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A HISTORY OF FREEDOM AND UNIFICATION MOVEMENT IN KARNATAKA
Baz Luhrmann’s Romeo and Juliet Essay. Being a virgin viewer of Baz Luhrmann’s Romeo and Juliet, I found myself dissatisfied as I began to see the famous balcony scene reveal itself on the courtyard floor. “Where is the barrier, the ‘stony limits’ that separates the lovers from each other?” I inquired. How could the karnataka, most renowned scene of time for students William Shakespeare’s most popular play be missing? I continued to watch in astonishment as the daring scene developed into a masterpiece. Baz Luhrmann and Franco Zeffirelli both achieved unique interpretations of William Shakespeare’s script which accomplish the chief goal of displaying the extremely passionate love between Romeo and Juliet. The movies were made twenty-nine years apart and karnataka thesis had many specific and not so obvious differences between them including the setting, script, and camera work that are significant to accomplishing the two director’s diverse objectives for the films. The most noticeable difference found between the balcony scenes of the two movies is the different settings.
There actually is a balcony in Luhrmann’s version, but it is time cover letters much smaller and is only used for a brief instant in the scene. Romeo climbs to thesis, the top of the balcony in both versions, but in Luhrmann’s film, to his surprise, he finds an essay on stop, ugly nurse instead of the attractive Juliet. This comedic moment is essential for karnataka distracting the audience from their predictions. The Capulet mansions are both astounding and enormous but bestow different emotions. The mansion in Zeffirelli’s Romeo and Juliet is very castle-like with towering stone walls surrounded by cover assistants trees, and thesis a large balcony. This plain and on stop simple appearance is important because the focus of the scene is on the two young lovers and the stony limits that separate them.
Luhrmann’s film has a very luxurious and romantic looking set that captures the thesis, viewers’ attention from the start. The scene is more colorful with white sparkling lights, statues, ivy, and most importantly, a brightly lit up blue swimming pool. The water provides a perfect medium for Romeo and Juliet as they confess their love for each other. Letters Medical Assistants? The water does not only serve symbolic importance but provides a modern obstacle between Romeo and Juliet that can be compared to the balcony. Although the viscous water acts as a barrier, the pool scene involves much more contact between the lovers than Zefferelli’s balcony scene. Light piano music fills the air instead of the louder rock music that is found throughout the film. Karnataka? In both versions, Juliet is clothed in all white, portraying her innocence.
Zefferelli’s set resembles the setting William Shakespeare describes in his script, while Luhrmann modernizes the setting and translates script to appeal to today’s generations. Shakespeare wrote his plays in coursework completed a Victorian language that is karnataka not especially familiar to cfm ethesis_id 1121, most people today. Thesis? Zefferelli was quite aware of this, but made very few adjustments to the script. His play targets people who already know the story of Romeo and Juliet. Zefferelli takes advantage of the opportunities film offers by using technology to create realism, background music, props, and backgrounds to time for students, aid in the comprehension of the balcony scene of this romantic tragedy. On the other hand, Baz Luhrmann cuts the original script from 190 lines to 100 lines. He also adds occasional words to enable a smooth flowing dialogue. He maintains Shakespeare’s Victorian language because of the karnataka, ingenious poetry and rhythm it has that flows like music to one’s ears.
Luhrmann eliminates a lot of the difficult and time-consuming language as well as lines that do not pertain to his modernized setting. For example, lines 70-182 of Act III, Scene II are eliminated, in which Juliet calls Romeo back then forgets why she did so. Luhrmann’s adjustments to the script allow for a more easy translation of Shakespeare’s language. In addition to scholarly, the changes in the script, the scene can be comprehended strictly by viewing the moving picture due to karnataka thesis, the careful selection of costumes, the use of body language, the romantic setting, and the camera technique. The camera work during the balcony scene of both films is very strategically planed to give the viewers a much more personal experience than that of the stage. Zeffirelli’s scene makes use of the long balcony as the camera pans along it continuously, not allowing the eyes to rest. This keeps the viewers involved in the film while close ups are used to show the passionate emotions of the lovers.
In Baz Luhrmann’s version of the scene, the camera is not as active as one might imagine. The scene begins with long shots and as it develops, the camera moves in to extreme close-ups to some college coursework resume, show every detail of the lovers’ expressions. The camera gives the thesis, viewers an part, intimate relationship as it moves slowly and more closely to the actors in thesis contrast to the chaotic camera movement in hamlet scholarly essays other scenes. The quantity of editing used in Baz Luhrmann’s scene is significantly reduced when compared to the editing in other parts of his film. The editing pace goes from every couple seconds per shot to about twenty seconds per shot. Karnataka Thesis? The length of shots in Zeffirelli’s scene is examination even longer. Also, Zeffirelli’s scene uses slight high-angle shots on Juliet that gives the effect that Juliet is in a more superior position than Romeo. Karnataka? In Luhrmann’s film the lovers remain level with each other throughout most of the scene, giving a sense of equality.
Both filming techniques used in the two versions were very effective in creating the for new, close relationship between Romeo and Juliet as they reunite for the second time. The power and passion of love found within the karnataka thesis, balcony and college coursework pool scenes of the different films is one that leaves an everlasting impression in the hearts and minds of the viewers. Although interpreted very differently by karnataka thesis two brilliant directors, the scenes both relay Shakespeare’s message. Baz Luhrmann did so in a way that transformed the play from Shakespearian times to the youth of the twentieth century. He used state of the letters for new assistants, art technology, familiar actors, a modernized setting, and adjustments to the actual script to translate Shakespeare’s play into modern times.
On the other hand, Franco Zeffirelli attempted to make his film as much like Shakespeare’s play as possible. He used film to his advantage to provide a closer experience than that of the stage, but few changes to the actual script and thesis setting were made. He wanted to reflect the play to the best of his ability to the screen. Baz Luhrmann’s objective was to bring Shakespeare’s Romeo and essay smoking Juliet to the homes of people around the world. Both films were successful in achieving their goals, but were very unique because of the karnataka thesis, differences in qut thesis the setting, script, and camera work. “Imagery in Luhrmann#8217;s Romeo + Juliet.” American Film Institute. 1 Feb. 2005. Marks, Margaret. “Brand New Old Stuff.” 1 Feb.
2005. Romeo and Juliet. Dir. Franco Zeffirelli. Perf. Olivia Hussey and Leonard. Whiting. Paramount Pictures, 1968. William Shakespeare’s Romeo and karnataka Juliet. Dir. Baz Luhrmann. Perf.
Leonardo DiCaprio and Claire Danes. Qut Thesis Examination? Twentieth Century Fox, 1997. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 8 December 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Baz Luhrmann’s Romeo and Juliet. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample.
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Revolution of the Mystics: On the Social Aspects of Vraaivism
Persuasive Essay On The Driving Age To 18 Essays and Research Papers. English as a Second Language Stage 1 Task 3 Written Text Production: Essay (Research) Due date: Friday week 11 Name : Anna . Student no : 502561 Teacher : Bronwen Mitchell Date : 15.04.2011 The huge number of car crashes caused by karnataka young drivers is an issue which is now being strongly debated in Australia. Coursework Completed! According to the new research released on karnataka, 7 April 2010 by essay Carhistory.com.au, Australia’s most comprehensive vehicle history website, one in ten Australian teenagers have. Accidents , Adolescence , Australia 1155 Words | 4 Pages. Drinking and Driving Persuasive Essay. Drinking and Driving Persuasive Essay Comm215 July 12, 2010 Drinking and Driving Each . Thesis! year numerous lives are lost due to careless and irrational driving . The disregard for safe driving has been a predicament to on stop smoking, the United States of America for karnataka, years.
Many years Police have relied heavily on speed cameras, breathalyzer tests and heavy fines as a deterrent against unlawful drivers. Over the years fatality rates have increased, so the Department of on stop smoking, Transportation and thesis, Highway Safety has. Accident , Alcohol law , Drinking culture 862 Words | 3 Pages. Essay : should young people be allowed to drive before the age of 18 ? People are discussing the . driving age for teenagers. I don’t know why we should lower it. I think its important to keep it at 18 years of age . 1121! possibility of parents losing control over their children, the immaturity of teenagers, and karnataka thesis, the history of the part time cover letters for students teenagers' accidents and deaths are the karnataka main reasons. Statistics show that people under 18 are more likely to die than older people When teenagers under 18 take driving. Adolescence , Car safety , Chauffeur 1213 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay—Cell Phones and Driving.
Persuasive Essay —Cell phones and driving Suzy Campbell Title Balancing my coffee on qut thesis examination, my left leg, eating a . donut with my right hand, using my cell phone with my left hand, driving with my right knee and having a conversation with a friend at the same time are surprisingly enough all legal, as long as they don’t interfere with my driving . While all these distractions can potentially interfere with my driving , the one most people often notice is the use of cell phones. Thesis! Although using cell phones. Bluetooth , Cellular network , GSM 1015 Words | 4 Pages. Argumentative essay on some college coursework resume, legal driving age. Ellis Driving for many teenagers is there first passage to freedom, nothing is thesis more exciting to many teens than becoming the legal . age to drive. In the United States, most states legal age limits are set somewhere between 15 to 17 yrs old, each state having there own licensing process often with some type of probationary period before teens can obtain a full license.
Recently law makers in Florida, Georgia, Delaware, Illinois, and Massachusetts have debated raising the essay legal driving age . Many of. Chauffeur , Driver's education , Driver's license 791 Words | 4 Pages. 2 Drinking Age : 21 or 18 ? Some of the most overlooked types of karnataka, drugs are those that are legal. Specifically, alcohol is one of . the most widely used drugs in the world, and yet, many people don’t think of this substance upon hearing the word “drug.” This drug contributes to significantly more deaths than some illegal drugs such as marijuana (which has not been reported to cause any deaths), and hamlet scholarly essays, yet alcohol is still legal. Karnataka! On the flipside, alcohol is outlawed for minors under the age of 21, while. Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 1419 Words | 5 Pages.
irrational driving . The disregard for safe driving has been a predicament to Queensland for years. For many years? police have . relied heavily on part letters, speed cameras, breathe testing and heavy fines as a deterrent against unlawful drivers. Karnataka Thesis! Over the years fatality rates have increased, so Queensland Transport has composed a series of safe driving campaigns. On many occasions the transport department informs and advises the public about the some completed resume importance of responsible driving . They propagate safe driving through. Accident , Chopper Read , Defensive driving 1054 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay -Raise the Driving License Age to Eighteen.
Writing an Argumentative Essay Q. Statistics show that newly licensed teenage boys cause a higher number of karnataka thesis, serious automobile accidents . than any other group. It is cover letters for new medical assistants evident that many young men are too reckless and karnataka, impulsive to be good drivers.To protect the larger society, the age at college which a boy can earn his license should be raised to eighteen. Raise the Driving License Age to thesis, Eighteen Throughout the history, people have always wanted what they can’t have. Scholarly! So is desire. Adolescence , Automobile , Car safety 1107 Words | 3 Pages. 101 Persuasive Essay Topics By: Mr. Morton Whether you are a student in karnataka thesis, need of a persuasive essay . topic, or a teacher looking to assign a persuasive essay , this list of 101 persuasive essay topics should be a great resource.
I taxed my brain to create this huge list of persuasive essay topics relevant to today's society, but I believe I am happy with the results. I appreciate any and essays, all comments or feedback. 1. Karnataka Thesis! 2. 3. Essay! 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Thesis! 11. Part Cover For Students! 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18 . 19.
20. 21. 22. Karnataka Thesis! 23. 24. College , Education , Fast food 1228 Words | 4 Pages. Should We Raise The Driving Age To 18? ?Should We Raise The Driving Age To 18 ? Imagine yourself as a sixteen year-old. You just got your driver's . Time For Students! license, and are going to go cruising with your friends to celebrate. Karnataka Thesis! However, at about ten o'clock, your attention isn't on the road, and you crash into another vehicle.
Two of your friends die on scene, and your other friend is seriously injured. For thousands of some college, teens each year, this is a reality. Karnataka Thesis! Sixteen year-old drivers are three times more likely to crash than seventeen year. Accidents , Automobile , Crash 834 Words | 1 Pages. Driving Age Some people are discussing the qut thesis driving age for teenagers. How it should be raised or . lowered. I am going to explore both sides and in the end choose one for my self.
The different sides include; Keep the karnataka thesis age the same, lowering it, and raising it, of just making it to where you can get your permit earlier but still drive at essay 16. The age for driving could change over the next couple of thesis, years, so there will be positive and time cover for students, negative consequences. If we keep the thesis age at 16 and not change. Adolescence , Change , Crash 1001 Words | 3 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- How to qut thesis examination, Write a Persuasive (Argumentative) Essay Rating: 5.0 A . persuasive essay is a form of academic writing that is built around a certain argument.
Persuasive essays are thus also called argumentative essays . In this type of academic paper, the karnataka writer aims to persuade the reader to scholarly essays, accept the writer’s point of karnataka thesis, view, using certain persuasive techniques to prove the point and convince the reader. Therefore, a successful persuasive essay requires following certain rules. Argument , Essay , Essays 2196 Words | 6 Pages. High School and Persuasive Essay Topics. 101 Persuasive Essay Topics By: Mr. Essays! Morton Whether you are a student in need of karnataka thesis, a persuasive essay . topic, ora teacher looking to letters, assign a persuasive essay , this list of 101 persuasive essay topics should be a great resource.
I taxed my brain to karnataka, create this huge list of persuasive essay topics relevant to today's society, but I believe I am happy withthe results. I appreciate any and all comments or feedback. 1. Should students be allowed to time cover for students, have cell phones in karnataka thesis, elementary and high schools. College , Education , Fast food 1105 Words | 4 Pages. LEGALLY RAISING THE DRIVING AGE IN THE UNITED STATES TO 18 1 Legally Raising the . Driving Age in completed resume, the United States to 18 and Reducing the Teenage Driving Fatalities and Accidents LEGALLY RAISING THE DRIVING AGE IN THE UNITED STATES TO 18 2 Abstract This paper explains the karnataka reasoning of increasing the legal driving age in qut thesis examination, the United States to age 18 . It gives insight into the statistics of karnataka thesis, driving fatalities among teens, allowing the teenage brain to. Adolescence , Alcohol , Driving 1324 Words | 4 Pages. Topic: Increasing the driving age to 18 Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that making the cfm ethesis_id . driving age 18 is a safer requirement for young teens. Thesis: Changing the driving age to 18 will reduce driving fatalities and accidents, make our system more efficient (similar to Germany's laws in driving ), and reduce our gas and insurance prices.
Introduction A week before my 16th birthday after hours of begging and pleading, my mom finally took me out to practice my driving skills. I enjoyed. Automobile , Brain , Driver's education 842 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay on Cell Phone Driving. usage while driving should be made illegal everywhere to make the roads safer. Many studies have indicated that driving . while talking on a cell phone leads to more accidents. Given that fact, there is thesis no reason not to legislate against talking on examination, a cell phone and driving at the same time. It's rare that anyone would need to make a phone call that could not wait until they had the opportunity to pull off the road. If everyone would ignore their cell phones while they are driving , the roads would. Bluetooth , Cellular network , Distraction 1087 Words | 5 Pages. Chana Mushka Kalmanson Persuasive Essay November 26, 2012 Physical Education is a Necessity Schools are struggling with . the issue of whether physical education classes (“PE”) are a necessity or are an extra-curricular.
However, PE is and must be an absolute necessity. It is integral to the comprehensive school experience, both academically and socially. As such, it is karnataka vital that physical education classes be incorporated into the curriculum, regardless of grade. Coursework Resume! High school students. College , Exercise , Grammar school 868 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay The idea of a doll who is supposed to karnataka, teach my child and she what a cute young girl looks like, would you . Examination! think it would be dress to a parents idea of cute? The Bratz Dolls are unbelievably dressed and constructed. There has recently been much controversy over these dolls in karnataka thesis, my home town. It was a young Childs birthday party; she received a Bratz Doll as a present for letters medical, her party. The following is the story that was written on what happened after the mother opened the karnataka thesis gift and.
Barbie , Bratz , Bratz Babyz 860 Words | 3 Pages. Kevin Morris 22 March 2012 Audience: Professor Kevin Morris Changing the Driving Age Should Not Be Raised It should come . as no surprise that when the issue of whether or not the driving age should be raised is brought up, most people will argue that it should. If these same individuals were to take a look at some of the some coursework completed resume facts on this issue, their minds might be up for a change. Karnataka! The issue of raising the driving age has been a topic of examination, discussion for karnataka, many years because most of the some college resume evidence is. Chauffeur , Commercial driver's license , Driver's education 1272 Words | 4 Pages. Increasing the Driving Age to 18 Years of karnataka, Age According to coursework resume, recent statistics collected by Stats . Karnataka! Canada, there are approximately 160 000 road accidents in Canada each year.
Information recorded by the Transportation Safety Board of Canada states that of these 160 000 road accidents, there are approximately 2850 fatalities. Of these fatalities, over 5000 are predominantly teenagers aged 16-20, who are relatively new drivers. Cfm Ethesis_id 1121! Furthermore, 400 000 drivers of the same age category are seriously injured. Adolescence , Automobile , Driver's education 885 Words | 3 Pages. raise the driving age to 18 years old has been a touchy subject on every level of the spectrum; from thesis State Highway . College Coursework Completed Resume! Safety Association to teenagers and everybody in between. Although everyone has some degree of approval that raising the driving age would be a good idea no one has really put forth the effort to actually have it come to pass. This has lead to the ongoing debate of whether it should even be a consideration anymore.
There are several reasons that establishing the driving age at 18 is a legitimate. 1916 , 1920 , 1922 1893 Words | 5 Pages. The Drinking Age Be Lowered to karnataka thesis, 18. The drinking age be lowered to 18 Alcohol is the coursework resume drug of choice among America's adolescents, used by more young people than . tobacco or illicit drugs. Karnataka! [T]here are 10.1 million underage drinkers in the United States. 39% of current 8th graders, 58% of 10th graders, 72% of 12th graders, and 85% of college students have tried alcohol.” -The National Institutes of Health (NIH) wrote in their fact sheet titled Underage Drinking on report.nih.gov. Apparently keeping the drinking age at cover letters 21 is not. Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage , Amethyst Initiative 1337 Words | 4 Pages. ?Kristi Patterson WR-115 Fall 2010 Mr. Carver Legal Minimum Drinking Age 18 75% of students have consumed alcohol by the . end of their high school career (Clapp, 288).
Prohibiting the karnataka thesis sale of liquor to 1121, young adults ages 18 -20 creates an uncontrolled atmosphere where alcohol abuse has come to the point of being fatal. Young adults cannot learn how to drink safely and in moderations in thesis, these uncontrolled environments that the law has lead them into. We have seen what happens when drinking is on stop banned. Alcohol abuse , Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage 1210 Words | 6 Pages. COM 101 Argumentative Speech Legal Driving Age Raised I. To vote you have to be 18 , to buy cigarettes . Karnataka Thesis! you have to be 18 , and to buy alcohol you have to be 21. Time For Students! So why is thesis it that teenagers are able to drive at such a young age ? Driving should be one of the privileges and qut thesis, responsibilities of adulthood. While some may say, it prepares them for adulthood and thesis, it’s essential for young people to essay smoking, have the ability to travel for their livelihood. But every year the same headlines occur, “High. Automobile , Car safety , Chauffeur 543 Words | 3 Pages. English Composition I Persuasive Essay – Assignment 8-A Dear Editor, In a society with ever evolving technology comes new . concerns.
With the karnataka introduction of the cell phone and texting the risk to the driver has increased ten folds. The driver no longer just has to just worry about the inexperienced driver and the drunk driver, but now must be concerned with the new threat of on stop smoking, distracted driver’s texting while operating motor vehicles. Texting while driving should be illegal as it poses many. Automobile , Cellular network , Distraction 877 Words | 3 Pages. Evan Bennett November 4, 2010 Persuasive Essay Gay discrimination is a major problem that affects individuals all across the thesis . country.
The Defense of Marriage Act needs to be repealed. Hamlet Essays! First, the karnataka Defense against Marriage Act will be explained and then why it needs to be repealed, then the college coursework effects the law has on society. The federal government needs to give same sex couples the thesis same health benefits that heterosexual couples receive. Currently, the government offers employees benefits such as health. Bisexuality , Bullying , Discrimination 881 Words | 3 Pages. Legalizing the 1121 Drinking Age to 18. Legalizing the Drinking Age to 18 When people turn to the age of eighteen, they are finally considered an adult. Karnataka Thesis! . Qut Thesis! They can join the army, have the right to vote, buy cigarettes or tobacco products, get a tattoo and even die for our country, but they aren’t allowed to buy alcohol? A person can be responsible enough to live on karnataka thesis, his or her own, make money, pay bills, and yet they are not old enough to purchase or consume any type of for new, alcohol. Underage drinking has been a major controversial issue for. Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 1624 Words | 5 Pages.
?Andrew Martin MPS 586 8/23/1013 INTRODUCTION My research topic will concern raising the legal driving age in karnataka, Illinois from . 16 to 18 . Over the past few years, teen driving habits have been closely studied and driving fatalities among adolescents have been risen more and more every year. In fact, the largest proportion of adolescent injuries and fatalities are due to for new, motor vehicle accidents, most are due to the influence of peers, drugs, and/or alcohol. (Digest, 2008). More than 5,000 teenagers. Adolescence , Automobile , Brain 1673 Words | 8 Pages. victim of inexperienced teenage driving who adds to the high statistics on casualties resulting from inefficient laws. According to the teen . driving statistics that are provided by the insurance companies, 16 year-olds are three times more likely to die in a motor vehicle crash than individuals who fall within the range of the average age of all drivers. Therefore, I think the legal driving age should be raised to thesis, 18 . College Coursework Completed! One thing I've found is that it isn't necessarily the age , but that they are inexperienced. Adolescence , Automobile , Driver's education 755 Words | 2 Pages. Research Paper Raising Driving Age to 18 In the thesis 13 July, 2011 USA Today newspaper article by William Van . Tassel, manager of AAA’s driver training program, says that, “ Teens do continue to drive distracted even when they recognize the dangers,” According to the teen driving statistics that are provided by examination the CDC, about 3,000 teens died in karnataka, auto accidents in 2009 and hamlet scholarly, 350,000 were treated for injuries. For all those reasons, I think the legal driving age should be raised to karnataka, 18 from 16.
One shocking. Adolescence , Driver's education , Driver's license 822 Words | 2 Pages. Debate Case Outline Affirmative Side of the essays Case First Affirmative Constructive Speech . Resolved; The legal driving age in New Hampshire should be changed to thesis, 18 in the US. I will now define unclear terms Legal Driving Age Established or founded upon law. NeurologicalThe medical science that deals with the brain and 1121, the disorders affecting it. Gray Matter Grey nerve tissue in thesis, the brain that when developed controls things like how we make choices. Cover Letters For New Assistants! Cognitive Skills (Cognitive skills include things like memory. Accidents , Adolescence , Automobile 1453 Words | 3 Pages. Should the Driving Age Be Raised to 18?
older kids to get the driver license at the age of 16? Maybe they do it because they have not really focus that all types of crashing accidents . teenagers are the thesis more involve than any older people. Alcohol and No Seat belt are the factors more mentioned in all car accidents. For the hamlet scholarly essays fallowing reasons, the driving age should be raised to 18 , Safety and financial problems will get better. Karnataka Thesis! The first reason should be because financi the driving be raised to 18 years old is because teenagers have more. Automobile , Driver's education , Driver's license 475 Words | 2 Pages. Raising the Driving Age to 18 In the world today one of the most exciting parts of growing up is getting your . driver’s license.
Everyone counts on getting their sweet 16 car and license, but is essay smoking that really the karnataka thesis important part? Well yes as all teenagers would say. Even though it comes to losing their life because of inexperience, and cfm ethesis_id 1121, immaturity on the road. Karnataka! There are lots of smoking, reasons why the driving age should be raised. ”All 50 states prohibit 16-year-olds from drinking alcohol, buying cigarettes. Adolescence , Automobile , Driver's education 721 Words | 2 Pages. Persuasive Essay Maurice R. Thesis! McKenzie Comm/215 August 23, 2012 Dr. Time Letters For Students! Robert Hobson Introduction A universal healthcare . Thesis! plan would lower the overall healthcare cost and on stop smoking, make it affordable for more people. The Obamacare, addresses key issues that are beneficial to the majority and thesis, not the rich minority population.
The plan focus on affordable insurance for more people, coverage for children with pre-existing conditions, and requiring business with fifty or more employees to offer health insurance. Health , Health care , Health economics 794 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay Medelin Ocasio COMM/215 Essentials of Collage Writing January 29, 2013 Instructor Beverly Raznoff . Persuasive Essay In the future; university education would be free? A few days ago my daughter asked me why people pay for our college education if everyone can help the society. Immediately flowed many questions in my mind and scholarly, realized that her inquietude was true. Education is the karnataka key to success. At different stages of my life I have heard this phrase. Academic degree , College , Education 827 Words | 5 Pages. Persuasive Speech Plan: Driving While Texting. Persuasive Speech Plan Topic: Texting while driving is dangerous to you and others.
General Purpose: To persuade . Some Coursework Completed Resume! Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience not to drive and karnataka, text. When I have finished my speech, my audience will be able to see why driving and texting is dangerous to themselves as well as others. Central Idea: Persuade others not to text and drive because it is very dangerous. Persuasive Proposition: (Statement of Fact, Value, or Policy) Statement of qut thesis examination, fact and. Causality , Cerebrum , Cognition 992 Words | 4 Pages. ? Driving age 18 Why should the legal driving age not be eighteen? I believe that the karnataka thesis . Essays! driving age should be raised to eighteen. Karnataka! Some teens have no reason to cover for new medical, be driving , some have a lack of thesis, experience, and most of them are not even mature yet.
Also, teens get into more car accidents than anyone in a different age . First or all, teens have no reason to be driving , some have nowhere to cover for new medical, go. When teenagers become eighteen they probably might have a job or they will probably be buying groceries or. Adolescence , Chauffeur , Driver's education 484 Words | 2 Pages. the Drinking Age to 18 in the United States While it may seem to some, drinking at age eighteen is frowned upon. . It is actually true that many people between the ages of 18 and karnataka thesis, 20 drink alcohol illegally without any sense of guilt. On July 17, 1984, a law was established in the United States that impacted a large number of America’s youth. The indicated law was the National Minimum Drinking Age Act. Legal drinking ages were originally determined by each state.
Many states kept the age at twenty one. Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 931 Words | 3 Pages. on your eighteenth birthday, it does not include the legal consumption of alcohol. This is because in the United States the legal drinking age . is twenty-one years old. Examination! The legal drinking age is an argument that is often debated and I believe that the legal drinking age should be lowered to eighteen years of karnataka thesis, age . In the United States, the legal drinking age has been debated for some resume, years. Karnataka Thesis! According to the United States, when a child turns eighteen they are considered an hamlet adult in karnataka, this country. They. Alcohol , Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage 1767 Words | 5 Pages. The minimum drinking age and the concerns of the part cover letters effects of thesis, alcohol started in scholarly essays, America during the karnataka thesis Prohibition Era. In the article “Teaching . With Documents: The Volstead Act and Related Prohibition Documents,” the some college author states that concerns of the thesis effects of college completed resume, alcohol were preached fanatically in the early 20th century.
Temperance organizations such as The American Temperance Society, the thesis Women’s Christian Temperance Union, and the Anti-Saloon League were formed for one purpose, to ratify the Constitution. Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism , Drinking culture 1376 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Essay Laziness in America By Greg Hill Comp 2 America today is part a very lazy place; people have become too . accustomed to their ways and will not even consider what it is doing to karnataka, them. Everyone constantly praises our wonderful technology; what they don’t realize is what our tech has done to us. As we depend more and more on gadgets to do things for us we lose ourselves to apathy and our personal interests completely forgetting the common good. Essay On Stop! When it becomes so easy to karnataka thesis, satisfy our. Adipose tissue , Body mass index , Body shape 1046 Words | 3 Pages. Editorial: Raising Legal Driving Age. one that I have decided to write about in this editorial, are the various legal ages that you have here in America.
There is one . age for drinking, one for part time cover letters, driving , one for joining the military, etc. Now, in karnataka, this editorial I am going to cover letters for new medical assistants, be focusing on the fact that you can be as young as 16 to get a drivers license in karnataka, this country. Why is it that the US government allows young kids, because that is what you are at the age of part, 16, the karnataka thesis enormous responsibility of managing a vehicle and being personally. Adolescence , Automobile , Chauffeur 1058 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay Erica Crawley COMM215 August 10, 2014 University of scholarly, Phoenix Running head: PERSUASIVE . ESSAY 1 PERSUASIVE ESSAY 2 Persuasive Essay Many people can benefit from joining the Military service for a lot of different reasons. Some joined for karnataka thesis, the pay, to serve their country and cover, some do it for the experience. There are many reason people join the karnataka United States Army. Some other reasons to letters for new medical assistants, join the Army could be job security, education benefits, health insurance benefits, life. Ernest McFarland , G.I. Bill , Health insurance 779 Words | 3 Pages.
Dakota Vaughn Mrs. Kachurak Eng. 102-001 2-4-2013 Lower the Drinking Age : End America’s Addiction Although alcohol has been around . for quite some time, it has recently begun to pose a problem in the past few decades, specifically in America. Terrible alcohol related incidences occur every day in America and karnataka, can be so easily avoided if the proper laws and information are applied. Alcohol consumption, especially in the case of underage drinking, is one of the most crippling problems in the. Alcohol , Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage 1529 Words | 5 Pages. Teenage Driving - A persuasive essay for cover letters for new, imposing tougher restrictions on thesis, teen drivers. WITH bibliography. Teenage Driving Teenage driving has become an increasingly controversial topic over time letters the past decade.
Many politicians and adults . are fighting for stricter driver's license requirements and a higher legal driving age . Karnataka Thesis! Busy mothers and soon-to-be drivers argue that things are fine just the smoking way they are. However, when the nation's leading cause of death for teens age 15 to 20 is traffic accidents, things can hardly be considered fine. Thesis! The need for change is obvious. Something must be done to save the. Adolescence , Chauffeur , Driver's education 946 Words | 3 Pages. Typography and Political Persuasive Essay. Political Persuasive Essay Overview: The political persuasive essay is an opportunity for you . to cover letters medical assistants, take a stand on karnataka thesis, a political issue which concerns you. You will research a controversial issue and 1121, defend your position on it using the karnataka thesis evidence you have discovered.
Attach important research articles which contributed to your essay (1-2 page selections). Cover Medical! Topic Suggestions: |Abortion | |Pledge of Allegiance . Law , Political philosophy , Political science 554 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay COMM/215 Legalize Marijuana This essay will be about the karnataka legal issues of marijuana. The . California government chooses to have a vote in cfm ethesis_id 1121, California and other states and it passed the vote, now the federal government is trying to shut down dispensaries in the state. Even though California passed the thesis vote in 1996 to allow the examination use of medical marijuana for medical use, the karnataka thesis drug is still illegal under federal law.
According to federal law, any amount found on a person is hamlet essays a misdemeanor. Cannabis , Domestic violence , Global Marijuana March 963 Words | 3 Pages. Argument Essay Changing Drinking Age to 18. Manny Talavera English ARGUMENT ESSAY When you are eighteen years old you have multiple responsibilities. Everyone who is eighteen . is seen as a responsible, mature young adult.
If eighteen year olds are portrayed as responsible and mature adults then why can’t they buy or consume alcohol? The alcoholic drinking age should be lowered to karnataka thesis, age eighteen because at that age you are responsible, mature, and it will help send the time cover for students right message. Society states that eighteen year olds can not. Adolescence , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 816 Words | 3 Pages. Writing assignment seriesPersuasive or argumentative essaysIn persuasive or argumentative writing, we try to convince othersto agree with our . facts, share our values,accept our argument and conclusions,and adopt our way of thinking.Elements toward building a good persuasive essay include establishing factsto support an argument clarifying relevant valuesfor your audience (perspective) prioritizing, editing, and/or sequencingthe facts and values in importance to build the thesis argument . Argument , Conclusion , Logic 691 Words | 3 Pages. license would be amazing because of so many things you can do when you drive. Learning to drive may be fun, but you also need to cfm ethesis_id, be really safe. Thesis! You have to . be precautious whenever you’re driving . Once, a bad car accident happened when me and my parents where in the car, on our way to Reno. My mom was driving , and we were near the mountains. She has never driven there before, so she just went along reading the 1121 signs. Karnataka Thesis! We knew it was going to time cover letters, be icy, and we had to be careful.
When we were going downhill. 2007 singles , Automobile , Driver's license 1254 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay Craig Harper Comm/215 Essentials of College Writing September 19, 2012 Richard Cammarota . Persuasive Essay Crime is on the rise throughout America and it is happening at karnataka thesis alarming rate. The offenders are getting younger and younger and they seem to have no respect for examination, other people property or values. Violent crimes is on the rise and the offenders getting younger and creating homelessness.
This is just part of what I want to karnataka, discuss in my essay . . Bloods , Crime , Criminology 772 Words | 3 Pages. Driving age should not be raised Vroom, vroom! The first time behind the wheel alone--exciting, nerve-racking, free. Cfm Ethesis_id 1121! No parents . or instructors, just yourself and karnataka thesis, the car; all decisions are solely made by you. Are you ready, are you. old enough? The discussion of cover for new medical assistants, keeping the karnataka thesis minimum driving age at 16 or raising it to 21 revolves around generic maturity, but there is more than just that to look at. After reviewing all pros and cons, the on stop minimum age for being allowed to operate motor vehicles should. Chauffeur , Commercial driver's license , Driver's education 812 Words | 3 Pages. Should U.S. States Raise the karnataka Driving Age ? Teenagers worldwide view the privilege of driving as a coming of . age ritual. Recently, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety has called upon states to raise the driving age from sixteen to seventeen, or possibly even eighteen years old.
The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, or IIHS, is a research group funded by the auto insurance industry. Research by the IIHS has shown that car crashes are the leading cause of death amongst teenagers. Adolescence , Automobile , Car safety 937 Words | 3 Pages. ? bcom/215 Persuasive Essay At least 11% of women smoke during pregnancy. Part Time For Students! Many of these . women smoke without knowing the significant negative effects smoking has on their babies before, during, and after the karnataka pregnancy. When a woman smokes during pregnancy, she exposes her baby to dangerous chemicals such as tar, carbon monoxide, nicotine, and other poisonous chemicals that travels through the bloodstream and goes directly to the baby.
Nicotine restricts the oxygen. Acute respiratory distress syndrome , Breastfeeding , Childbirth 788 Words | 3 Pages. Those are the types of hamlet essays, arguments the proponents for the eighteen drinking age will generally give, but there is more to consider when it comes . to the topic of karnataka, alcohol. In an article published in The Los Angeles Times, Shari Roan explains the pros and cons of the drinking age . She states that “… [there are] approximately 1,700 alcohol related deaths in the United States among college students each year” and if the drinking age gets set to eighteen, this number is more than likely to rise. Alcohol. Alcohol , Alcohol abuse , Alcohol law 1126 Words | 3 Pages.
Persuasive Essay Ryan Murphy COMM/215 March 6, 2013 Gary Christiansen Persuasive Essay . Sequester, what is it? How did we get here? Who is at fault? These are the thing we will discuss. Part Cover For Students! Recently a lot of people have been in an uproar over sequester and the spending cuts that will automatically take place. Thesis! What most people fail to understand is part cover for students that this is not something that happened overnight it has loomed over us for months and our government has failed to take appropriate action to prevent. Barack Obama , Democratic Party , George W. Bush 980 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay Raquel Daniel COMM/215 Essentials of College Writing July 7, 2011 Cassundra Flemister-White . Persuasive Essay Gangs Gangs are killing our upcoming generations. Gangs have always been around for many years and they are still growing. They are becoming more violent now because they are using more than just their body parts to beat up people. These gangs are killing and karnataka thesis, raping people.
It used to be about colors and different language but now it is about something different. Bloods , Crime , Gang 921 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive essay to your Employer Maria Cummings-Pinole Comm. /105 May 22, 2010 Margaret Fletcher Persuasive . essay to hamlet, your Employer Tuition reimbursement program is one thing that every company should consider to thesis, offer to their employees. The program will not only benefit employees but the company as well. Companies who offer this program are usually at 1121 an upper hand over a company that does not offer it. Three advantages for a company that offer tuition reimbursement program are, more knowledge. Commerce , Company , Employment 960 Words | 3 Pages. Why the Driving Age Should Be Raised. The Reasons Why the thesis Age Limit Should Be Raised to 18 for Full Driving Privileges The national . Qut Thesis Examination! driving age should be raised from 16 to 18 because it threatens not only our children but also other innocent people on the road. Thesis! Statistics show that teenagers, especially sixteen year olds have more car accidents then drivers of qut thesis, any other age . Teenagers do not have the same risk assessment skills that adults have.
I know from bitter experience that 16 and 17 year olds lack the experience and. Adolescence , Car safety , Driver's education 1487 Words | 4 Pages. Why the thesis Driving Age Should Not Be Raised. deciders on this one. College! Lund and some others want to push the age at which a person can get their first driver’s license to 17 or even . 18 . Of course, it’s all about “safety.” Lund — a professional nag who heads an organization of nags — says that teenage drivers are a menace to themselves and others and wants to use the billy stick of the federal government (via withheld highway funds) to thesis, compel states to raise their legal driving age — just as the billy stick of cfm ethesis_id, federal money was used to impose.
Car safety , Driver's education , Driver's license 821 Words | 3 Pages.
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An Analytical Essay of an Exerpt of Gary Soto's A Summer Life. Contrasting the holy, righteous behavior encouraged by his neighbors, church, and society with the hungry, animalistic greed of a six year old boy riddled with boredom, Soto explores the concepts of right and wrong through a child’s eyes. He successfully conveys the pain of guilt through exceptional use of imagery, contrast, and repetition. The manner in which he uses these tools transports the reader into thesis his innermost thoughts as he anxiously perspired before the rack of warm, fresh baked pies. After providing background information concerning his holy roots, Soto leads the audience into a darker point of his childhood. As he gazes upon the bountiful display of pies around the German Market, “[His] sweet tooth gleaming and the juice of cfm ethesis_id 1121 guilt wetting [his] underarms”, he caves into sin before truly committing the crime. Karnataka Thesis? After slipping the pie under his Frisbee and departing the store with great haste, he sits to consume his stolen treasure in a nearby lawn. “The sun wavered between the branches of a yellowish sycamore. A squirrel nailed itself high on the trunk, where it forked into two large bark scabbed limbs” as he prepares to dine on the fruits of his unlawful labor. Soto not only evokes the image of a languid summer day, but also employs a biblical metaphor of the cross on which Jesus was crucified. Soto’s mastery of imagery describes the scene with impressive efficiency as well as supply a condemning biblical reference, preluding the on stop, guilt and self-loathing that follows his petty theft.
Soto temporarily strays from the path of God by karnataka thesis, succumbing to his greed. As he clawed into the pie, shoving sweet golden chunks into his mouth much as a bear cub would stuff it’s cheeks with stolen honey comb, he is contrasted to his neighbor, Cross-Eyed Johnny. Johnny politely requests a slice of Soto’s pie, to which Soto pushes him away a rude manner that rivals that of Ebenezer Scrooge in Dickens’ “A Christmas Carol”. Johnny then whispers to the sinful Soto “Your hands are dirty”, contrasting from time letters Soto’s clean fingers prior to plunging them into the stolen pie. Guilt begins to consume Soto when thoughts of the karnataka, light reflecting of the balding grocer’s glistening forehead, and he is led to crawl beneath his house to bask in examination, the cool darkness. Questioning the consequences of his thieving actions, thoughts of his late Uncle and Father plague his mind. He knows that they would chastise him if they were still alive, and fears that the howling of the plumbing beneath the house may be of God himself, condemning him to eternal damnation. While prior to his theft, he believed he could recognize the shadows of angels flying over karnataka thesis his backyard. As he climbs out from cfm ethesis_id 1121 under the house, back into the light and back to God, he reaches an epiphany- “Sin is what you took, and didn’t give back”. Karnataka? Repetition is used throughout the narrative, and in the hands of Soto it is part, a magnificent tool used to enforce key points in his experience. Reference to the howling beneath the house can be seen throughout the essay, possibly referencing souls who are forever lost, lead astray by sin.
Soto’s most prominent use of repetition is applied after he had his fill of the pie and karnataka thesis sits, “sticky with guilt” on the curb. Paranoia clouds his mind, as “A car honked, and the driver knew. Mrs. Hancock stood on her lawn, hands on hip, and she knew. [His] mom, peeling a mountain of potatoes at cfm ethesis_id the Redi Spud factory, knew” and suddenly it seemed that everyone had knowledge of karnataka thesis his sin. Even though no one saw him commit the crime, it could not effectively cloak the guilt that threatened to drown him. Another notable use of repetition, water and thirst are explored throughout Soto’s recount of the some, situation. He fears eternal thirst as he digs into the pie; fear that God would cast him into the desert for his sin, as was the karnataka, case with Adam and Eve. Yet as he returns to righteousness, he notes the cfm ethesis_id, water he consumed to remedy his thirst filled his stomach far more than the karnataka thesis, pie obtained through an act of thievery. Beginning to end, Soto’s autobiographical narrative exhibits sensational use of a plethora of literary devices. Imagery, contrast, and repetition were a few of the qut thesis, literary tools used by the author to construct an effective as well as enjoyable account of a childhood run in karnataka thesis, with sin. Cfm Ethesis_id? © Copyright 2017 Eliza Cornelis . All rights reserved. Oh my gosh, I remember when we had to do this.
I don't know about you, but sometimes I enjoy the literature we are given. Thesis? until we have to do work and write essays on it and stuff. :P. More Editorial and Opinion Essays. I don't understand why so many. /p/span Jesus is Fabulous (LGBT discrimination and rights) Boosted Content from some college completed Other Authors. Short Story / Science Fiction. experience all it has to offer. This is thesis, a collection of original short stories. Works of murder, monsters, the supernatural, . Time? /p/span else. His story is karnataka, full of humor, drama, and romance. Now this is just a story I am writing for fun and I really hope you all like it. I. /p/span Short Story / Horror.
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Pension system in thesis, the Netherlands. The Netherlands has a pension system that can be considered unique around the world. Scholarly Essays? The Dutch pension system consists of three so called pillars. Karnataka? The first pillar includes the qut thesis examination state pension (Algemene Ouderdoms Wet, AOW), which consists of a flat benefit and is granted to every Dutch citizen aged 65 years or older. The second pillar consists of mandatory collective pension schemes which are arranged within pension funds or insurance companies. A certain occupation, industry or company is karnataka, often linked to a particular pension fund, meaning that with practicing a certain occupation, your pension fund is already predetermined.
The last and hamlet scholarly essays third pillar consists of voluntary private pension savings (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Although the pillar structure of Dutch pension system itself does not differ much from the pillar structure of karnataka thesis other western countries, the size and relative importance of cfm ethesis_id 1121 each of the pillars is rather different. As can be seen in table 1, the size of the second pillar is relatively large in the Netherlands compared to other European countries (Bovenberg, 2014). As a consequence, pension funds are important institutions in the Dutch pension system. Table 1 size of the different pillars of pension systems in European countries. The Netherlands Germany France Italy Spain Swiss UK US. 1st pillar 50 85 79 74 92 42 65 45. 2nd pillar 40 5 6 1 4 32 25 13. 3rd pillar 10 10 15 25 4 26 10 42.
This unique position of second pillar pensions in karnataka thesis, the Netherlands demands realignment of the financing structure of the first and second pillar through the franchise. The AOW in the first pillar is financed by social premiums every employed Dutch citizen pays to completed resume the government. The pension benefits received from the pension funds in karnataka, the second pillar are financed by paying pension premiums into the pension fund. Some College Resume? Originally, the franchise is meant as an instrument to achieve the thesis integration between both pillars. Letters For New Medical? In order to establish this integration, part of the karnataka thesis labor income is exempted from paying pension premiums over into a pension fund; the franchise (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). Examination? Since the thesis relative importance of the second pillar is unique for the Netherlands, the franchise is cover for new assistants, a typically Dutch phenomenon. Karnataka Thesis? Theoretically the franchise equals the on stop part of the labor income over which AOW benefits are granted (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). Karnataka? To this respect, no Dutch citizen should pay ‘double’ for their pension income.
Strictly speaking, the one to one relationship between the franchise and 1121 the AOW should result in a franchise that is uniform across pension funds. In practice the level of the franchise differs between pension funds (Eberhardt et.al., 2014), although it has a uniform character within the thesis funds itself (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). Before 2006, the Dutch pension system was characterized by a final salary system. In this system the relationship between the franchise and the AOW was maintained. However, with the transition to the average salary system in 2006, the time cover for students relationship between the franchise and the AOW diluted . The uniform franchise used by karnataka thesis the large Dutch industrywide pension funds is an element of a uniform accrual system further consisting of a uniform pension premium and a uniform accrual rate. These aspects of the financing structure within a pension fund are uniform in the sense that their level is the time cover for students same for thesis every participant of the fund regardless of his or her individual characteristics (CPB, 2013). This implies that every participant of a pension fund pays the same pension premium in terms of cfm ethesis_id 1121 percentage for karnataka which the same amount of labor income is exempted by 1121 the franchise, to accrue the same accrual rate per year. Karnataka Thesis? Especially the franchise and accrual rate are highly interdependent. Some College Coursework Completed Resume? To this respect they are inseparable: a higher accrual rate implies a higher franchise and vice versa (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). An aspect of the uniformity characterizing Dutch pension funds which has given rise to a great deal of debate is the fact that participants in pension funds are often not uniform at all.
The uniform accrual system finds its origins in the notion of solidarity between the different participants of a pension fund. Furthermore solidarity enables the sharing of risks such as longevity risk and karnataka capital market risk. However when a pension fund has participants that differ widely in hamlet, certain characteristics such as life expectancy, career path taken, or career length, the uniform accrual system causes structural redistribution between them (CPB, 2013). A system is then said to be actuarially unfair. A measure of karnataka thesis this redistribution is the net gain.
The net gain shows the ratio of the discounted sum of examination pension benefits during retirement over the discounted sum of paid premiums over the working life (CPB, 2013). In an actuarially fair situation the net gain should always equal one for karnataka thesis every individual at every point in time, regardless of their characteristics. However, generally speaking the uniform accrual system is not actuarially fair, meaning that certain participants either overpaid or underpaid for their pension rights (CPB, 2013). Apart from the redistribution between participants of a fund, the pension outcome differs considerably between participants of a fund too. The pension outcome can be thought of as the replacement rate.
The replacement rate shows the ratio of the pension benefit of a certain individual over examination, the main source of their income during working life at a certain moment in time. Thereby the replacement rate is a measure of the effectiveness of consumption smoothing (Barr and Diamond, 2008). The pension benefit includes pension income from both the first and karnataka thesis the second pillar. Just as the net gain, the replacement rate is influenced by the uniformness of the essay system and individual characteristics of the participant too. Although the uniform pension premium and uniform accrual rate have received much attention in the literature, the uniform franchise remains relatively underexposed.
To my knowledge, up until this date no quantitative literature exists on thesis, the sole topic of the franchise. The reason for this may lie in the fact that the maximum levels of the franchise are largely determined by letters for new assistants law (Kakes and Broeders, 2006). Another explanation might be that the franchise is less important in other countries due to the relatively smaller size of the second pillar. This in contrast to karnataka pension premium, which influences the affordability of scholarly labor and thereby influences the labor market. Next to that the pension premium is something that is relatively seizable and concrete for thesis the average citizen. The uniform accrual rate on its turn receives much attention in examination, the light of the redistribution discussion. Next to that the accrual rate has a certain fiscal angle since it reflects the amount of pension rights to be accrued in a fiscal beneficial way.
It is however unjust that the franchise receives little attention. Since, as being part of the uniform accrual system, it certainly might affect both the redistribution between participants within a pension fund, as the pension outcome for these participants. Therefore the research question of this thesis is the thesis following: ‘How are the redistribution between – and pension outcome of individual participants of a pension fund influenced by qut thesis their individual characteristics in terms of starting salary, career path and length of career, and to what extend does the level of the uniform franchise and accrual rate change the redistribution and pension outcome?’ The research question has been formulated such that it addresses both the role of the franchise and accrual rate in the often discussed redistribution between participants of karnataka thesis a pension fund, as well as their eventual pension outcome. Since longevity risk is not one of the characteristics taken into account, only redistribution within the accrual phase is considered . As already stated before, the franchise and the accrual rate are inseparable. Therefore it is not possible to examine the influence the franchise has as a sole concept in an adequate way. Qut Thesis Examination? The net gain is used as the karnataka thesis outcome variable for the redistribution, while the college completed replacement rate will be used as the outcome variable for the pension outcome. The replacement rate and net gain are not necessarily linked.
For example, the net gain can have the same value for every participant in a fund, while the replacement rates for these participants can differ widely. To this respect the net gain is a flow variable, while the replacement is a stock variable. Both the net gain and the replacement rate are simulated by thesis typical agent models which have been written for the purpose of this thesis. Another unique aspect of this thesis is that it makes use of qut thesis data instead of presumed values in the simulations. More specifically, data on the five largest pension funds in the Netherlands, in terms of assets under management (van der Westen, 2014) are used. This thesis first examines the net gains and thesis replacement rates of individuals for their individual characteristics separately (cetirus paribus). Afterwards the different levels of the characteristics are combined into smoking, scenarios.
Hereby all possible combinations of the individual characteristics are captured. The scenarios are determined in the following manner: # scenarios = # starting salaries*# career paths*# lengths of karnataka thesis career. For reasons of variation in outcomes and essay on stop smoking keeping in mind the karnataka scope of this thesis, these scenarios are simulated for the replacement rates. This procedure is repeated three times for three different combinations of accrual rates and franchises. Cover Letters Assistants? Pension funds can choose the level of the franchise, and consequently the thesis level of the accrual rate themselves. However, not all combinations are allowed. The law prescribes three fixed combinations which are legally binding and are shown in table 2 for the year 2015 (Sprenkels Verschuren, 2014). Table 2 Lawful Combinations of Franchise and Accrual rate, 2015. Combination Accrual Rate Maximum Franchise Level. Combination 1 Maximum of 1,875% ‘ 12.642,- Combination 2 Maximum of 1,788% (but not lower than 1,701%) ‘ 11.395,-
Combination 3 Maximum of1,701% ‘ 10.095,- These fixed combinations represent maximum levels of the franchise and accrual rate combination. Pension funds can choose to have a lower accrual rate or franchise than these fixed combinations, but cannot choose a higher level (Sprenkels Verschuren, 2014). Therefore these three combinations are used in this research. Time Letters? The series of simulations for the three different combinations, result in a spread of net gains (for the thesis three different characteristics separately only) and replacement rates (for the three different characteristics and all of cfm ethesis_id 1121 them combined in the scenarios). Next, the magnitude of above described effects the individual characteristics and the combination of the franchise and karnataka thesis accrual rate have on the replacement rates is estimated using a log linear model. In this way the marginal effects can be quantified. The magnitude is some coursework resume, only examined for karnataka the replacement rate as an qut thesis, outcome variable since the scenarios are not simulated for the net gain. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the structure of the Dutch pension system, the franchise and the uniform accrual system in thesis, detail. Furthermore, previous literature on relevant topics is discussed.
Section 3 discusses the essay smoking methodology, including the typical agent simulation models and the data that are used. The results and implications are discussed in thesis, section 4. Subsequently, section 5 examines possible policy implication. Section 6 describes and discusses the cfm ethesis_id 1121 general conclusions. Finally, section 7 discusses and gives recommendations for further research. Structure of the Dutch Pension System. The Dutch three pillar pension system is a system that is thesis, rather complex to understand.
Especially considering the relative importance of the second pillar pension schemes and thus the pension funds. Pension schemes can be financed in roughly two ways; on a pay as you go (PAYG) basis, or via funding. The AOW public pension has a pay as you go (PAYG) character which implies that the AOW is examination, paid entirely out of karnataka current revenue sources. The AOW thereby has a contractarian nature, meaning that no savings have to on stop be accumulated in anticipation of future pension claims but instead the government can tax the working population to pay for the pension benefits of the retirees. Thesis? Consequently, a PAYG system relaxes the constraint that the benefits received by any generation must be matched by its own contributions (Barr and smoking Diamond, 2008).
A PAYG financed pension scheme usually has two main objectives. First it redistributes income from the karnataka younger generations towards the older generations which are retired. Second it redistributes and shares risks across generations (Barr and Diamond, 2008). The level of the AOW benefit depends on the household’s composition. And the number of years which an individual has been insured. Every individual that lives or works in examination, the Netherlands is automatically insured and thereby accrues two percent AOW benefit per year. Karnataka? After fifty years of either living or working in examination, the Netherlands, a person is fully insured and is thereby granted the full amount of AOW which he or she is thesis, eligible for. This amount depends on the household composition. Cover Letters For New Medical? A person that cohabits with another individual receives a flat benefit of fifty percent of the net minimum wage. A person that lives alone receives seventy percent of the net minimum wage (Sociale Verzekeringsbank, n.d.). Furthermore the age at which citizens become eligible for the AOW benefit will be increased gradually to age 67.
When this age is reached, the retirement age may further increase if life expectancy increases (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). To the contrary, the occupational pension schemes in the second pillar are funded. This means that contributions are invested in financial (or physical) assets of which the return is credited to the plan’s participants. Funded schemes can be either individual or collective. When a person retires he or she receives either an annuity or draws down the accumulation in some other way, for example via a lump sum.
The annuity or lump sum is based on either the individual contributions to the fund, or the accrued pension rights depending on whether the fund has individual accounts or a collective nature (Barr and Diamond, 2008). In the Netherlands the vast majority of the pension funds have basic pension schemes which are collective and thesis pension benefits can only be received in the form of an cover letters assistants, annuity. Funded schemes on its turn, can be classified into karnataka, two main categories; defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) schemes. In DB schemes pension benefits are based, among other things, on college resume, the worker’s wage, length of employment history and karnataka the so called accrual rate. Cover Medical Assistants? The accrual rate determines how much pension rights a person accumulates per year over his or her labor income minus the karnataka thesis franchise. The accrual rate can either be a percentage of a person’s start- average- or final salary (Barr and Diamond, 2008). The replacement rate constitutes the number of years in which a person accrued pension rights times the accrual rate.
Moreover, the replacement rate expresses pension benefit as a fraction of one of these three salary levels. In 2006, a transition took place from the final salary scheme to 1121 the average salary scheme in the Netherlands. Therefore the average salary scheme is the most common. Karnataka Thesis? In 2008, 87 percent of the active members of pension funds had an average salary scheme (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). As of the part letters for students first of January 2015, the fiscal regulation surrounding the accrual of pension rights has been adjusted with the adaptation of the ‘Witteveenkader’. The maximum boundary which guarantees fiscal beneficial pension saving is set at a labor income of 100.000 euros. This means that above this boundary individuals have to arrange the accrual of karnataka thesis pension savings themselves. This accrual will be out of net income, instead of gross income which is the case below the examination boundary. Another measure which has been taken is the decrease of the fiscal maximum of the karnataka thesis accrual rate. Examination? This maximum is karnataka, lowered from 2,15% for average salary schemes in 2014, to qut thesis examination 1,875% for average salary schemes in 2015 (Staatsblad van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, 2014).
In defined contribution schemes the karnataka thesis pension benefit depends on the contributions paid into the fund. In DC schemes the pension benefit is not pre-determined but the pension premium is, for a certain period of time as opposed to DB schemes where the pension benefit is mostly pre-determined. Defined contribution schemes can be either individual (IDC) or collective (CDC). Cfm Ethesis_id 1121? In CDC schemes participants accrue pension rights based on the average salary system against karnataka thesis a pre-determined pension premium (Mercer, 2015). The eventual pension benefit is not predetermined since it depends on the factual funding ratio of the pension fund at the time of retirement (Chen et.al., 2014).
In IDC schemes every pension fund participant saves for its own pension benefit. The eventual pension benefit is the sum of the paid pension premiums and examination the realized return on them (Chen et.al., 2014). In IDC schemes, risks cannot be shared between participants as opposed to CDC schemes. In CDC schemes risks can be shared between participants in karnataka, an intra- as well as intergenerational manner. Qut Thesis Examination? Intragenerational since pension benefits are paid out in the form of an annuity which enables the sharing of, for example, longevity risk (Barr and Diamond, 2008) and intergenerational since shocks in the funding ratio can be spread out over a number of years and thereby shared between various generations (Chen et.al., 2014). IDC schemes are not very common in the Netherlands (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Karnataka? Most pension funds that do have a DC scheme implement a CDC scheme. Recently, DC schemes start to gain in popularity in the Netherlands and are more often used in the discussion surrounding the future of the on stop smoking Dutch pension system (van Dorssen and Nauta, 2014). Karnataka Thesis? This is mainly the case since DB schemes more or less guarantee a certain pension benefit irrespective of the financial market return (Der Wal, 2014), while DC schemes do not provide such certainty. This implies that contributing participants in a pension fund with a DB scheme bear the risks surrounding the pension benefits of the coursework completed resume pension fund retirees, while those risks are shared between contributing participants and pension fund retirees in DC schemes.
The franchise exempts a certain amount of the labor income of pension fund participants over which pension premium needs to thesis be paid. The franchise relates to the accrual rate. Consequently, the combination of the franchise and the accrual rate a pension fund uses determines their pension premium. Essay On Stop? Therefore the franchise, accrual rate and pension premium find themselves in a triangular relationship. The franchise and accrual rate combination a pension fund chooses is bound by legal requirements . Karnataka? Reasons for this may lie in cover assistants, the fact that by karnataka legally binding the choice of the cfm ethesis_id combination, the premium stays within a certain bound and cannot take an outrageous level. Besides, by legally binding the choice of the combination the risk for pension fund participants is limited. For example a low franchise in combination with a high accrual rate would result in either a relatively high premium, or a pension fund taking more risk in their investment strategy in order to be able to finance the thesis accrued pension rights. Therefore such a combination is not allowed. The accrual rate determines the final replacement rate a pension fund participant reaches. The objective of a pension fund with regard to the envisioned replacement rate is a matter of pension fund policy.
Consequently, pension funds have different pension schemes which result in different time paths in some college completed, which the replacement rate can be reached. A shorter time span in which the replacement can be reached consequently corresponds to a higher accrual rate and thesis higher franchise. Qut Thesis Examination? The replacement rate is applicable to both pension income coming from the first ‘ and the second pillar which, theoretically, should result in karnataka thesis, a uniform franchise of 10/7th times the AOW benefit (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). Historically speaking the franchise is some college, meant as an instrument to integrate the first and thesis the second pillar of the Dutch pension system. With the introduction of average salary schemes this relation got diluted, resulting in examination, franchises which are lower than this theoretical level. Some pension funds even wield a franchise of exactly ‘0 (Eberhardt et.al., 2014). Karnataka? As of 2015 the on stop relationship diluted even further, since the levels of the franchise which are connected to the fiscally allowed maximum accrual rates are lower than they would be if they were at a level of 10/7th times the AOW. Therefore even the law does not take notice of this presumed relationship anymore. The fact that the relationship between the franchise and the AOW got diluted, indicates the possibility that the franchise is used for other purposes by karnataka thesis pension funds.
Nowadays, one of this main purposes is to keep the pension scheme affordable for the pension fund (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). The level of the franchise is usually adapted to the characteristics of the participants of a pension fund. A pension fund with participants which have a relatively low labor income benefit from a relatively lower franchise in combination with a lower accrual rate. For this income group the disadvantage of a lower accrual rate is letters assistants, outweighed by the lower level of the franchise.
At higher franchise levels they run the risk of earning a labor income that is lower than the franchise and thereby not accruing pension rights. To the thesis contrary, pension funds with participants earning relatively higher labor incomes, benefit from choosing a relatively higher franchise level in combination with a higher accrual rate. Essay On Stop Smoking? For these income groups the franchise constitutes a relatively low share of their labor income. Consequently the disadvantage of a higher franchise level is outweighed by the higher accrual rate. The franchise is uniform in karnataka, the sense that it is applicable to all participants in cfm ethesis_id 1121, a certain pension fund. It is this uniform character that may affect the thesis replacement rate objective the pension fund has set in some completed, an adverse way. This is the case for two reasons. First, participants of pension funds are not uniform in terms of their labor income.
Usually pension funds have participants who fall both in the higher and karnataka thesis lower income categories. Pension funds therefore choose a franchise and hamlet accrual rate combination which is beneficial for the average participant, so ass to minimize welfare losses in karnataka, terms of the replacement rate for their participants. However, zero welfare loss is not possible since above policy always results in losses for participants who are not average. Scholarly Essays? The most optimal solution would be to completely differentiate the level of the franchise and accrual rate per pension fund participant, so as to karnataka thesis achieve tailor-made solutions. On Stop Smoking? This would result in zero welfare loss since every participant is subject to a franchise and accrual rate combination adapted to his or her characteristics.
This is karnataka, however impossible since the franchise should have a uniform level within the pension fund. Therefore the franchise and accrual rate combination pension funds choose is cfm ethesis_id 1121, always a suboptimal one. Second, the AOW benefit that is used in calculating the franchise can differ from the AOW benefit that people actually receive. Most pension funds calculate a franchise on the basis of a AOW benefit which is 70 percent of the net minimum wage; the AOW benefit for karnataka singles (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). However, married or cohabiting couples receive an some coursework, AOW benefit of 50 percent of the net minimum wage each, resulting in a combined AOW benefit of 100% of the net minimum wage (Frericks et.al., 2006). Thesis? Moreover, employees who deviate from the ‘average’ participant in qut thesis, others ways than their labor income or level of the thesis AOW benefit, can experience problems in reaching the desired replacement rate. This could concern, for on stop smoking example, employees who have disrupted careers due to unemployment since participants usually do not accrue pension rights while being unemployed . Considering all this, it can be stated that the franchise could have implications for the final outcome of the pension plan; the karnataka pension income in terms of the replacement rate and the redistribution in terms of the net gain (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). The Uniform Accrual System.
Besides the franchise being at essay smoking, a uniform level, the accrual rate and the pension premium are uniform too. The uniform accrual system causes certain losses and redistribution. First, part of the pension rights in pension funds is financed on a PAYG basis as younger workers subsidize the older ones (Bovenberg et.al., 2014). The return on a PAYG scheme consists of population growth combined with real wage growth, while the return on a funded scheme consists of the capital market return. Therefore the cost effective contribution into a uniform accrual system is higher due to the lower return on karnataka, the PAYG component of the system (CPB, 2013). Next to some completed that the system is often viewed as unfair since it causes redistribution between different cohorts in the population.
First, time inconsistency causes the uniform accrued pension rights to be worth less to the younger cohorts than to people approaching the thesis retirement age since the examination investment horizon of karnataka young people is longer. Cover For Students? Second, structural differences in life expectancy are not taken into account which is beneficial for cohorts with a longer life expectancy as opposed to cohorts with a lower life expectancy (Lever et.al., 2014). Moreover, the modern labor market imposes problems on the uniform accrual system due to issues such as shorter life cycles of businesses and sectors, increased labor mobility and changing employment relationships (SER, 2015). This more flexible character of the labor market causes people to thesis deviate from the essay on stop smoking average career path most pension funds envision in determining the level of the accrual rate, franchise and pension premium. These issues result in the accrual rate and pension premium to be actuarially unfair at every moment in time.
There is just one moment in time in which both of them are fair; when they exactly equal the value of the accrued pension rights. Only when a person stays within the same pension fund during his or her entire career , the eventual outcome will be actuarially fair for this particular person. However in thesis, current dynamic labor markets this is resume, far from usual anymore. Thesis? Figure 1 describes the uniform accrual system and its redistribution (CPB, 2013). The difference between the red and the blue line reflects the PAYG component loss. The difference between the purple and the blue line reflects the loss due to time inconsistency. Finally, the difference between the purple and the green line reflects the loss due to differences in life expectancy. Figure 1 Decomposition of the Redistribution. In light of above described losses and redistributions, the Dutch parliament recently decided that the uniform accrual system will be abolished in phases. This process will be concluded in 2020 (Rijksoverheid, 2015).
The accrual system that will replace the uniform accrual system is designed at the very moment. Several proposals for this redesign have been made already. Bonenkamp, Cox and Lever (2014) in a Netspar Design Paper proposed to maintain the uniform pension premium in combination with degressive accrual of pension rights. In this way the pension premiums paid by some resume younger cohorts result in more pension rights which makes the system actuarially fair at every moment in time. Karnataka Thesis? Another proposal is to maintain the uniform accrual of pension rights, while making the pension premium progressive. Cover? However this proposal could cause wage profiles to karnataka become even steeper since part of this increase in the pension premium will be paid by the employer resulting in relatively higher wages for qut thesis examination older employees. This could cause harm for the older cohorts of the working population. Especially considering the current situation of the Dutch labor market in which wages for older employees are already relatively high (CPB, 2014). Every pension scheme and every transition from karnataka, one pension scheme to another, is in principal a ‘zero sum game’ in terms of market value. An improvement for a certain generation or cohort will hurt another generation or cohort. Moving from a uniform accrual system to an actuarial fair system results in a higher return on qut thesis examination, pension savings for all current and future generations (CPB, 2013).
However, both proposals go alongside with a substantial transition burden of approximately a hundred billion euros. Thesis? These hundred billion euros are the result of the generations who already paid a certain tax into the system by paying a too high premium for the pension rights which they accrued, but will not receive the subsidy which the system provides at a later age. This burden is also referred to as implicit debt. The burden will be the highest for the participants who are exactly at the cutting point as presented in figure 1. This results in a politically sensitive discussion as to college coursework which generation should bear the burden of this transition. Without compensation for the generations that will be hurt by this transition, the whole burden will be placed upon them.
However, the burden can be spread over multiple generations by an increase in the pension premium. This will hurt younger cohorts. Another solution would be to thesis finance the transition burden via the pension fund capital by shortening indexation (CPB, 2013). This thesis can be considered a first attempt to fill the gap in the quantitative literature concerning the franchise, by examining the influence the combination of the franchise and the accrual rate has on both the time cover for students net gain and karnataka the replacement rate. Time Letters For Students? In this way, both redistribution and pension outcome are taken into account. Karnataka Thesis? Furthermore the effect of individual characteristics like occupation, career path and career length on both the net gain and the replacement are examined, as a complement to below described literature. After an intensive inquiry, to my knowledge no quantitative literature exists on the topic of the influence of the franchise on cfm ethesis_id 1121, the eventual pension outcome and redistribution within a pension fund.
Concerning the karnataka thesis uniform accrual system as a whole and the redistribution it causes, the situation is different. Most of the research surrounding this topic focusses on the inter- and intragenerational transfers. Scholarly? In a CPB discussion paper Bonenkamp (2009) quantifies lifetime redistribution in Dutch occupational pension schemes associated with uniform pricing. The uniform contribution to the pension fund is split up in a saving part and a transfer share representing the redistribution. The transfer share is split up in thesis, an inter- and intragenerational part. Intergenerational transfers occur because of a gain for the elderly working generations at examination, the time the second pillar pension schemes were introduced.
These generations benefit from the premium which is lower than their actuarially fair value of the uniform accrued pension rights. However, these generations never had to pay a premium that was higher than the actuarially fair value of these pension rights when being young. Thesis? This introductory gain cannot be passed on to all generations without any costs. This results in an intergenerational transfer. Intragenerational transfers occur because of redistribution between different cohorts within the same generation, due to, among other things, differences in life expectancy and 1121 education. The results show that the saving share is higher for female than for male pension savers implying that there is an intragenerational transfer of 9 percent from men to women. Furthermore, the saving share is lower for lower educated people than for higher educated people, again pointing at an intragenerational transfer from the lower educated to thesis the higher educated. The intergenerational transfer is relatively small at a 2 percent level (Bonenkamp, 2009).
In this thesis only intragenerational transfers are taken into account. With respect to the redistribution caused by cover letters for new medical assistants differences in career path, the karnataka thesis CPB document ‘Voor- en nadelen van de doorsneesystematiek’ (2013) is relevant. This paper measures, among other things, the time cover letters redistribution in the second pillar resulting from flat, average and thesis steep career paths in terms of income profile. It concludes that people with a flat income profile benefit far less from the time cover letters for students uniform accrual system than people with a steep income profile do. This effect mainly arises due to the fact that people with a flat income profile mainly accrue pension benefits at the beginning of karnataka thesis their career when the actuarial value of the pension rights is low. For New Medical Assistants? In later stages of their career, when the karnataka thesis actuarial value of the pension rights is higher, they build up less pension benefits. For people with a steep income profile the opposite is true (CPB, 2013). Simulation Model Characteristics.
Both the net gain and the replacement rate are modelled using a typical agent simulation model. An important difference between the two outcome variables is the qut thesis fact that the net gain solely models a pension fund. It models pension premiums paid to the pension fund and pension benefits received from the pension fund. To the contrary, the replacement rate includes both the pension benefits coming from the pension fund and the AOW benefit. Since both the net gain and the replacement rate represent different concepts, they are both simulated using different models which have been written for the purpose of this thesis.
However, although the model equations are different they are based on the same type of models in karnataka thesis, the taxonomy of simulation models, namely typical agent models. The taxonomy of simulation models regarding pensions is presented in essays, table 3 (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Table 3 Taxonomy of Simulation Models for Pensions. Microsimulation Models Standard Models. 1.1 Static microsimulation models Standard cohort models.
1.2 Dynamic microsimulation models 2.2 Typical agent models. Microsimulation models are the most comprehensive type of karnataka thesis models in terms of equations used and cfm ethesis_id 1121 sectors of the karnataka thesis economy that are taken into account. Moreover, they need a large amount of data as input. Therefore making use of a microsimulation model is hamlet essays, out of the scope of this research and the choice is made to use a model falling into the standard model category. Microsimulation models simulate changes in a sample of a large number (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009).
The sample can be either cross sectional or a panel. Karnataka Thesis? The simplest type of microsimulation models are static microsimulation models. These models compare two states of the world, for example two different institutional settings. In these type of models time is not included as a factor. To the contrary, dynamic microsimulation models do include time. Thereby these models are capable of explicitly modelling life paths of individuals. Smoking? They take into account both behavioral responses and the policy environment (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Cohort models usually start from current cross-sectional information on certain characteristics of karnataka thesis various social groups which are most frequently cohorts. This current set of information is then simulated into the future. 1121? In this simulation assumptions on the state of the labor market and demographics are made. The simulation path attempts to karnataka thesis reweigh the group averages of the part time cohort resulting from the karnataka thesis current information set influenced by these assumptions.
The major advantage of cohort models is that aggregate conclusions can be obtained (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Typical agent models draw typical histories of fictitious individuals. These typical agents usually differ in letters for students, main features and life-path characteristics such as career path taken, career length and occupation. Based on karnataka, the typical histories the level of the some resume pension benefit is simulated and expressed in a certain way, for example by using the karnataka replacement rate as an outcome variable (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Typical agent models are capable of including the country-specific institutional setting. Cfm Ethesis_id? Moreover, the accrual of karnataka pension rights is properly tracked since the whole history of cfm ethesis_id a fictitious individual is simulated. Typical agent models are well suited to asses, among other things, incentives to work longer or to compare the karnataka thesis generosity of the pension scheme for different types of individuals. They are, however, incapable of producing aggregate outcomes (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). This makes it difficult to draw conclusions about, for example, the average net gain or replacement rate of a pension fund, or the weighted distribution of smoking these variables.
However, this will not cause considerable problems, since the focus of thesis this research is on outcomes on an individual level, namely on the level of pension fund participants. Therefore, I have chosen to write two simulation models which fall into this category. First and foremost since these models are most appropriate for simulating the replacement rate which is one of the main variables of interest within this thesis. Moreover, the assistants disadvantages of this model type do not form a considerable threat to the research. Furthermore, the models are deterministic and non-stochastic which means that they concentrate on karnataka, outcomes which are simulated without taking notice of external shocks. Examples of letters assistants external shocks could be decreasing interest rates or a sudden decrease in fertility. In the design of these models, external shocks would most probably influence the values of certain parameters. The simplification of not taking into account external shocks is justified, since the primary interest of this thesis is in expected (ex-ante) redistribution and expected (ex-ante) pension outcomes. However, this simplification also causes the model to be stylized.
In certain situations this could cause a certain outcome which would be different when the model would be stochastic. For example, it could be concluded that no redistribution between partcipants of a pension fund takes place while this would be the case if certain variables would be allowed to thesis vary. An example of this is described in letters, appendix (‘). The model that is used to simulate the net gain took the karnataka model of Joop Hartog (2013) as a starting point. This model can be found in appendix II. In this thesis the net gain is simulated using equation the following model/equations : List of variables:
W = length of letters assistants working life in years. P = duration of retirement period in years. i??i?? = replacement rate (length of working life times the accrual rate) r = discount rate (real rate of return on karnataka, standard life cycle investment scheme) y = starting salary as a fraction of the minimum wage. n = individual real growth of the wage. f = franchise as a fraction of the minimum wage.
i??i?? = pension premium (as a fraction of the hamlet salary minus the franchise) i??i?? = accrual rate. Equation (1) computes the net gain (NG) by dividing the discounted sum of pension benefits from the pension fund over thesis, the discounted sum of paid pension premiums to the pension fund. Both sums are discounted back to period 0, which means to the period before an individual starts working. This is done so as to equal the time value of these sums and part time simulate a time-consistent net gain. The discount rate (r) takes the value of the real rate of return on the standard life cycle investment scheme. The nominator represents the sum of discounted pension benefits.
The sum is karnataka, computed by qut thesis examination multiplying the replacement rate (i??i??) with the thesis average salary, since the accrual system in the Netherlands is characterized by an average salary system. The replacement rate is determined exogenously by multiplying the cover letters length of the working life with the accrual rate. This is the case since participants generally only accrue pension rights while being employed. The equation reflects a uniform accrual system since the accrual rate is constant and time-independent. The average salary, the term between brackets, is computed by dividing the sum of all salaries earned during working life, over the length of the working life.
The denominator represents the sum of discounted pension premiums. The pension premium (i??i??) is multiplied with every year’s salary, which increases every year with the inflation (g) and the individual growth of the wage (n). Karnataka? Again, the equation reflects a uniform accrual system since the pension premium is time-independent and on stop smoking constant too. Since the model is deterministic, the values of the franchise, starting salary, accrual rate and thesis pension premium as a fraction of the minimum wage are kept constant for the whole simulation period. This is the cover letters medical assistants case since all these variables are sensitive to external shocks or developments to a greater or lesser extent. Predicting these shocks and developments is hard and besides, outside the scope of this thesis. Furthermore, the minimum wage increases with the inflation. Since all above mentioned parameters are computed as fractions of the minimum wage, they are automatically fully indexed with the value of the inflation. The net gain is only computed for the pension fund.
Therefore the first pillar pension benefit is not taken into karnataka, account. Cover Medical Assistants? The franchise is used in equation (1) to reflect this. In the nominator the average salary which is used in determining the pension benefit is diminished by the franchise. In the denominator the thesis labor income is diminished with the cfm ethesis_id franchise, which results in a so called pensionable salary bron woordenboekje over which pension premium has to be paid. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Finance essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of thesis us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and hamlet scholarly essays you could have your customised Finance work in your email box, in thesis, as little as 3 hours. This Finance essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.
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