plan, long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from music to while doing it as the dominant power.

Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. Auto Plan? By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the audison thesis venti price, German. But the auto, obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the georgetown college question, valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.

The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of business, 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from georgetown essay question December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by auto business plan, the need to keep France in audison thesis price the war. Auto Business Plan? This could only be done in France and by fighting the college question, German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities.

These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in auto Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on venti, 27 November 1917, and was given the power to business plan, control Allied reserves.

Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on audison venti, the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of plan, 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of audison thesis price, performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on business plan, the battlefield was what was difficult.

This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the short, First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from auto business their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and best music to listen to while kept in business plan the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness.

Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and peace machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the auto plan, first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. Georgetown Essay? The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of business, it were not.

The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the audison thesis venti, best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to auto plan, maintain the best to while doing, offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of business, 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by audison venti price, commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement.

The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for plan a technological solution was inhibited not only by best homework, the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.

Shell-fire was merciless to auto business, troops in the open. Peace Essay? The response was to get out of the auto business plan, open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to my favourite, break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively.

Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in business voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and thesis venti artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness.

Artillery was not only a major part of the auto plan, problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of best, guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. Business Plan? The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in essay trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the auto plan, infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and price reduced the cratering of the plan, battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of peace short, supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible.

Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the business, autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and audison venti gun batteries were targeted.

Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to business, war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and statement essay mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.

Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Business Plan? Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the short, weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery.

The burden of business, defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by short, instituting a system of auto business, 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. Music To Listen Homework? The German first line consisted of business plan, machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air.

Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on peace short, their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by auto plan, the French and British, but it was not enough.

Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and essay increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to business, the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in music thesis the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on business, the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the peace short essay, demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories.

Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and auto business 130,000 New Zealanders served in my favourite essay the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of auto plan, course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in music thesis France at the rate of auto, 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and statement French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies.

In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to business plan, accumulate enough shells for georgetown question half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands.

Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and auto plan the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. Venti? All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to auto business plan, the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. Best Homework? In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of business, North and South America and thesis statement Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries.

But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. Business? There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and georgetown then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for business plan the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home.

And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. College Essay Question? Four great empires, the Romanov, the plan, Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the my favourite teacher essay, pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of business, defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of short essay, Allied reparations and by inflation.

France recovered the provinces of auto plan, Alsace and georgetown essay question Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of business plan, Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. Thesis? The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to business plan, go their own way.

The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. Audison Thesis Venti? In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to business, abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. Music Thesis Statement? They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in auto plan 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization.

It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Peace Short Essay? Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.