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book report 3 Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to use spanish essay, write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of essays terror! How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read.
There’s no substitute for good use spanish, reading the book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at ted bundy your side. Good Essay! Jotting down page numbers and notes about checklist for editing paragraphs, significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Good Phrases! Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the book, you are ready to start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing.
In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Ted Bundy Essay Outline! Summary of Book. Good Phrases Essay! 3. Book Details: Characters.
4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for why looks are the last, book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Phrases Use Spanish! Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the ted bundy outline, book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Was the book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the essay, book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is heinle about.
This is your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and use spanish, the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve.
You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Great! Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the story. Good! Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Essays! Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class.
Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on good use spanish, a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the body of your book report to a description of the book’s subject and the author’s points of view. Use the ways to end a compare essay, chapter headings to good phrases use spanish essay, help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. Case Studies! If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in use spanish essay, the person’s life.
Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. Ted Bundy Essay! You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is good here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the book. What are the book’s strengths and evolve studies, weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you?
If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. Use Spanish! After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to great, follow the phrases, next three steps of the why looks last bastion, writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback.
As you edit, check your grammar and use of the good phrases essay, correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the book title. Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of evolve case studies Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of phrases essay view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Essay Outline! Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Phrases! Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book.
If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on for editing, Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Phrases! Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in essay outline, building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and good use spanish, pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence.
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Myth Essay Essays and Research Papers. foundation of almost every culture in good phrases use spanish the world has a creation myth explaining how the wonders of the earth came to be. These . Ways A Compare? myths have a powerful influence over the people’s culture, and the way they think about their surroundings. Good Phrases Use Spanish? Creation myths usually begin with the ted bundy theme of birth; birth represents new life and a new beginning. Creation myths develop over good use spanish the centuries through oral tradition, and paragraphs, are the most common form of good phrases myths found throughout human culture (Murtagh). The Maori are the aboriginal. Creation myths , Haumia-tiketike , Maori mythology 1085 Words | 3 Pages. Myth still remains one of the major links that merges the different cultures and heinle great, religions from good essay various ethnicities. “The Creation of the . Titans and the Gods”, as well as “The Creation, Death, and Rebirth of the essays Universe”, are among the good phrases essay many creation myths that highlight these combinations. Throughout history, myths have created various similarities and differences between the case cultures and religions of the world.
Man – the common principle in myths , illustrates that man was produced exclusively. Comparative mythology , Creation myth , Creation myths 1028 Words | 3 Pages. What is good phrases use spanish essay, a myth ? It is last, a traditional story based on ancient beliefs of phrases essay different communities and having supernatural explanations of facts or . natural phenomena. The mythical story is outline, related to religious beliefs, for that reason, has a ritual character, ie presents invariable elements and is distinguished by its durability. The purpose of myth is not to entertain, as with the story, but to good phrases use spanish essay explain the why looks are the meaning of life. So there are certain subjects such as the origin of man and the universe, which. Claude Levi-Strauss , Creation myth , Earth 1621 Words | 5 Pages. ? “A Myth ” Mythology/HUM/105 August 19, 2014 Stacy Pfister-Jolley For me a myth is an abstract word that . can be real or not. Use Spanish Essay? When using it in textbook then it should be understood figuratively. Why Looks Are The Of? It’s as stated on good use spanish essay www.thefreedictionary.com, myth is defined as a fictitious but well known story.
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Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. trying to know everyone in the class. University? After that here comes the big turn, homework and phrases, writing essays . I have never written an . essay in my life while I was living in ways to end a compare and contrast India. It was really hard for me to write down our thought on the given assignment. My English is not good and grammar is worse.
I was really afraid of writing, I didn’t want to tell anyone. I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date. After some days Mrs. Danielo called me in her office during office hours. She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by phrases, someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence.
For . example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to why looks last focus on a moment or a period in good phrases use spanish essay your life when you realized the essays significance of being literate in this fashion. Did you have trouble using a computer to register for good use spanish essay classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. Formula Essay - Thoughts of Winter. 12th June 2013 Winter! The name itself gives shivers to our body amp; thoughts of cold days and icy roads.
In the essay . ‘Thoughts of winter’ by Victoria Santiago, she says that winter is the season that receives most attention from us through our scientific explanations, our mythological ideas and university, our personal determination. Clearly, from the essay we can find out all related ideas, its nice organization and good development, and good essay, also personal touch with good narration. Scientific. Essay , Idea , Psychology 730 Words | 3 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is case, often judged within the phrases first few sentences. Just as . the ways essay news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from his or her world into the world of the essay . This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the infamous hook. It is good phrases use spanish, not easy to think of how to make someone want to university applications read an good, essay about a novel. It’s not even easy to. Essay , Good and university essays, evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an good use spanish essay, author's personal point of view, but the ways a compare and contrast essay definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Phrases Use Spanish Essay? Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author.
Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. The Trickster in Myth Trickster myths , a significant part of most cultures if not all, have permeated the legends and folklore . of applications peoples since the early days of civilized man. The ancient Greeks had Hermes, the Chinese the Monkey King, and good phrases use spanish, the Native American Indians the coyote. These diverse tricksters found within cultures often have many commonalities with each other, and then, often they do not. But this illustrates the very nature of the to end and contrast essay trickster; ever changing, shifting, shaping, disguising.
Chinese mythology , Creation myth , Kokopelli 2145 Words | 6 Pages. Creation Myths | Myth 1: the beginnings |Religion or culture of origin: Egyptian . | | Myth 2: |Religion or culture of origin: Boshongo (Bantu) | |Bumba’s creation | | • Who created the world? o Myth 1:the High God o Myth 2:Bumba • Who were. Christian terms , Christianity , Creator deity 820 Words | 6 Pages. ?Courtney Mehmen Lit 180 Creation Myth Essay LaGrone 6-19-14 The Beginnings The beginning of each myth starts off . with the phrases birth. The birth of life, darkness, waters and wind. This birth comes from outline a mind-blowing, absolute hole of nothing but yet it was somehow created. All myths have this birth of creation from nothing but different cultures decided on phrases use spanish essay different creator(s) that determined their fates.
In retrospect, many of the cultures are similar to, even if they lived half way around the world. Creation myth , Earth , God 750 Words | 4 Pages. ?THINGS TO BE GIVEN IMPORTANCE IN A DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY IDENTIFICATION OF THE THINGS TO BE DESCRIBED Descriptive essay focuses on . a person, place, memory, experience or an object. First, the case answers dvt exact thing that is to good use spanish be described must be identified. To End And Contrast Essay? REASON FOR WRITING A DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY There will be particular reason for writing this kind of essay . That reason will help the writer focus his description and imbue his language with a particular perspective or emotion. FOCUS ON THE FIVE SENSES Focusing. Essay , Essays , Five senses 1217 Words | 3 Pages. What Is the Difference Between Myth and Theory? the difference between myths and theories? Well that’s an easy question to phrases use spanish answer isn’t it; myths involve fiction while theories . involve facts, we should not make any parallels between science and ways to end essay, superstition.
There, we’ve answered the question, or have we? Although many people will agree that myth and good, theory are two totally different things, I would debate that the line between the two is much thinner than one would think. In fact in some cases the line is inexistent and myths make up theory, just. Creation myth , Earth , Evidence 1326 Words | 3 Pages. at Cram.com Upgrade | Hi Iamsiddha. Get Access to heinle great StudyMode.com - Complete Your Registration Now. StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , . Term Papers Book Notes Essays Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Essay On Eye Donation Wikipedia Essays and Term Papers Search Advanced Search Documents 1 - 20 of 47 Laser Eye Surgery Research essay Laser eye surgery Laser eye surgery The eye is the organ of sight. It is used in almost everything we do, from playing sport to reading. Critical theory , Essay , Essays 1151 Words | 6 Pages.
? The Beauty Myth The Beauty Myth by essay, Naomi Wolf is a manifesto about the feminist movement. the beauty myth as a . powerful belief system where a woman’s worth is measured by her beauty, to achieve this kind of beauty women are opted to spend countless amount of money and are the bastion, effort. But in the end no one can outlast the ravages of phrases time and we all have to essay age eventually no matter how hard we try to stay young. Wolf emphasizes throughout the whole book that if a woman wants to get hired, have a promotion. Cosmetics , Naomi Wolf , The Beauty Myth 1149 Words | 5 Pages. Paper#1: “How do people create creation myths ?” Creation myths of every civilization rooted from phrases one thing: Ancient people . Heinle Great Essays? tried to make sense of their existence in this cosmos. Phrases Essay? In that case, however, we could not be so sure who made the first creation myth but in university applications essays trying to analyze their creation stories, it could not be denied that patterns can be derived from phrases them. There are some basic concepts in the creation myths that seem similar. Heinle Great Essays? Each of the creation myths borrowed an idea in good phrases use spanish one way or another.
Chinese mythology , Cosmos , Creation myth 849 Words | 3 Pages. 10/3/12 World Civilization The Creation of the Creation Mythos Myths are a vital key to understanding not only a culture’s history, and also . To End Essay? its future. A society’s ethics and mores are portrayed through a myth’s oral and written tradition that is passed down from generation to generation and is most often used as a teaching tool. Good Phrases? Since creation myths are such a good set of evolve dvt tools every culture has some form of them. Creation myths are an important aspect of teaching a culture’s children about how. Creation myth , Earth , Judaism 1385 Words | 4 Pages.
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Creation myth , Earth , Jotunn 1183 Words | 3 Pages. |Earned Points | |Content (40) |40 . | | | |* The essay addresses all areas of the essay assignment thoroughly. Phrases Use Spanish Essay? | | | |* Content includes excellent details. | . Clear , Clearing , Description 362 Words | 3 Pages. MYTHICAL EXPLANATIONS – the creation myth Creation myths evolve in why looks are the of nearly as many ways as there are cultures. Sometimes they . are used to solidify political power, as when Egypt moved back and forth from the gods Aten and Amen. Use Spanish Essay? More frequently they are used to evolve case studies explain the unknown. Phrases Use Spanish? Some cultures used the familiar (animals, clay, mud, etc) to explain their existence, while others used the sun and moon, which were IN their lives, but not OF them.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. Good Use Spanish? When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to ways and contrast essay, start. What experiences and good, accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Outline? Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of good essay, your resume not as a comprehensive list of university essays, your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and good essay, skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience).
Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. Evolve Studies Dvt? But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on phrases use spanish, your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on last of, a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of phrases use spanish essay, cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the essay fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on use spanish essay, a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on case dvt, the top third of your resume. This top section is what the good use spanish hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to why looks last of, keep on phrases essay, reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and ways to end and contrast, need to explain from the good use spanish essay get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to.
In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is university applications still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in phrases your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is ways and contrast this—you want the good phrases information here to essays, be concise, and essay, making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on essays, more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in good less space? Do. To End And Contrast? If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out good use spanish, how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to university applications essays, include some visual examples of your work?
Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and good, then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about answers getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. Use Spanish? But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on why looks last of, the page.
You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an good phrases, ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and great essays, whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to good essay, add some tasteful design elements or a little color to great, make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10.
Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to good phrases, include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is are the last that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. Phrases Use Spanish? These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to ted bundy, look stunning? There’s no shame in good getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is why looks are the last of arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right!
13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into phrases essay more detail about your current role, always choose the paragraphs and essays latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries!
Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the use spanish essay recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Heinle Essays? Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an essay, assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is university essays readable, relevant, and interesting to good phrases use spanish essay, all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points.
How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of ted bundy, work or responsibility you needed to good essay, achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to university applications, adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at good phrases your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the ways to end a compare benefit was to your boss or your company. Use Spanish? By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by evolve studies, hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast.
But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to use spanish, get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the great essays result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology.
If every bullet in good phrases essay your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in ways to end and contrast your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to use spanish, the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include?
Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . Ways To End And Contrast? We bet there’s a better way to good phrases, describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. University Essays? Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Good Phrases? Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in university essays reverse chronological order.
But if older coursework is use spanish more specific to the job, list that first to checklist for editing and essays, grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to good use spanish essay, include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the evolve dvt skills you need for good essay your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Evolve Case Studies Answers? Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy.
If you have lots of good use spanish, skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and university applications essays, listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for good essay skimmability here, folks! Feel free to to end and contrast essay, include an good phrases use spanish, “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it.
32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for checklist paragraphs your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to good phrases use spanish essay, include them or not. Why Looks Bastion? Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them.
Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about phrases essay your experience if asked in an interview. Ways To End A Compare? If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the use spanish usual start and end dates for university applications essays each position. Phrases Use Spanish? Use years only (2010-2012), or just the applications number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. Use Spanish? If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to evolve case studies answers, each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for good essay your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Applications Essays? Re-entering the essay workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and last bastion of, accomplishments.
Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for good phrases use spanish essay killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in university applications gaps on your resume. Good Phrases Essay? For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for essay outline references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the use spanish obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!).
It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is university free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on good use spanish, how to perfect your own work ). University? If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. Good Essay? That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of heinle, “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to phrases essay, pull up your resume and why looks last bastion of, make some updates. Have you taken on phrases use spanish essay, new responsibilities? Learned new skills?
Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Checklist? Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Good Use Spanish? Erin Greenawald is paragraphs and essays a freelance writer, editor, and use spanish essay, content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of essays, writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and good essay, led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for case studies answers dvt this class.
While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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essay on gentlemans 1731-1868: An Electronic Union List. alius amicus Urbani. I wish to express my thanks to the staff of the Electronic Text Center of the University of Virginia for providing the technical expertise and phrases, the meticulous care necessary to launch this database as an online publication. In particular I wish to thank David M. Seaman, former Director of the applications Center, who suggested the union list, and good, Matthew Gibson, Associate Director of the Center, who has overseen its completion. I owe a debt of gratitude to Luther Fredrick Carter, President of ways a compare, Francis Marion University, and Richard N. Good Phrases. Chapman, Provost of Francis Marion University, for their longstanding collegial interest in my research and their enthusiastic support of this project. I would also like to express my appreciation to the Francis Marion University Board of Trustees for graciously creating the position of are the last bastion, Trustee Research Scholar which has afforded me crucial additional time to devote to use spanish the completion of this research.
I am very grateful to evolve case answers the reference staff of Rogers Library, in particular Roger K. Hux and John M. Summer, for their ready assistance over phrases use spanish, many years; and to ted bundy essay Julian Pooley, FSA, Manager of the Surrey History Centre, Kingston upon Thames, and good phrases use spanish essay, director of the Nichols Archive Project, who has generously made his vast database of transcripts of essay outline, Nichols manuscript correspondence available to me, thus enabling me to identify the authors of scores of letters, articles, and obituaries in the Gentleman's Magazine that would otherwise have remained unattributed. Finally, I would like to thank John Nichols, John Bowyer Nichols, John Gough Nichols, Isabella Nichols, and Richard Gough, who assembled the attributions of authorship in good phrases use spanish essay, the original Nichols File of the Gentleman's Magazine laboriously, over many years, with pen and ink, and who, if they were alive today, would deeply appreciate the amazing possibilities of electronic databases. From its founding in 1731 by the printer Edward Cave, to its heyday under Cave's successors, David Henry and John Nichols, the Gentleman's Magazine was one of the most influential periodicals in why looks are the last, Britain. The breadth of its coverage is stunning. The fluctuating prices of grain or coal or Smithfield beef, daily closing quotations for stocks and bonds, mortality figures (categorized by disease) for the city of London, theatre reviews, original poetry, the parliamentary debates, theological disputes, lists of phrases use spanish essay, promotions civil and military, Church preferments, and obituaries by the thousands all crowd the last bastion of pages of the magazine.
In addition, as an indispensable source of good phrases essay, news to its loyal readership scattered throughout the towns, villages, country houses, and ways a compare essay, parsonages of Britain, the Gentleman's Magazine was unsurpassed. There if nowhere else could eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century readers in remote corners of the nation find what was often their first account of the use spanish essay news of the day, whether it be the Lisbon Earthquake of 1755, 1 the unearthing of mosaics and frescoes at Herculaneum, 2 Benjamin Franklin's experiments with the lightning rod and with the kite and the key, 3 the hanging and burning of applications, Phoebe Harris for coining, 4 the visit of the chief of the Yamacraw Indians to the court of phrases essay, George II, 5 the why looks last bastion ambush of essay, General Braddock in the woods near Fort Duquesne, 6 the skirmish at Lexington and Concord, 7 the latest method of cutting for cataracts before anesthesia, 8 the ongoing debate over the application of caustics for breast cancer, 9 the Gordon Riots of 1780 10 and the Peterloo Massacre of 1819, 11 the guillotining of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, 12 the discovery of the Rosetta Stone, 13 or the mutiny on the Bounty . 14 Certainly for present-day researchers the GM constitutes a mine of contemporary information concerning virtually every facet of British life and public interest during the university applications first century of the good use spanish magazine's existence. When Edward Cave (1691-1754) established the Gentleman's Magazine in 1731 in offices above the sixteenth-century gate of St. John's Priory in Clerkenwell, he could not have known that he was creating what would become a literary institution. His intention was to evolve answers launch a monthly magazine that would provide foreign and domestic intelligence, original poetry, helpful hints covering everything from agriculture to home remedies, and a digest of newspaper excerpts on leading topics of the good phrases essay day, tailored to attract readers in London and points beyond. Listing himself only as printer on the magazine's title page, Cave created a fictitious editor, Sylvanus Urban, Gent., borrowing the university applications name from essay, a 1691 newspaper, Urbanicus and Rusticus , in testimony to his hopes of appealing to city and country dwellers alike.
The early monthly numbers were short (48 pages), and the domestic news columns were deliberately sensationalist, 15 reporting supposed sightings of mermen; 16 graphic accounts of hanging, drawing, and quartering, of spousal abuse, and of the trial and punishment of Eleanor Beare, the peripatetic abortionist; 17 and the issuance of an all-points-bulletin for the capture of Dick Turpin, the highwayman. 18 Excerpts from newspapers constituted a large proportion of the monthly numbers during Cave's regime, fed in heinle great essays, the 1730s by the escalating press war generated by the Opposition's efforts to good phrases use spanish oust Robert Walpole and a compare and contrast, during the 1740s by debate over the conduct of the phrases essay War of the Austrian Succession and by for editing paragraphs and essays, the national fright over the Jacobite Rebellion of the good 'Forty-Five. 19 The number of original submissions remained small except for letters posing or responding to mathematical queries, commentaries on astronomy and case answers, theology, and good essay, a plethora of verse contributions, most of dubious merit. Within two years of the founding of the GM Cave added a new feature that would make his magazine justly famous: the printing of a crude form of the parliamentary debates in defiance of the a compare and contrast essay House of Commons' ban on just such an undertaking. Capitalizing on an ambiguity in the Commons' rules that might be interpreted to permit reporting of the good phrases use spanish essay debates after but not during a parliamentary session, Cave took the risk and with the August 1732 issue began regularly devoting the GM 's lead article to Debates in Parliament. 20 The accounts were necessarily makeshift, a pastiche of excerpts mined from Abel Boyer's Political State of Great Britain and of notes Cave and studies answers dvt, his friends managed to take in secret, with smuggled pencil stubs and scraps of paper balanced on their knees as they sat in the Strangers' Gallery. The resultant speeches, reconstructed in good use spanish, a nearby tavern by the historians William Guthrie and Thomas Birch from the pooled jottings and retentive memories of Cave and his helpers, 21 were approximations at ways to end a compare and contrast best and good use spanish essay, sometimes were more reflective of the redactors' political prejudices than the thoughts of the speakers themselves. Samuel Johnson, who eventually succeeded Guthrie as the compiler of the debates, was notorious for putting his own words into the Members' mouths and why looks bastion, making sure, as he once told Sir George Staunton, to good put Sir Robert Walpole in the wrong, and to say every thing he could against the electorate of Hanover.
22 When an affronted House of Commons in April 1738 forbade the reporting of its debates at any time, regardless of whether or not the sessions had ended, the GM simply renamed its monthly leader Debates of the Senate of Lilliput, complete with thinly disguised anagrams or corruptions of the Members' names. 23 The device worked perfectly until Cave brazenly reported the treason trial of the Jacobite rebel, Simon, Baron Lovat, before the House of Lords in April 1747. Applications. Arrested, convicted of breach of privilege by the Upper Chamber, fined, and compelled to beg forgiveness on his knees at the bar of the essay Lords, 24 Cave reluctantly ordered a moratorium on the printing of the debates, only resuming the feature in 1752. With the death of Edward Cave in 1754 and the succession of David Henry (1709-92) and later John Nichols (1745-1826) to the mantle of Sylvanus Urban, the GM entered into a period of tremendous growth, not only in the length of its monthly numbers but also in the range of materials offered up to the magazine's readers. Henry began the why looks are the last transformation, working after 1778 in good phrases essay, close cooperation with Nichols, who that year became part proprietor of the GM with Henry, handled much of the editorial duties of the magazine during the 1780s, and university essays, succeeded Henry as editor in 1791. Under the two men's direction the GM vastly expanded its literary and theatrical reviews, with John Hawkesworth (1720-73), 25 Rev.
John Duncombe (1729-86), and Richard Gough (1735-1809) serving successively as chief literary critics for the magazine. At the same time, the GM all but abandoned the practice of good phrases use spanish essay, allotting large amounts of space to excerpts from the newspaper press, with the exception of the early 1760s, when the nation was caught up in a contentious debate over Lord North's Peace of Paris. Just as the ways a compare and contrast essay magazine in Cave's day brought mathematical and astronomical concerns before its readership, the GM under the aegis of Henry and Nichols continued its coverage of pure and applied science, publishing letters on phrases essay, Halley's Comet, Herschel's discovery of Uranus, Vincent Lunardi's balloon flight (the first in Britain), and Edward Jenner's discovery of vaccination for smallpox; 26 disquisitions on archaeology and numismatics; meteorological diaries; descriptions of newly invented agricultural implements, including a diagram of checklist for editing, Jethro Tull's seed drill; 27 and synopses of the Transactions of the Royal Society . Building on readers' interest in Samuel Johnson's earlier series on the lives of celebrated admirals, the GM gave extensive space to accounts of use spanish, voyages of applications, discovery, most notably a lengthy series of articles on phrases use spanish essay, Captain James Cook's voyage of 1768-71 in the Endeavour . 28 David Henry, who was a friend of Benjamin Franklin and case studies, a first cousin of good, Patrick Henry of heinle great essays, Virginia, was particularly interested in news from America, and under his direction and good use spanish, that of Nichols the GM provided substantial coverage of events in the New World, reporting with remarkable impartiality the build-up and progress of the American Revolution and milestones in the history of the outline new republic, including the ratification of the Constitution (printed in its entirety), 29 festivities attending the inauguration of good phrases, George Washington (himself a subscriber to the GM ), 30 the great naming of Washington's first cabinet and Supreme Court appointees, 31 the laying out of the District of Columbia, 32 and the publication of good use spanish, Washington's Farewell Address (printed in entirety). 33 Henry and Nichols carried on Cave's tradition of essay outline, embellishing the magazine with illustrative plates and filled the GM with superbly executed engravings of good use spanish, birds, maps, coins, Roman inscriptions, country houses, Bronze-Age dolmens, erupting volcanoes, and ted bundy, South Sea islanders. Nichols doubled the size of the magazine, which grew from its original 600 pages per year to a two-part, 1,200-page annual publication beginning in 1783; and he expanded the GM 's obituary columns and memoirs to such a degree and with such assiduousness that he earned the unflattering sobriquet of death-hunter. 34 Above all, Henry and Nichols presided over a magazine overwhelmingly devoted to original submissions from good phrases use spanish, a growing readership, 35 submissions that flowed in by the outline thousands from chiefly anonymous or pseudonymous contributors, avid to see their offerings in print. The use of use spanish, fictitious signatures offered several advantages to Mr.
Urban's correspondents. In an age when many gentlemen still regarded writing for the papers as a dubious activity fit only for Grub Street hacks, such literary camouflage provided contributors the protection of checklist for editing paragraphs, anonymity. It afforded others of essay, more liberal mind the delight of concealing their identities behind classical pseudonyms, artfully crafted anagrams, and misleading sets of initials. In addition, the use of a variety of different signatures by the same contributors permitted them the amusement of to end a compare and contrast, deceiving their readers by corresponding with themselves, as well as the luxury of correcting their own mistakes with minimal loss of face. Thus in 1793 Samuel Pegge the Elder, signing L.E. (the terminal letters of his name), contributes a letter, Natural Son of Richard III, 36 correcting his own 1767 submission on the same subject, 37 signed T. Row (the initial letters of the Rector of Whittington, his Derbyshire living). In similar vein, John Hawkesworth in November 1764 sends the GM a piece signed J.H. enclosing Rules for Writing and Speaking correctly, which purports to phrases use spanish essay be a Letter from a Father to a Daughter concerning grammar. 38 The next month Hawkesworth dispatches an great unsigned letter, The Folly of good phrases, useless Words exposed, 39 writing, To the very useful letter of your ingenious correspondent, p. 519, I shall take the liberty of adding, as a general rule, that useless words should be always carefully avoided. Why Looks Are The Last Bastion Of. . Use Spanish Essay. . . John Nichols, himself a prolific contributor, was not above assuming the opposite gender to confuse his readers. Not only why looks last bastion, did he submit a multitude of letters signed M. Green (taken from the name of his second wife, Martha Green); in addition, in a 1795 letter, Burial Ground of the Jews at phrases Mile-end described, 40 Nichols, coyly signing himself Eusebia, writes, I don't know, Mr.
Urban, what you will say to my inquisitive pen. Your sex can introduce themselves into any house that bears the character of antique; but a female Antiquary can only under the friendly veil of an assumed name, in your Magazine, satisfy her boundless curiosity. Since some women did contribute to case dvt the magazine, including Anna Seward (who generally signed her own name to phrases use spanish essay her submissions), the GM 's readers probably accepted Nichols's deception. Subtle changes start to appear in the content of the GM during the early nineteenth century, as John Nichols began to relinquish more and more control of the operation of the magazine to his son, John Bowyer Nichols, who had become a partner in essay, the firm in good use spanish essay, 1800; and those changes accelerated after John Nichols's death in 1826. Under John Bowyer the magazine allotted an increased amount of space to religious topics, just as it would later expand its interest in antiquarian and archaeological submissions and case answers, reports from learned societies under the influence of John Bowyer's son, John Gough Nichols. Good Essay. An inevitable byproduct of the GM 's new focus was a diminution in answers, the variety of its offerings, together with a loss of the good sense of spontaneity that had distinguished the magazine for many decades. With changing times and why looks last bastion, customs fewer contributors indulged in the literary game of signing letters with reversed initials, classical pseudonyms, or ingenious anagrams. With altered editorial policies and the commencement of new series in 1834 and 1856, less and good phrases use spanish essay, less space was allotted to letters to the editor from the case studies answers dvt GM 's far-flung readership.
The thousands of good phrases use spanish essay, letters to Sylvanus Urban, by turns whimsical or argumentative or recondite, that had been the mainstay of the magazine under David Henry's and John Nichols's stewardship dwindled to ted bundy essay outline a trickle, relegated increasingly to the Minor Correspondence page or to the filler rounding out each monthly number. Mr. Good Phrases. Urban in heinle great essays, his mid-nineteenth-century incarnation was clearly less interested in the topics and good phrases use spanish essay, passions that had preoccupied his eighteenth-century readers: the interpretation of last of, a troublesome passage in Juvenal; 41 details of a newly discovered Roman coin; 42 helpful methods for destroying black beetles in London kitchens; 43 the elucidation of the origins of the phrase to run amuck; 44 the minute description of good, a curious, and . Heinle Great Essays. . . non-descript . . . caterpillar . . . Phrases Use Spanish Essay. [,] uncommonly large and beautiful, found in a potato field in Kent. 45 Under the direction of John Bowyer Nichols and his editor, the Rev. John Mitford, longer articles and reviews, written by a staff of paid contributors, replaced the myriad short items and letters on a vast variety of heinle, subjects that had formerly crowded Mr. Urban's pages. 46 In addition, contributions tended more and more to be signed, as authors ceased to bother with maintaining the pretense of anonymity. Unquestionably the Gentleman's Magazine in its mid-nineteenth-century format was quite a different animal from the phrases use spanish essay periodical that had appeared under Edward Cave's direction a century and a quarter before.
Alterations in style and content only intensified in early 1850, when contributions signed with initials and pseudonyms virtually disappeared except for the Minor Correspondence section. In the mid 1860s the why looks are the of pace of change became precipitous. Essay. The Nichols family had already sold the magazine in 1856, and J. H. Parker (successor to John Nichols's grandson, John Gough Nichols, as editor) gave up his duties in 1865. The latest publishers (Bradbury, Evans, and Co.) launched a second new series (commencing with Vol. 220 for January- June 1866) with the sanguine promise that the GM would maintain its strength in antiquarian matters, cover a more diverse array of subjects in book reviews, reserve considerably more space for contemporary literature, and do an even better job in recording births, marriages, obituaries, and appointments.
Furthermore, the conductors assured their readers, 'Sylvanus Urban' also desires to lay open his columns much more extensively . . . to why looks are the last bastion of Original Correspondence, especially in matters of phrases use spanish, genealogy, topography, heraldry, local antiquities, personal and family history, folk-lore, philology, etc. 47. The promise of a Gentleman's Magazine redivivus was unhappily short-lived. After a five-volume run, the second new series came to outline an end and good phrases, with it any attempt to restore the magazine to paragraphs even a semblance of good use spanish, its old character. Why Looks Are The Of. Vol. 225 (June-November 1868) ushered in a third new series, under the direction of a different editor (Joseph Hatton) and at the reduced price of 1 s . in place of use spanish, half a crown.
Calling the GM one of the institutions of the country, 48 the new management in its Preface to readers gamely tried to evoke the mystique of Samuel Johnson and university applications, Edward Cave and capitalize on the magazine's venerable past, a past of good phrases, which it was clearly in awe. True, the Preface acknowledged, the Gentleman's Magazine would be abandoning any further attempt to provide comprehensive coverage of Politics, Science, Art, the parliamentary debates, literary criticism, or the activities of the learned societies, as [i]t is no longer desirable, it is indeed scarcely possible, for a monthly magazine to comprise the applications essays features to which the GM 's old audience had been accustomed. 49 Readers, however, could be assured that, as always, the staff would accept unsolicited contributions and attempt to find a place for them in phrases, the GM 's pages. The new number . . . is heinle essays, another link in the long chain that reaches back to 'Edward Cave at St. John's Gate,' Hatton asserted. Good Use Spanish. We give up no jot of the Urbanian Succession. . . . Ted Bundy Outline. 50 But to anyone familiar with the magazine in its heyday the new management's attempt to affect the persona of Sylvanus Urban seems self-conscious, awkward, and essay, uncomfortably anachronistic, as if the GM 's mid-Victorian editor had unsuccessfully dressed himself in borrowed robes. In the course of the following two volumes (226-227) Hatton dropped all pretense of emulating the gracious old magazine in and contrast, which eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century readers had delighted, abruptly withdrawing the welcome he had extended to unsolicited letters and good use spanish, articles (those mainstays of the old GM ) and jettisoning the obituaries for once and for all. Clearly with the commencement of the third new series in mid 1868 the Gentleman's Magazine became an entirely different entity, a thing that Edward Cave, Samuel Johnson, David Henry, John Hawkesworth, Richard Gough, John Nichols, and their readers and contributors would not even have recognized. It is a sad conclusion for anyone who (like John Goodford in 1824) would sign himself URBANI AMICUS. 51.
The Gentleman's Magazine has for many decades been the subject of close scrutiny by researchers endeavoring to determine the authorship of the vast number of anonymous and pseudonymous letters, articles, reviews, poems, memoirs, and notes filling its volumes from 1731 until mid-1868, when new editors recast the magazine and irretrievably altered its make-up. To End And Contrast Essay. Many scholars have directed their attention to the initial decades of the GM 's existence, particularly the good Edward Cave epoch (1731-54), attracted in part by case studies answers, the fact that those were the good use spanish essay years that saw the bulk of Samuel Johnson's involvement with the magazine. Early studies by C. Lennart Carlson ( The First Magazine: A History of the Gentleman's Magazine [Providence: Brown UP, 1938]), Donald F. Bond (The Gentleman's Magazine, Modern Philology 38 : 85-100, with its extensive corrections and additions to Carlson), and checklist for editing paragraphs and essays, Albert Pailler ( Edward Cave et le Gentleman's Magazine [1731-1754] [2 vols.; Lille: Atelier Reproduction des Theses, 1975]) provided numerous attributions of authorship of the GM 's poetry, as has Titia Ram's recent Magnitude in phrases use spanish essay, Marginality: Edward Cave and The Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1754, Containing a First-Line Index of all the Poems, With Notes and References on Authorship (N.p.: Gottmann Fainsilber Katz, 1999). While Carlson, Bond, Pailler, and heinle, Ram have concentrated overwhelmingly on phrases use spanish essay, the GM 's poetry, works by other scholars have focused on identifying prose submissions to the GM , particularly John L. Abbott's John Hawkesworth: Eighteenth-Century Man of Letters (Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1982) for Hawkesworth contributions; Bertram H. Davis's A Proof of Eminence: The Life of Sir John Hawkins (Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1973) for Hawkins finds; Claude E. Jones's Charles Woodmason as a Poet ( South Carolina Historical Magazine 59 : 189-194) for ted bundy, submissions from colonial South Carolina by use spanish, Woodmason; James M. Osborn's Dr. Johnson's 'Intimate Friend' ( TLS , 9 October 1953, p. 652) for Stephen Barrett finds; James L. Clifford's Johnson and Lauder ( Philological Quarterly 54 : 342-356) for William Lauder and for editing, William Brakenridge entries; and Arthur Sherbo's From the Gentleman's Magazine . . . ( Studies in Bibliography 35 : 285-305). In addition, numerous specialists in the literary career of Samuel Johnson have worked painstakingly to identify an impressive number of Johnson's contributions to the GM . (See Section V below.) When James M. Kuist published The Nichols File of The Gentleman's Magazine: Attributions of Authorship and Other Documentation in Editorial Papers at the Folger Library (Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1982), he provided scholars of the phrases use spanish periodical press with an indispensable resource: the identification of authorship of evolve case studies answers, nearly 14,000 hitherto anonymous articles, reviews, poems, and other items appearing in the Gentleman's Magazine from good use spanish, its beginning in 1731 until 1856, when the descendants of John Nichols relinquished ownership of the magazine. The publication in why looks are the, 1982 of Kuist's Nichols File , supplying as it did the identification of the authors of thousands of the GM 's articles and letters on politics, history, theology, travel, science, inventions, medicine, literature, philology, and antiquarian lore, was justly welcomed as a signal achievement in use spanish, recent British press history. However, Kuist's Nichols File , though breathtaking in its accomplishment, did not purport to be a complete listing of all the case dvt known or decipherable authors of the myriad letters, articles, queries, obituaries, and verse addressed over a century and a quarter to Sylvanus Urban.
In fact, Kuist made a conscious decision to confine his list to those attributions of authorship specifically identified in handwritten marginal annotations by John Bowyer Nichols 52 and phrases, others in his family in the staff copy of the GM , now housed in the Folger Library. Those marginal attributions of authorship in the GM , put together by the Nichols family in university, a massive reconstruction of their office files after a destructive fire in good, 1808, contain perforce a multitude of omissions, some the result of haste or sheer carelessness on the part of the ways to end and contrast essay annotators, some because the good authorship of certain articles and letters defied all efforts at identification, others conversely because the evolve case authors' identities seemed at the time too obvious for phrases, anyone to bother writing down. Kuist's editorial guidelines, namely, to paragraphs reproduce the attributions in the Nichols File exactly as written, unavoidably preserved the annotators' omissions as well as their errors. Sometimes John Bowyer Nichols and his fellow annotators inadvertently skipped over items--obviously identifiable signatures of Crito (John Duncombe), for example, or of Scrutator and Academicus (pseudonyms used habitually by both John Loveday the Elder and John Loveday the Younger, between whom, incidentally, the Nichols File fails to distinguish). In other cases the Nichols family recorded attributions for most but not all of the articles in a series. For instance, the file assigned (as Kuist notes) numbers 1-8 of a 1786 series entitled The Trifler to a Mr. Fush of Pembroke College, Oxford, when in actuality Edmund Fushe also wrote numbers 9-12 of the series 53 before poisoning himself with arsenic at the age of 17. Use Spanish. In still other cases, where several poems signed with the identical pseudonym or initials appear on a single page, the annotator inscribed the great author's name only once. Since Kuist's list prints only the specific poem against which the annotator happened to write the good phrases use spanish name, evidence that could be used to add a wealth of new attributions to The Nichols File is thus excluded. In addition, John Bowyer Nichols and his family seem to have ignored crucial geographical evidence when compiling their file of paragraphs, attributions of authorship, failing to take advantage of the opportunity to match authors with the towns or even street addresses whence they wrote. As many of the GM 's contributors chose in occasional bursts of candor to forego the anonymity of initials and good use spanish essay, sign their full names, it is university applications, possible to search forward and backward through the use spanish pages of the GM , identifying with reasonable certainty a number of unassigned contributions by means of pairing sets of initials with place-names.
J.H., a common enough signature, is for example safely identifiable as that of John Holt when it happens to appear in letters dated from Holt's home of essay, Walton, near Liverpool, during the good phrases use spanish essay period when Holt was an why looks are the last bastion active contributor to phrases the magazine. In some cases, inevitably, the annotations recorded in the Nichols File are patently wrong. A major case in point consists of the file's identification of the great essays person who used the good signature L.E. as Samuel Pegge the Younger. When the Nichols family members reconstructed their records in the wake of the conflagration of 1808, they assumed that the signature L.E. appearing from 1788 through 1795 was that of a compare essay, Pegge the Younger. Thus Kuist lists it for forty-two items included in The Nichols File . However, a powerful piece of earlier and contradictory evidence exists which casts doubt on that assumption. Immediately following the death of Samuel Pegge the phrases use spanish essay Elder the GM published a three-part unsigned memoir of Pegge by ways a compare and contrast, his son, Samuel Pegge the Younger, 54 subjoining to it a comprehensive listing of good use spanish essay, virtually all of Pegge's writings published in the GM and elsewhere. 55 The 1796 list categorically attributes the L.E. articles in question to Pegge the Elder, a designation that is quite convincing. To End And Contrast. In the good use spanish essay first place, the L.E. articles end abruptly in paragraphs, August 1795, a few months before Pegge the Elder's death. Second, if the GM 's comprehensive Pegge list had erroneously attributed dozens of items to Pegge the Elder, Pegge the Younger presumably would have written to the GM to correct the historical record. There is no evidence that he did so.
Furthermore, according to Nichols himself, Pegge the Younger's contributions to good use spanish the GM were few in number. To Mr. Pegge we are indebted for ways and contrast, the . . . Memoir of his learned Father, Nichols wrote, and for several occasional contributions to the Gentleman's Magazine (italics mine). Use Spanish Essay. 56 The bulk of the evidence adduced thus points overwhelmingly to Pegge the Elder as the author of the L.E. Heinle Essays. items, items incorrectly attributed in The Nichols File to his son. With the help of the lists of known pseudonyms and sets of initials provided in good use spanish essay, Kuist's own index, plus a mine of to end a compare, information contained in contemporary letters, literary memoirs, and the GM 's invaluable obituaries, as well as determined detective work involving the unscrambling of anagrams and the use of geographical links, it has been possible to fill literally thousands of the gaps in the record. Since the good use spanish appearance of Kuist's Nichols File , a large number of to end and contrast essay, post-Kuist articles and books by various scholars have contributed significantly to the expansion or correction of phrases use spanish, identifications of authorship provided in The Nichols File or in earlier scholarship. Those publications include John L. Abbott's The Making of the Johnsonian Canon (in Johnson after Two Hundred Years , ed. Paul J. Korshin [Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1986]) for ted bundy essay, John Hawkesworth contributions; Marion B. Smith's South Carolina and The Gentleman's Magazine ( South Carolina Historical Magazine 95 : 102-129) for John Lining contributions; Kenneth Monkman's Did Sterne Contrive to Publish a 'Sermon' in good phrases, 1738? ( The Shandean: An Annual Devoted to Laurence Sterne and His Works 4 : 111-133) for two Laurence Sterne items; Richard C. Cole's Recovering William James (fl.
1785-1797), English Writer ( ELN: English Language Notes 36 [June 1999]: 64-78) for items by William James and his wife; Robert D. Pepper's Gilbert White and for editing paragraphs and essays, the 'Gentleman's Magazine' ( TLS , 31 March-6 April 1989, p. 339) and Gilbert White's Tiny Mouse: A Sceptical Objection in 1789 ( Notes and Queries n.s. 37, no. 3 [September 1990]: 315-317) for several new attributions to Gilbert White of Selborne; Arthur Sherbo's John Coleridge and the Gentleman's Magazine ( Bulletin of Research in the Humanities 86 : 86-93), Additions to the Nichols File of the Gentleman's Magazine ( Studies in Bibliography 37 : 228-233), The English weather, The Gentleman's Magazine , and phrases essay, the brothers White ( Archives of Natural History 12 : 23-29), More from the a compare and contrast essay Gentleman's Magazine : Graves, Mainwaring, Wren, Sterne, Pope, Bubb Dodington, Goldsmith, Hill, Herrick, Cowper, Chatterton ( Studies in Bibliography 40 : 164-174), Further Additions to the Nichols File of the phrases use spanish essay Gentleman's Magazine ( Studies in Bibliography 42 : 249-254), The Achievement of George Steevens (New York: Peter Lang, 1990), Thomas Martyn (1735-1825), 'P.B.C.': his contributions to the Gentleman's Magazine ( Archives of Natural History 22 : 51-59), Letters to Mr. Urban of the Gentleman's Magazine , 1751-1811 (Studies in British History 44 [Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen P, 1997]), and William Hamilton Reid (fl. 1786-1824): A Forgotten Poet ( Studies in Scottish Literature 29 : 245-257) for numerous supplementary attributions both of prose and essay outline, verse; and my six-part Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-77: A Supplement to Kuist ( Studies in Bibliography 44 : 271-302), Attributions of Authorship . . . , 1778- 92 . . . ( Studies in Bibliography 45 : 158-187), Attributions of Authorship . . . , 1793-1808 . . . ( Studies in Bibliography 46 : 320-349), Attributions of Authorship . . . , 1809-26 . . . Good Essay. ( Studies in Bibliography 47 : 164-195, Attributions of Authorship . . . , 1827-48 . Great Essays. . . ( Studies in good use spanish, Bibliography 49 : 176-207), and Attributions of Authorship . . . , 1849-68, and Addenda, 1733-1838 . . University Applications. . ( Studies in good use spanish essay, Bibliography 50 : 322-58), as well as my Topographical, Antiquarian, Astronomical, and Meteorological Contributions by George Smith of Wigton in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1735-59 ( ANQ 14 [Spring 2001]: 5-12). Under the auspices of the Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia and the university's Electronic Text Center, I published from 1996 through 1999 three electronic databases amassing collectively nearly 20,000 attributions of authorship of items appearing in the GM : My first electronic database, Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1868: A Supplement to Kuist (Charlottesville: Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia, 1996) was designed to to end essay integrate and in several instances correct the identifications of authorship I had published in my six-part Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine . . Good Phrases. . , Studies in and essays, Bibliography 44 (1991): 271-302, 45 (1992): 158-187, 46 (1993): 320-349, 47 (1994): 164-195, 49 (1996): 176-207, and 50 (1997): 322- 58. Attributions of Authorship . . . : A Supplement to good essay Kuist added approximately 4,000 new or corrected attributions of heinle great essays, authorship in the GM to the items catalogued by Kuist in the Nichols File . Good Phrases. In addition to providing an integrated list, publication of my finds in the form of an electronic database had the further advantage of insuring that the ted bundy information contained in the database was accessible to scholars through a variety of means including searches by author, title, volume and page, date, source of attribution, and (when applicable) pseudonyms used by contributors.
My second electronic database, Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1868: A Synthesis of Finds Appearing Neither in Kuist's Nichols File nor in good phrases use spanish essay, de Montluzin's Supplement to university applications essays Kuist (Charlottesville: Bibliographical Society of the University of use spanish, Virginia, 1997) brought together over 1,850 additional attributions of authorship of items in the GM . Those items, synthesized for heinle great, the first time in one comprehensive supplementary list, were compiled from good phrases, approximately sixty books and articles by various scholars who, over a number of decades, had made their own significant contributions to the identification of the anonymous authors of the GM 's letters, reviews, articles, poems, and staff notes. Since those additional attributions were scattered through very many publications (many of them out of print), and since a number of essay, those publications bore titles nondescriptive of their relevance to Gentleman's Magazine studies, researchers interested in the GM had long been hard-pressed to make effective use of them, even when aware of their existence. The publication of Attributions of Authorship in good, the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1868: A Synthesis of Finds . . Applications Essays. . , by consolidating information hitherto scattered throughout numerous and often obscure references, thus dramatically simplified the efforts of GM researchers to track down attributions of authorship that did not appear in Kuist's Nichols File or in my first GM database. Good Use Spanish Essay. Taken together, my first two GM databases added forty percent to the total number of bastion, items available in Kuist, presenting the finds in a way that permitted researchers to conduct an good use spanish essay electronic search of the essay outline two GM databases simultaneously. The purpose of my third electronic text, Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine : An Electronic Version of James M. Kuist's The Nichols File of the Gentleman's Magazine (Charlotte: Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia, 1999), was to recast Kuist's Nichols File , with its 13,950 attributions of authorship, as an online database in a format identical to that used in my first two GM electronic publications. Researchers already familiar with Kuist's Nichols File in its bound version are of course aware that The Nichols File contains two catalogues. The first (and by far the more valuable for most users) consists of the good use spanish aforementioned list of nearly 14,000 attributions of authorship of items printed in the Gentleman's Magazine , attributions transcribed by Kuist and his research associates directly from the marginal annotations in the Folger copy of the GM . Catalogue II, Documents in the Gentleman's Magazine , contains lists of heinle great, drawings, printed materials in the Folger Nichols File, and a variety of manuscripts, associated documents, and other papers pertaining to the GM , either tipped into the pages of the magazine or maintained separately by John Nichols and his descendants. Though Catalogue II provides valuable information for students of the Nichols family publishing business (and though it has furnished me with many useful clues in my own efforts to identify contributors to the magazine in the mid nineteenth century), it was not germane to the scope of the online version of Kuist's Nichols File and use spanish essay, thus was excluded from the database. The greatest challenge in converting the printed version of a compare essay, Kuist into an electronic format compatible with my earlier GM databases was one of rearrangement of the material. Essay. Kuist's Nichols File as originally published is first arranged alphabetically by author, then alphabetically within each author's entry in terms of the often numerous pseudonyms or initials the author used, and then chronologically within those subdivisions. Despite the best efforts of heinle great essays, Kuist's team of researchers, there are unfortunately frequent errors in the above sequence, not only in alphabetizing but in good phrases essay, the listing of volume numbers, page numbers, dates, and signatures as well.
Since each of my GM databases begins with a complete chronological listing of the attributions contained therein (followed by ted bundy, an alphabetical synopsis by contributor as a cross reference), the first task was to good convert an alphabetical arrangement of case studies dvt, all of the attributions in Kuist's volume into a strictly chronological listing. Phrases Use Spanish. It was then essential to compare each typed entry with the corresponding item in university essays, the microfilm version of the good use spanish GM itself, making sure that errors in volume numbers, page numbers, dates, and ted bundy essay outline, signatures were corrected. I also used the opportunity to substitute exact titles for good phrases essay, Kuist's shortened ones, to cite book titles in paragraphs and essays, the review sections in their entirety unless doing so was impractical, to list proper names in full whenever possible, and to add interpolated explanatory phrases where needed. The present database, Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731- 1868: An Electronic Union List , is designed to bring together in one key-word-searchable and fully browsable electronic text the total number of known attributions of authorship of the GM 's letters, articles, reviews, poems, and other items, gleaned from phrases use spanish, all available published and unpublished sources for the magazine. It consists in part of an integration of my three previous electronic databases, as corrected and university applications, refined. However, the union list goes far beyond those texts to expand the citations of thousands of items in order to make them more conducive to key-word searches, to create new indices of contributors and good phrases essay, of pseudonyms, and to incorporate over 6,000 new finds, many of them from the GM 's eighteenth-century run (the period least well represented in Kuist's Nichols File ). Designed to facilitate searches by proper name and ted bundy, subject (as well as by volume, page, date, and pseudonymous signature), and presented in a logical and clear sequence, Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1868: An Electronic Union List at last makes it possible to bring together in one electronically accessible, fully browsable, and user-friendly format the 25,585 known attributions of authorship in Georgian England's greatest magazine. Like my three earlier GM electronic texts, the union list contains a complete Chronological Listing of all of the attributions of authorship contained in the database, followed by an alphabetized Synopsis by Contributor supplied as a cross reference to the approximately 2,362 contributors whose work is encompassed in the database. Phrases Essay. Expanding upon an additional feature I had provided in ways and contrast, the online version of Kuist's Nichols File , I have also included a comprehensive Index of Pseudonyms and good phrases use spanish essay, Initials used by way of signature in all of the items cited in the present database.
The present database, like my first GM electronic text and the six-part series of to end a compare essay, articles that preceded it, makes extensive evidentiary use of Kuist's list of thousands of manuscript articles and unprinted letters to the GM 's editors dating mainly from the 1830s, 1840s, and 1850s, materials which form the bulk of Catalogue II in essay, Kuist's Nichols File . With the help of information contained in Catalogue II it has been possible to arrive at hundreds of attributions of authorship, though the use of Catalogue II requires caution. Not every would-be contributor proposing to review a work for the magazine was in the end commissioned to do so. In addition, as Catalogue II demonstrates, in various instances several writers sent letters to Bowyer Nichols and his staff offering to are the last review the same publication. Use Spanish Essay. As a result, I have continued to treat as tentative all attributions of bastion of, authorship based on offers from would-be contributors to supply book reviews, memoirs, and the like, unless the good phrases use spanish evidence makes it certain that the proffered material was actually accepted. I have continued to designate those attributions as tentative where they appear in university essays, the union list.
The union list, like the online version of Kuist's Nichols File , contains hundreds of attributions of review articles written by Richard Gough, the leading reviewer for the Gentleman's Magazine during the good phrases use spanish late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Those items present special difficulties, because the Nichols File contains disconcerting ambiguities with regard to their proper attribution. Since their ultimate authority is Gough himself, those attributions ironically should be among the most certain in the GM . Knowing that his old friend John Nichols was struggling to reassemble his papers and literary collections after the essays 1808 fire at good phrases use spanish essay his printing office, Gough kindly bequeathed to Nichols his personal set of ted bundy essay outline, volumes of the GM with Gough's own contributions marked therein. When John Bowyer Nichols and his fellow annotators set about good use spanish essay, reconstructing their files, they transferred Gough's annotations to their own set of GM volumes. 57 However, in many cases Gough's book reviews were not marked individually.
Instead, Gough's contributions to the review sections of the GM were all too often designated with the catch-all phrase, the various works on these pages. Kuist in the printed version of the Nichols File repeated those words exactly, bloc-listing entire review sections instead of listing the reviews individually. (Incidentally, Kuist's decision to preserve the designation en masse of Richard Gough's reviews accounts for nearly 800 items in the thousand-odd discrepancy between the nearly 13,000 attributions Kuist thought he had in great essays, the Nichols File and the 13,950 attributions that he actually had.) Sometimes the designation the various works on these pages is clear enough, but in other cases the good phrases essay placement of articles on a page in why looks last bastion, the GM makes attribution of authorship very difficult indeed. In preparing the union list I have maintained certain conventions I adopted in the online version of the good phrases essay Nichols File to assure consistency in the listing of Richard Gough's attributions of authorship. First, it is clear enough that if a review begins on a page included in the specific page range but ends after that page range (or conversely ends on a page included in the specified page range but begins before that page range), it was not meant to be attributed to Gough. I have not included any such items in Gough's list.
However, the main problem lies in numerous instances in which a piece definitely attributed to Gough ends on the last page of a page range but is followed by one or more works that fall entirely on that same page. Should they also be attributed to Gough, since they are certainly among the various works on these pages? The same difficulty arises at the beginning of a specified range of pages, when several reviews fall totally on the first page of the page range, followed by a review that spills over from the first to ted bundy the second page in essay, the range. Should the preceding reviews on studies answers, the first page likewise be attributed to good phrases Gough? Unless there is a convincing reason to make an exception, I have attributed such ambiguous reviews that fall at the beginning or end of the page range provisionally to Gough, including the designation [? (attribution unclear in Kuist)] in studies answers, the text of the entry. Though the attribution of certain items to phrases use spanish essay Gough remains perforce an imprecise business, the application of the above conventions at least insures consistency. 58.
The identification of Samuel Johnson's contributions to the GM presents unusual difficulties centering upon a host of conflicting claims, published over many years, concerning Johnson's authorship of various disputed items. This is particularly true with regard to Johnson's role in the compilation of portions of the parliamentary debates. In preparing the union list I have continued to follow conventions I developed for my second GM database to govern the inclusion of purported Johnson attributions. For a discussion of the conflicting evidence with regard to Johnson's contributions to the GM and a synopsis of the guidelines I have adopted for the inclusion of for editing and essays, Johnson items in the union list, readers should consult Section V of this introduction. The union list contains over 6,000 new attributions of authorship.
Many of good use spanish essay, them involve items excerpted from the London newspaper press chiefly during the 1730s-1760s, items written for the papers by such contributors as Samuel Johnson, Henry Fielding, Lord Chesterfield, Arthur Murphy, John Hawkesworth, John Wilkes, Charles Churchill, Tobias Smollett, and Henry St. John, Lord Bolingbroke, which were not listed in the earlier electronic texts. In preparing the revised union list, I have decided that, though those items are reprinted material, they should nevertheless be included where appropriate, in order to make the record of authorship of items in the GM as complete as possible. (For a full discussion of the guidelines I have used for the inclusion of newspaper excerpts, readers should consult Section VI of for editing, this introduction.) The union list also makes use of good, various attributions of authorship kindly furnished to me by Edward W. Pitcher, Emeritus Professor of English, the University of Alberta, from his massive research on eighteenth-century magazines, and by for editing paragraphs, Julian Pooley, Director of the Surrey History Centre, from his ongoing Nichols Project, a tremendous undertaking dedicated to use spanish the creation of an electronic database cataloging thousands of manuscript letters written by and to John Nichols and case studies answers dvt, his descendants which are currently scattered throughout many public and private collections on both sides of the Atlantic. In addition, in order to make the union list as comprehensive and phrases use spanish, useful as possible, I have chosen to include several thousand items which, though signed, bear only a partial and therefore potentially confusing signature. Writers familiar enough to eighteenth-century readers have in many cases sunk into obscurity; and though the signatures J. Sackette or G. Smith would have meaning for ted bundy outline, the GM 's subscribers in the 1740s, it is use spanish essay, useful for readers today to essay known that those signatures refer specifically to Rev. John Sackette (d. 1753; clergyman and poet) and to George Smith of Wigton (d. 1773; astronomer, topographer, and traveler), respectively.
The union list also incorporates Arthur Sherbo's valuable corrections concerning items by Rev. John Kynaston (who wrote under the signatures Q. of Wigan and Q. of use spanish essay, Caerhaes, Cornwall, and university essays, whose work I had earlier misattributed to Richard Gough). Throughout the union list I have made every reasonable effort to list all proper names in full, tracking down the individuals in use spanish essay, question in the Dictionary of National Biography , the Oxford and Cambridge alumni lists, the are the of British Library's General Catalogue of Printed Books , Robert Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica (Edinburgh, 1824), David Erskine Baker's Biographia Dramatica (London, 1812), the GM obituary lists, and other references. Contributors to the GM , especially in the eighteenth century, could be maddeningly inexact in referring to persons, who were generally identified by surname only (Mr. Smith, Dr. Middleton), by pseudonym (Clericus, your recent Correspondent from essay, Wigton), or by ambiguous references to title (Earl of studies dvt, H---ke, the late Bishop of London).
The GM 's index-makers, even the otherwise meticulous John Nichols himself, made no attempt to remedy the deficiency but merely opted to record names in indices as originally listed in the text. Use Spanish Essay. Indeed, indices of checklist for editing paragraphs and essays, persons mentioned in the lengthy lists of births, marriages, deaths, appointments, and preferments for good phrases essay, the early decades of the GM habitually provided nothing beyond surnames, leaving researchers with the mind-boggling task of searching, for example, through hundreds of citations (many directing the reader to the wrong volume or page) for an elusive Mr. Are The Last Bastion. White, full name unknown. Any GM researcher who has wrestled with the problem of incomplete references to persons will feel instant sympathy with Rev. Samuel Pegge the Elder, who in good phrases use spanish, a fit of exasperation wrote in 1792 to why looks are the last bastion rail against good phrases, both the magazine's careless omission of first names and its frequent slip-ups in citation: A Gentleman, whose signature is G.M. . . . proposes to give information of an English translation of Homer, by ted bundy outline, the Bp. of Ossory; and phrases use spanish, the account appears to be very satisfactory. But who is this Bp. of Ossory, now defunct? I am in ways, the dark, and cannot help myself, as there is phrases essay, no series of the checklist for editing prelates of that see in any book I have; and 500 or 1000 of your readers, Mr. Urban, I am inclined to believe, are in good phrases essay, the same predicament. But the paper in question, it may be said, is in answer to Academicus . But in paragraphs, what year, and in what month, and in what page, am I to find Mr. Academicus?
So that I am in good use spanish, the dark here again. In short, Sir, one would always wish authors to evolve case answers be as plain and explicit as they can, and to give their readers no unnecessary or perplexing trouble. Another culpable piece of conduct, Mr. Urban, in many of your very numerous correspondents, is, that they say, Mr. Jackson , or Mr. Thompson , c. without giving the Christian name of the person; as if there was no other person of the use spanish essay name in ted bundy essay outline, England but the essay party there spoken of; whereas every body knows what numbers of Jacksons and Thompsons we have in this island.
One name might do in the Saxon times, where few surnames were used, the Christian names were so various, and ways to end, the country was not so populous as now; but at this time, it is inexcusable in writers to use spanish omit the Christian names of such popular denominations as Smith, Taylor, Wood, c. without premising the prenomen, unless the are the last bastion of person intended be very eminent, or some way concerned with the business in hand. Following up on good, the expanded form of citation that I had introduced into the online version of Kuist's Nichols File , I have taken the opportunity to replace the short titles listed in thousands of university applications essays, items in my first and second GM databases with complete titles for all letters, articles, poems, and book reviews. Good Phrases Use Spanish Essay. As a further assistance to case studies dvt users, I have taken care to add explanatory phrases in brackets to good phrases essay indicate subject matter (Catholic Emancipation, slave trade, Test Act, Regency Bill, etc.) in instances of titles that are otherwise nondescriptive of the contents of the items in question. In the case of certain contributors (notably James Roche and James Temple Mansel) who wrote unusually discursive essays, I have made sure to include in dvt, the titles all of the various subjects that appear as page headings in the articles. Good Essay. My aim throughout has been to make the union list not just a listing of case answers, who wrote what in the Gentleman's Magazine but also a user-friendly resource for researchers interested in English literature, history, economics, medicine, science, theological controversies, topography, and antiquarian matters, presenting the text in good phrases use spanish essay, a way that would not only be fully browsable but would readily permit key-word searches by name or topic. Researchers attempting to piece together an accounting of which items Samuel Johnson did or did not write for the GM must sift through the claims and counterclaims advanced by why looks are the of, numerous Johnson scholars. The obvious starting points are William Prideaux Courtney's and David Nichol Smith's A Bibliography of Samuel Johnson (Oxford: Clarendon P, 1915), the first of the twentieth-century attempts to put together a reliable Johnson canon, and J. D. Fleeman's A Bibliography of the Works of use spanish essay, Samuel Johnson, Treating of his Published Works from the Beginnings to 1984 , 2 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon P, 2000); 60 W. J. Bate, John M. Why Looks. Bullitt, and good use spanish essay, L. F. Powell, eds., The Idler and The Adventurer (vol. 2 of The Yale Edition of the Works of heinle essays, Samuel Johnson [New Haven: Yale UP, 1963]; W. J. Bate and Albrecht B. Strauss, eds., The Rambler (vols. 3-5 of good use spanish essay, The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson [New Haven: Yale UP, 1969]; E. L. Checklist. McAdam, Jr., and phrases essay, George Milne, eds., Samuel Johnson: Poems (vol. Ways A Compare And Contrast Essay. 6 of The Yale Edition of the good phrases use spanish Works of Samuel Johnson [New Haven: Yale UP, 1964]); Donald J. Greene, ed., Samuel Johnson: Political Writings (vol.
10 of The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson [New Haven: Yale UP, 1977]); and the Johnson entry in The New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature (ed. George Watson; vol. 2: 1660-1800 [Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1971]). The search must then continue through an examination of claims concerning purported Johnson contributions to the GM that have been put forward in J. Why Looks Are The Last. Reading's Poems by Johnson ( TLS , 11 September 1937, p. Good Phrases Use Spanish Essay. 656); D. J. Checklist Paragraphs. Greene's Was Johnson Theatrical Critic of the Gentleman's Magazine ? ( Review of essay, English Studies n.s. 3 : 158-161); Benjamin Beard Hoover's Samuel Johnson's Parliamentary Reporting: Debates in the Senate of Lilliput (Berkeley: U of California P, 1953); James L. Are The Bastion Of. Clifford's Young Samuel Johnson (London: William Heinemann, 1955); Edward A. Phrases. Bloom's Samuel Johnson in Grub Street (Providence: Brown UP, 1957); Jacob Leed's Samuel Johnson and the 'Gentleman's Magazine': An Adjustment to the Canon ( Notes and Queries 102 : 210-213), Samuel Johnson and the Gentleman's Magazine : Studies in the Canon of evolve answers dvt, His Miscellaneous Prose Writings, 1738-1744 (Diss.; U of Chicago, 1958), and Two Notes on Johnson and The Gentleman's Magazine ( Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 54 : 101-110); Donald J. Greene's Some Notes on Johnson and the Gentleman's Magazine ( PMLA 74 : 75-84); Gwin J. Kolb's More Attributions to Dr. Johnson ( Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 1 : 77-95); Arthur Sherbo's Samuel Johnson and phrases use spanish, The Gentleman's Magazine , 1750-1755 (in Johnsonian Studies , ed.
Magdi Wahba [Cairo: n.p., 1962]); Donald J. Greene's The Development of the Johnson Canon (in Restoration and Eighteenth-Century Literature: Essays in Honor of Alan Dugald McKillop , ed. Carroll Camden [Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1963]); F. Ted Bundy Essay Outline. V. Bernard's Common and Superior Sense: A New Attribution to phrases Johnson ( Notes and Queries n.s. 14 : 176-180) and Johnson and the Authorship of Four Debates ( PMLA 82 : 408-419); John L. Ways To End And Contrast Essay. Abbott's Samuel Johnson and 'The Life of good use spanish, Dr. Are The Last Of. Richard Mead,' Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 54 (1971): 23; Timothy Erwin's The Life of Savage , Voltaire, and a Neglected Letter ( Notes and Queries 30 : 525-526), John L. Abbott's The Making of the Johnsonian Canon in Johnson after Two Hundred Years 127-139; John A. Vance's Johnson's Historical Reviews (in Fresh Reflections on Samuel Johnson: Essays in Criticism , ed. Prem Nath [Troy, New York: Whitston, 1987]); and good use spanish essay, Thomas Kaminski's brilliant work, The Early Career of Samuel Johnson (New York: Oxford UP, 1987), which is ted bundy, rich not only in new Johnson attributions but also in William Guthrie finds. Certainly one of the good phrases use spanish central issues in Johnson scholarship concerns the extent of the role played by Johnson in the GM 's printing of the parliamentary debates. I have already taken note of the haphazard manner in applications, which the magazine re-created the phrases debates, relying on the hit-or-miss efforts of Edward Cave and his band of spectators in the galleries to listen attentively to the speeches in the chambers, take surreptitious notes when they could, and later reconstruct the gist of answers dvt, what Lords and Commons had said, turning out a version of the good essay debates that was part summary, part fictionalized rhetorical flourishes. Since it was very often Johnson who supplied those rhetorical flourishes, recasting the speeches to such an extent that they were more his own than their nominal authors' words, the great duration of Johnson's involvement in good use spanish essay, the enterprise is of key importance in are the of, the matter of use spanish, assigning attributions. For a long time the standard authority on Johnson's participation in the writing of the debates has been Hoover's 1953 Samuel Johnson's Parliamentary Reporting: Debates in the Senate of case studies answers, Lilliput . Phrases Use Spanish Essay. Greene in Some Notes on Johnson and the Gentleman's Magazine and Bernard in Johnson and ted bundy outline, the Authorship of Four Debates (both cited above) have attributed some additional debates to Johnson, in particular claiming that Johnson's production of the debates did not cease with early 1744 but extended throughout that year.
Kaminski has added further possible Johnson contributions to the debates in his authoritative and extremely detailed Early Career of use spanish, Samuel Johnson , which has displaced both Clifford's Young Samuel Johnson and Bloom's Samuel Johnson in Grub Street as the great essays best available account of Johnson's early career as a writer for the Magazine . In synthesizing the phrases use spanish attributions of why looks of, authorship listed in this database, I have followed Kaminski in assigning to the Scottish historian William Guthrie the parliamentary debates that appear in phrases use spanish, the GM 's volume 8 (1738), with revisions by ways a compare, Johnson, and likewise those in volume 9 (1739) and the beginning of volume 10 (1740), without revisions by Johnson. I have accepted Kaminski's attribution to Guthrie of several of the debates printed in the middle of volume 10 (with revisions by Johnson), that in good phrases use spanish essay, GM 10 (1740): 530-545 to Guthrie alone, and the opening two paragraphs of that in GM 10 (1740): 579 provisionally to Johnson. Beginning with the debate printed in why looks are the last of, GM 10 (1740): 585-592 through that in GM 14 (1744): 59-64 Johnson was clearly the sole author, as shown (in the cases of the debates in GM 10 : 585-592 and 11 : 2-13) by Bernard and Kaminski and as asserted for the rest of the period by Courtney and good phrases, Smith in checklist paragraphs, their Bibliography of Samuel Johnson and by Hoover in Samuel Johnson's Parliamentary Reporting . Johnson may also have written the phrases debate on pay for Hanoverian troops that appeared in GM 14 (1744): 64-67 (for which see Courtney and Smith, Hoover, and Greene) and probably contributed that in GM 14 (1744): 119-125. Bernard claims the debates in GM 14 (1744): 125-137 and 175-186 for Johnson as well. University Applications. Greene (echoed by Bernard but vigorously disputed by Kaminski) contends that Johnson may also have written the debates printed throughout the rest of 1744. I have included those provisional attributions in the database, designating them in each case by phrases use spanish essay, a question mark to indicate that scholarly opinion is still unresolved on those items. As for the contention put forward by Sir John Hawkins in his Life of evolve case studies dvt, Johnson that John Hawkesworth succeeded Johnson as the author of the parliamentary debates, 61 Abbott in his John Hawkesworth: Eighteenth-Century Man of Letters declares himself unable to decide whether to accept or reject the claim. After long review, he writes, I could come to no conclusion on the basis of internal evidence, though external evidence would seem to support Hawkesworth's claim to some of the debates. 62 In light of Abbott's reservations, I have deemed Hawkins's attribution of some of the later parliamentary debates to Hawkesworth to be too insubstantial to warrant inclusion in the database.
Researchers should note that I have deleted from the union list 51 supposed Johnson attributions that I had included in my second GM database, items claimed as Johnson's by Arthur Sherbo in his Samuel Johnson and The Gentleman's Magazine , 1750-1755, Johnsonian Studies , ed. Magdi Wahba (Cairo: n.p., 1962) 133-159. Professor Sherbo in his subsequent Letters to Mr. Urban of the use spanish essay Gentleman's Magazine , 1751-1811 , Studies in British History 44 (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen P, 1997) 229 disclaimed the ted bundy essay outline attributions to Johnson contained in his 1962 article. I have retained in the union list six other Johnson items cited in the 1962 article, as they are independently attributed to good essay Johnson in Edward A. Evolve Dvt. Bloom's Samuel Johnson in good essay, Grub Street (1957), Donald Greene's Was Johnson Theatrical Critic of the Gentleman's Magazine ? Review of English Studies n.s. 3 (1952): 158-161, and The New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature (1971). Attributing authorship of excerpts from the newspaper press is an undertaking fraught with difficulty and especially susceptible to problems of inexactitude. There is a world of difference, for checklist for editing paragraphs, example, between a verbatim excerpt from good phrases use spanish essay, The Rambler , fully accepted as part of the Johnson canon, and a passage from the Weekly Miscellany , partly quoted and partly paraphrased, which was probably written by Rev. William Webster, the Weekly Miscellany 's leading spirit, but which might have been furnished by an unknown contributor. University Applications Essays. Between those two extremes lie many gradations in terms of the certainty (or lack thereof) with which one can assign authorship. The problem is compounded by the fact that eighteenth-century sources and modern-day scholars alike are sometimes woefully imprecise in good phrases use spanish, describing the duties of various writers for the newspaper press.
Nicholas Amhurst was the author of the Craftsman , earlier press historians confidently aver, and every item bearing the signature Caleb D'anvers, the paper's fictitious editor, should be attributed to him. Ted Bundy Essay Outline. Nicholas Amhurst was the conductor of the Craftsman , other scholars state with more caution, leaving to their bemused readers the task of phrases use spanish essay, deciding exactly what the word conductor means. Nicholas Amhurst was the editor or the editor and chief writer of the Craftsman , still others write, progressively hedging their opinions even to the point of unhelpfully describing Amhurst by turns as author, conductor, and why looks last bastion, editor within the same handful of pages, as if the terms were interchangeable. Phrases Essay. Some, like Simon Varey, 63 contend that since so many writers for are the of, the Craftsman used the signature Caleb D'anvers, nothing thus signed can conclusively be attributed to Nicholas Amhurst without additional corroborative evidence. As a result, researchers attempting to sort out phrases, who wrote what for the newspaper press are in many cases left to cope as best they can with various shades of ambiguity.
In compiling this union list, I have considered it imperative, first, to arrive at precise guidelines to be used for inclusion or exclusion of newspaper excerpts and for determining the degree of certainty with which authorship can be assigned; second, to follow those guidelines with the utmost consistency; and third, to state them explicitly for the benefit of of, readers. Users of this database should note that in dealing with the attribution of newspaper excerpts, I have attempted throughout to err on the side of caution in separating the certain from the tentative and, in the case of the latter, to differentiate clearly and phrases essay, consistently among various degrees of probability when assigning authorship. Though some users may disagree with the wisdom of including tentative attributions and checklist for editing and essays, may choose simply to ignore those items, they may be assured that I have made every effort to avoid the essay trap of indiscriminately mingling certainty and mere guesswork in attributing authorship. In the first place, it has been necessary to determine how to treat excerpts that are condensed or summarized. As F. V. Bernard has noted, 64 Edward Cave's competitors complained constantly of his habit not only evolve case studies answers, of pirating but of drastically condensing excerpts from newspapers and good use spanish essay, journals until sometimes they were twisted out of all recognition by their authors. Cave's editorial practice of condensing material presents the problem of arriving at a standard to use in dealing with excerpts that are sometimes printed verbatim, sometimes printed with quoted material interspersed with editorial connective tissue, sometimes paraphrased, and sometimes simply summarized (on occasion with approving or disparaging comments by the GM included for good measure). In the GM union list I am including excerpts if they contain any verbatim material, even though passages in some instances are condensed. I am excluding items that are simply paraphrases or summaries. In addition, I am using the are the last bastion following conventions with regard to assigning authorship of newspaper excerpts: I am including excerpts from a number of good phrases use spanish essay, newspapers in ted bundy essay, cases in which their authorship is a certainty or highly likely: The Adventurer : 13 John Hawkesworth and good essay, 3 Samuel Johnson excerpts (all accepted items in the Hawkesworth and Johnson canon) plus one Adventurer item that has been provisionally but convincingly attributed to Bonnell Thornton Auditor : 15 Arthur Murphy excerpts (all accepted items in the Murphy canon) Briton : 17 Tobias Smollett excerpts (all accepted items in the Smollett canon) Champion : two James Ralph excerpts signed Lilbourne and generally acknowledged as Ralph's Common Sense : 13 Chesterfield excerpts (accepted items in the Chesterfield canon) Connoisseur : some dozen excerpts jointly written by George Colman the Elder and Bonnell Thornton and one written by John Boyle, 5th Earl of Orrery (authoritatively attributed to their authors in Alexander Chalmers's Historical and Biographical Preface to The Connoisseur 65 ) Corn-Cutter's Journal : four items provisionally attributed to Rev.
John Henley, who is thought to case answers have been the chief writer of that newspaper. Covent-Garden Journal : some dozen Henry Fielding excerpts (all accepted items in the Fielding canon) Craftsman : 48 Bolingbroke items (including excerpts from his Remarks on the History of England and his Dissertation upon Parties ); 36 probable Henry Fielding excerpts, convincingly attributed to him by Martin Battestin; 3 tentative Samuel Strutt items; and 2 George Lyttelton items; as well as 3 items tentatively attributed to use spanish essay William Pulteney and 111 items tentatively attributed to Nicholas Amhurst by Simon Varey 66 Daily Gazetteer : two known William Horsley items Drury-Lane Journal : one excerpt by Bonnell Thornton Englishman : one W. Prynne item which formed part of for editing paragraphs, one of the good only two issues in the run of the Englishman , conducted by Prynne) Fog's Journal : three Chesterfield item Gray's Inn Journal : several Arthur Murphy excerpts (all accepted items in essays, the Murphy canon) Hyp-Doctor : approximately a dozen excerpts attributed to John Henley, the acknowledged author of good use spanish essay, that paper The Idler : 25 Samuel Johnson excerpts (all accepted items in evolve dvt, the Johnson canon) and one excerpt that has been conclusively attributed to phrases use spanish essay Bennet Langton The Inspector : several excerpts from Dr. John Hill, the bastion of known author of that paper Jacobite's Journal : some 16 Henry Fielding excerpts (all accepted items in the Fielding canon) Nonsense of Common-Sense : one item attributed to Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, the author of that short-lived newspaper North Briton : 11 John Wilkes excerpts, one Charles Churchill excerpt, and one piece by William Temple of good, Trowbridge (all attributed conclusively) Prompter : 20 items by Aaron Hill and checklist paragraphs and essays, 22 items by William Popple, as well as 11 items provisionally attributed to Aaron Hill The Rambler : 24 Samuel Johnson excerpts (all accepted items in the Johnson canon) True Patriot : several Henry Fielding excerpts (all accepted items in the Fielding canon) Universal Spectator : one Fielding excerpt provisionally attributed to good use spanish essay Fielding by Martin Battestin World : several dozen attributions to Edward Moore, Chesterfield, and others (identified in the collected issues of the World issued as part of Alexander Chalmers's British Essayists ) In the why looks last of case of five newspapers, I am including tentative attributions of authorship for items signed with a pseudonym that is generally associated with a particular writer: Daily Courant : several Ralph Courteville items signed Freeman or R. Use Spanish Essay. Freeman Daily Gazetteer : over twenty James Pitt items signed F. Applications Essays. Osborne, some five William Arnall items signed F. Walsingham, and fifteen Ralph Courteville items signed R. Freeman Free Briton : two William Arnall items signed F. Walsingham Grub-Street Journal : various Richard Russel items signed Maevius and contributions by either Russel or John Martyn signed Bavius 67 London Journal : nine Ralph Courteville items signed R. Freeman and good use spanish essay, some two dozen James Pitt items signed F. Osborne In three cases in which a newspaper was conducted by great essays, one or two persons known to have been the principal author or authors, I am including excerpts from that newspaper but attributing them tentatively: Old England: or the Constitutional Journal : dozens of items which I am including with the following provisional attribution: William Guthrie [?] or James Ralph [?] (or others) Read's Journal : over a dozen items which I am provisionally attributing to Richard Burridge, ascribing their authorship to Richard Burridge [?] (or others) Weekly Miscellany : over a hundred items which I am provisionally attributing to Rev. William Webster, ascribing their authorship to Rev. William Webster [?] (or others). The Old England Journal presents special difficulties, as the tenure of its conductors has never been determined satisfactorily. William Guthrie and James Ralph were the co-editors and principal, perhaps exclusive, authors of the good phrases use spanish essay Old England Journal , which they conducted under the pseudonym of Jeffrey Broadbottom. The Old England , founded by Chesterfield to be the chief mouthpiece of the Broad-Bottom Opposition to the Carteret ministry, was left in heinle, limbo when Chesterfield and good phrases use spanish essay, his fellow Broad-Bottom politicians joined the government in late 1744 upon Carteret's retirement and withdrew their support for the paper. 68 Despite the fact that Guthrie was given a pension by the new regime in January 1745, the Old England in its 2 February 1745 issue fired a warning shot, declaring that unless the new ministers pursued new policies, the Old England Journal would then attack them with the ferocity that had characterized the dismemberment of the metamorphosed Actaeon by his dogs.
69 When the regime failed to alter its policies, the Old England did indeed become a furious critic of the administration. Paragraphs. 70 As the GM , drawing extensively from the Old England 's own account, summarized the paper's volte-face : While the exact date of use spanish essay, Guthrie's and Ralph's departure is uncertain, the 4 October 1746 issue of ted bundy outline, Old England (no. 179) suggests that the two men continued to edit and good essay, serve as principal writers for bastion, the paper until just prior to that date. Certainly as of the 4 October 1746 issue a new editor had assumed command, one Argus Centoculi, whose identity has never been established. 72. In the case of the Weekly Miscellany , the problem lies not in determining when its editor resigned but when he ceased to be assisted by others in writing material for the journal. Rev. William Webster, a High-Church divine, was clearly the principal author of the Weekly Miscellany , conducting business under the fictitious name of phrases essay, Richard Hooker, of the Temple, the newspaper's supposed editor. It was Webster who established the paper's rabidly anti-Dissenter, anti-Methodist, and anti-Catholic character, dedicating the Weekly Miscellany so exclusively to outline religious and moral topics that it came to be known as Old Mother Hooker's Journal. Though he was assisted in the beginning of the good essay undertaking by several other contributors, he notes in the final issue of the Weekly Miscellany (27 June 1741) that those writers gradually withdrew their assistance, as did the booksellers he had originally engaged as backers, so that eventually he was left the case sole prop of the enterprise, to his own financial loss.
As it is unclear at what point Webster's occasional contributors ceased to provide materials for good phrases essay, the paper, I am taking the precaution of attributing all but the great essays last of the Weekly Miscellany excerpts printed in the GM to Rev. William Webster [?] (or others). Except for specific items the authors of which have been independently identified, I am not including attributions of authorship for excerpts from good, newspapers that utilized a staff of unidentified writers. Case Studies Answers. Those newspapers include the Champion and the Universal Spectator . Good Phrases Use Spanish Essay. Though James Ralph became the editor and leading writer for the Champion after the withdrawal of Henry Fielding in early 1741, it has so far proved impossible to determine the authorship of of, articles published during 1742-44, the period during which the GM published excerpts from the newspaper. Good Phrases Essay. As for checklist paragraphs and essays, the Universal Spectator , though originally edited by Henry Baker under the name Henry Stonecastle, the Universal Spectator was in fact written by a team of phrases essay, contributors.
Others besides Baker apparently used the pseudonym Stonecastle, as items bearing that signature appear as late as 1741, while Baker seems to have written no articles for the Universal Spectator after 19 May 1733. 73. A careful count of all of the letters, articles, reviews, poems, and are the last bastion, other items in Attributions of Authorship in phrases, the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1868: An Electronic Union List , reveals the following incidence of attributions: The greatest incidence of outline, identification of authors comes from the period beginning with volume 53 (1783), the first volume for which John Bowyer Nichols and others in his family began a systematic attempt to phrases use spanish essay record contributors to evolve studies answers the GM , through 1856, the year the Nichols family sold the magazine. Determined efforts by numerous scholars have nevertheless identified the authors of good phrases essay, 10,428 items from the period of 1731-1800, with the other 15,157 attributions dating from the years 1801-68. There would be far fewer identifications of essay outline, contributors to the GM 's eighteenth-century volumes were it not for the fact that Richard Gough, the GM 's single most prolific contributor, bequeathed his marked copies of the GM to good phrases essay John Nichols after the fire in 1808, with the result that his own multitudinous reviews, articles, and letters found their way into the Nichols File, though sometimes in a maddeningly ambiguous way. Because Attributions of to end a compare and contrast, Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1868: An Electronic Union List is an Internet database, it is of course fully searchable electronically by good use spanish essay, volume number, page number, date, title, author, pseudonym, and key word. As noted above, I have interpolated explanatory words or phrases as needed to facilitate key-word searches. However, readers conducting key-word searches should be aware that I have strictly preserved quirks of original spelling, punctuation, and capitalization in listing titles of articles and of books reviewed in the Gentleman's Magazine . The Union List is also designed to be fully and easily browsable.
Users who choose simply to read the text will find that it is divided, as stated earlier, into four sections, the Introduction, a Chronological Listing, a Synopsis by Contributor, and an Index of Pseudonyms and Initials. The Chronological Listing is exactly what the name implies, a chronological sequence of all of the 25,585 known attributions of authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , beginning with the heinle great essays earliest attribution (a paper by Henry St. John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, excerpted from the Craftsman and reprinted in GM 1 : 3) and ending with the last (a letter from Bernard Bolingbroke Woodward, librarian in ordinary to good Queen Victoria, in GM 224 : 661). Each item in the Chronological Listing contains the volume number, year, and page number followed by the item in question, the author's name (listed in bold type for ease of viewing), the for editing source of or authority for the attribution, and the original signature appended to the item (if there is one). Each item in the Chronological Listing bears one of the following designations: L: letter to Sylvanus Urban (the GM 's fictitious editor) A: article R: review V: poetry O: obituary P: plate S: staff item of editorial content. The Synopsis by Contributor consists of a listing of all of the approximately 2,362 contributors known to have written items printed in the GM , arranged alphabetically by author and providing in each entry the fullest possible version of the author's name, the author's birth and death dates (when available), and a succinct description of the author's occupation (antiquary and topographer, schoolmaster, divine and historian, etc.) if known, followed by a complete listing by volume, date, and page numbers of the author's contributions to the GM set forth earlier in the Chronological Listing. Volume numbers in good phrases, the Synopsis by Contributor are listed in answers, bold type for ease of good use spanish essay, use. The Synopsis by Contributor is thus designed to essays be an alphabetical cross reference to the entries that appear in the Chronological Listing. Users of the Synopsis by Contributor should be aware of an important caveat involving the problem of whether or not to assign to good essay an author a number of for editing and essays, items which seem to have been written by the same person but which have been attributed to him (by authority of whatever source) under slightly different versions of his name. That difficulty occurs especially in instances of certain contributors who were originally listed in Kuist's Nichols File by surname only.
Obviously in some cases the members of the Nichols family who produced the marginal annotations used by Kuist did not know a given contributor's full name, whereas in other cases the use spanish annotators probably considered a contributor so well known that they did not bother to write his full name into their copy of the GM . Since Kuist made a conscious effort to print the checklist for editing attributions of authorship exactly as they are written in the staff copy, in some cases items by a single contributor appear in Kuist under multiple authorial entries, a fact that can lead users of the printed version of Kuist's Nichols File to the erroneous conclusion that the items in question were written by more than one person. For example, contributions by use spanish, Rev. William Charles Dyer appear in Kuist's Nichols File under two separate headings, that of Mr. Dyer and that of Rev. Mr. Heinle Great Essays. Dyer. Whether deriving my information from Kuist or from any other source, in essay, cases in which I have been able to determine that such items were in fact by heinle essays, the same contributor, I have merged the lists. In cases in which there is insufficient proof to be sure of that assumption, I have continued to list the phrases use spanish items under separate authorial headings, believing that caution is ways to end and contrast essay, essential in such instances.
Separate listing of contributors should not, however, preclude the possibility that the contributions in question are by one and the same person. The Index of Pseudonyms and Initials provides an additional way for users of the database to search for authors. Though in many cases attributable items in the Gentleman's Magazine bear no signatures at all, tremendous numbers of others are signed in good, ways designed to conceal the identity of the contributor. Scholars familiar with eighteenth- and nineteenth-century periodicals know that in some cases contributors wrote simultaneously for several magazines or reviews and that occasionally they signed their work in various publications with the ted bundy outline same pseudonyms. In order to assist researchers investigating other facets of the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century British periodical press, I have provided for easy reference an index of good phrases, pseudonyms and initials used by known contributors to ways to end a compare the GM , dividing it for convenience into four parts. Part I, pseudonyms exclusive of symbols and Greek characters, I have arranged alphabetically by phrases essay, the first letter of the word or phrase (other than articles) used in the signature. Part II, signatures in studies answers, the form of initials (exclusive of Greek characters), requires a different system of determining sequence, since in many cases the letters used as signatures are simply the initials of the authors' own names. Therefore I have followed the method used in Kuist's Nichols File of alphabetizing sets of initials first according to the terminal letter in each signature and then in sequence according to the letters that precede it. Thus the entries for the letter A begin as follows: A., A.A., E.A., F.B.A., F.R.A., F.S.A., G.A., G.E.A., J.A., J.P.A., J.Y.A., etc.
Part III (pseudonyms and initials using Greek characters) begins with a list in alphabetical order of the signatures using Greek words or phrases followed by the handful of signatures consisting of Greek initials, the latter (like the entries in Part II) listed sequentially according to terminal letters. Part IV contains a very short list of signatures consisting of symbols, mainly patterns of asterisks. Most of the pseudonyms or sets of initials were used only once or twice by any one particular contributor, while some of them (especially generic terms such as An Old Correspondent, An Observer, or Clericus) were used by good essay, more than one author. To distinguish between signatures used rarely and those used frequently by any given contributor, I have arbitrarily designated as recurrent any signature that was used five or more times by the same person. Short titles used in the database are given below, followed by a list of other works consulted:
Abbott, John Lawrence. Samuel Johnson and evolve case answers, 'The Life of Dr. Phrases Use Spanish Essay. Richard Mead.' Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 54 (1971): 12-27. -------. John Hawkesworth: Eighteenth-Century Man of Letters . Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1982. -------. The Making of the Johnsonian Canon. Johnson after Two Hundred Years . Ed. Paul J. Korshin. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1986. 127-139.
Ackerman, Robert W., and Gretchen P. Ackerman. Checklist For Editing. Sir Frederic Madden: A Biographical Sketch and Bibliography . New York: Garland, 1979. Alumni Cantabrigienses . Ed. Good Phrases Essay. John Venn and J. A. Venn. 10 vols.
Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922-54. Alumni Oxonienses: The Members of the ted bundy outline University of Oxford, 1500-1714. Ed. Joseph Foster. Use Spanish Essay. 4 vols. London, 1891-92. Alumni Oxonienses: The Members of the University of Oxford, 1715-1886 . Ed. Joseph Foster. 4 vols.
London, 1887-88. Appleton, William W., and Kalman A. Last Of. Burnim, eds. The Prompter: A Theatrical Paper (1734- 1736) by Aaron Hill and phrases use spanish essay, William Popple . Heinle Great. New York: Benjamin Bloom, 1966. Banerji, Hiran Kumar. Henry Fielding: Playwright, Journalist, and Master of the good phrases use spanish essay Art of Fiction: His Life and Works . New York: Russell Russell, 1962.
Bate, W. J., and John M. Bullitt. Introduction to The Idler . The Idler and The Adventurer. Applications Essays. Vol. Good Essay. 2 of The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson . New Haven: Yale UP, 1963. Case Answers Dvt. xv-xxviii. Bate, W. J., and Albrecht B. Strauss.
Introduction to The Rambler . Vol. 3 of good, The Yale Edition of the why looks are the bastion of Works of phrases use spanish, Samuel Johnson . New Haven: Yale UP, 1969. Heinle Great Essays. xxi-xlii. Battestin, Martin C., and Ruthe R. Battestin. Good Phrases Use Spanish Essay. Henry Fielding: A Life . Essay. London: Routledge, 1989. Battestin, Martin C. Phrases Use Spanish. New Essays by Henry Fielding: His Contributions to the Craftsman (1734-1739) and Other Early Journalism, With a Stylometric Analysis by heinle great essays, Michael G. Farringdon . Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1989.
Bernard, F. V. Common and Superior Sense: A New Attribution to Johnson. Notes and Queries n.s. Phrases Essay. 14 (1967): 176-180. -------. Johnson and the Authorship of Four Debates. PMLA (Publications of the Modern Language Association of America) 82 (1967): 408-419.
Bertelsen, Lance. Have At You All: or, Bonnell Thornton's Journalism. And Contrast. Huntington Library Quarterly 44 (1981): 263-282. Baker, David Erskine, et al. Biographia Dramatica . 3 vols. London, 1812. Biography Database 1680-1830 . Ed. J. Cannon and F. Robinson. CD-ROM.
3 discs. Newcastle upon Tyne: Romulus P, 1995-2000. Black, Jeremy. The English Press in the Eighteenth Century . Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1987. Bloom, Edward A. Samuel Johnson in Grub Street . Providence: Brown UP, 1957. British Museum.
General Catalogue of Printed Books . 263 vols. Photolithographic ed. to 1955. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1959-66. Bond, Donald F. The Gentleman's Magazine. Modern Philology 38 (1940): 85-100. Bowles, William Lisle. The Poetical Works of William Lisle Bowles . 2 vols.
Edinburgh, 1855. Brett-James, Norman G. The Life of Peter Collinson, F.R.S., F.S.A. London: published for the author by good, Edgar G. Applications Essays. Dunstan, . Brewster, Dorothy. Aaron Hill: Poet, Dramatist, Projector . New York: Columbia UP, 1913. Bronson, Bertrand H. Joseph Ritson, Scholar-at-Arms . 2 vols. Good Phrases Use Spanish. Berkeley: U of California P, 1938.
Burke's Peerage and Baronetage . 105th ed. London: Burke's Peerage Ltd, 1970. Carlson, C. Lennart. The First Magazine: A History of the Gentleman's Magazine. Providence: Brown UP, 1938. Carnie, Robert Hay. Lord Hailes's Contributions to Contemporary Magazines. Studies in Bibliography 9 (1957): 233-244. Caskey, John Homer. The Life and essays, Works of Edward Moore . Yale Studies in English 75.
Ed. Albert S. Use Spanish Essay. Cook. New Haven: Yale UP, 1927. Chalmers, Alexander. The British Essayists: with Prefaces, Historical and Biographical . 38 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, 1856-66. Clifford, James L. Young Samuel Johnson . London: William Heinemann, 1955. -------. Johnson and Lauder. Philological Quarterly 54 (1975): 342-356.
Cole, Richard C. Recovering William James (fl. University. 1785-1797), English Writer. ELN: English Language Notes 36 (1999): 64-78. -------. William Tasker Revisited. Notes and phrases essay, Queries n.s. 46 (1999): 365-368. Courtney, William Prideaux, with David Nichol Smith. A Bibliography of Samuel Johnson . Oxford Historical and Literary Studies 4. Ed. C. H. Firth and Walter Raleigh. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1915.
Fielding, Henry. For Editing. The Covent-Garden Journal and A Plan of the Universal Register-Office . Ed. Bertrand A. Goldgar. Middleton, CN: Wesleyan UP, 1988. The Craftsman. By Caleb D'Anvers, of good use spanish essay, Gray's-Inn, Esq . [a reprint, omitting some numbers, of the Craftsman , 5 Dec. 1726-17 Apr. 1736]. Paragraphs And Essays. 14 vols. London, 1731-37.
Dictionary of American Biography . 1929 ed. Davis, Bertram H. A Proof of Eminence: The Life of good phrases, Sir John Hawkins . Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1973. de Montluzin, Emily Lorraine. The Anti-Jacobins, 1798-1800: The Early Contributors to the Anti-Jacobin Review. University Essays. London: Macmillan, 1988. -----.
Attributions of Authorship in the British Critic during the phrases essay Editorial Regime of Robert Nares, 1793-1813. Studies in Bibliography 51 (1998): 241-258. -----. Topographical, Antiquarian, Astronomical, and Meteorological Contributions by evolve case studies answers, George Smith of Wigton in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1735-59. ANQ 14 (2001): 5-12. Dictionary of phrases use spanish, National Biography . 1908-1909 ed. Burke, Bernard. A Genealogical History of the Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages of the British Empire . London, 1883. English Catalogue of Books . For Editing Paragraphs. . . , 1801-1836 . Ed. Robert Alexander Peddie and Quintin Waddington. Good Phrases Use Spanish. London: Publishers Circular, n.d.
Erwin, Timothy. The Life of Savage , Voltaire, and a Neglected Letter. Notes and Queries n.s. Ted Bundy Outline. 30 (1983): 525-526. Fairer, David. Authorship Problems in The Adventurer . Review of good use spanish essay, English Studies 25 (1974): 137-151. Fleeman, J. D. Great Essays. A Bibliography of the Works of Samuel Johnson; Treating his published works from the beginnings to use spanish 1984 . Prepared for publication by James McLaverty.
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Introduction. Phrases Use Spanish Essay. The Lives of Henry Fielding and Samuel Johnson together with Essays from heinle great, The Gray's Inn Journal. By Arthur Murphy. Gainesville, FL: Scholars' Facsimiles Reprints, 1968. vii-xxiii. Gray, Charles Harold. Theatrical Criticism in London to phrases use spanish essay 1795 . Paragraphs And Essays. Columbia University Studies in English and Comparative Literature. New York: Columbia UP, 1931. Green, Boylston. Possible Additions to the Johnson Canon. Yale University Library Gazette 16 (1942): 70-79. Greene, D[onald] J. Was Johnson Theatrical Critic of the Gentleman's Magazine ? Review of English Studies n.s.
3 (1952): 158-161. -------. Some Notes on Johnson and the Gentleman's Magazine . PMLA (Publications of the Modern Language Association of phrases, America) 74 (1959): 75-84. -------. The Development of the Johnson Canon. Restoration and Eighteenth-Century Literature: Essays in Honor of Alan Dugald McKillop . Outline. Ed. Carroll Camden. Phrases Use Spanish. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1963. 407-427. -------.
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New Haven: Yale UP, 1969. Reading, J. Ways To End A Compare And Contrast. Poems by Johnson. TLS (Times Literary Supplement) , 11 September 1937, p. 656. Reiman, Donald H. The Romantics Reviewed: Contemporary Reviews of British Romantic Writers . 9 vols. New York: Garland, 1972. Rollins, Hyder Edward, ed., The Keats Circle . 2nd ed. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1965. Russell, Norma. A Bibliography of William Cowper to phrases 1837 . Oxford: Oxford UP, 1963. Shawcross, John T. Milton in the Gentleman's Magazine : A Correction to de Montluzin. Studies in Bibliography 51 (1998): 274.
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-------. Samuel Johnson and The Gentleman's Magazine , 1750-1755. Johnsonian Studies . Ed. Magdi Wahba. Cairo: n.p., 1962. 133-159. Sherbo, Arthur, ed. New Essays by Arthur Murphy . N.P.: Michigan State UP, 1963.
Sherbo, Arthur. From the Gentleman's Magazine : Graves, Shenstone, Swift, Warton, Prior, Byron, Beckford. Evolve Case Studies Answers Dvt. Studies in Bibliography 35 (1982): 285-305. -------. John Coleridge and essay, the Gentleman's Magazine . Bulletin of Research in the Humanities 86 (1983): 86-93. -------. Additions to the Nichols File of the Gentleman's Magazine . Studies in Bibliography 37 (1984): 228-233. -------.
The English weather, The Gentleman's Magazine , and the brothers White. Archives of Natural History 12 (1985): 23-29. -------. More from the Gentleman's Magazine : Graves, Mainwaring, Wren, Sterne, Pope, Bubb Dodington, Goldsmith, Hill, Herrick, Cowper, Chatterton. Studies in Bibliography 40 (1987): 164-174. -------. The Earliest (?) Critic of the Ireland Shakespeare Forgeries.
Notes and Queries n.s. 35 (1988): 498-500. -------. Further Additions to last bastion of the Nichols File of the Gentleman's Magazine . Studies in phrases use spanish essay, Bibliography 42 (1989): 249-254. -------. Nil Nisi Bonum : Samuel Johnson in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1785- 1800. College Literature 16 (1989): 168-181.
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Westport, CN: Greenwood P, 1983. Sutherland, W. O. S., Jr. Essay Forms in the Prompter . Studies in great essays, the Early English Periodical . Ed. Richmond P. Bond. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1957. 135- 49. Swift, Jonathan. The Poems of Jonathan Swift . Ed. Harold Williams.
2nd ed. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1958. Thomas, Peter D. G. John Wilkes: A Friend to Liberty . Oxford: Clarendon P, 1996. Tierney, James E. Edmund Burke, John Hawkesworth, the Annual Register , and the Gentleman's Magazine . Huntington Library Quarterly 42 (1978): 57-72.
Todd, William B. A Bibliographical Account of The Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1754. Studies in Bibliography 18 (1965): 81-93. Fielding, Henry. The True Patriot and Related Writings . Ed. W. B. Coley. [Middletown, CN]: Wesleyan UP, 1987.
Vance, John A. Joseph and Thomas Warton . Phrases. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1983. -------. Johnson's Historical Reviews. Fresh Reflections on Samuel Johnson: Essays in Criticism . Ed. Prem Nath.
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Hawkesworth: A Literary Friendship. New Rambler: Journal of the Johnson Society of London 111 (1971): 2-21. -------. Evolve Answers Dvt. Dr. Johnson and the Amazons. Philological Quarterly 44 (1965): 484-495. -------. Dr. Johnson and the Making of 'The Life of Father Paul Sarpi.' Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of good use spanish, Manchester 48 (1966): 255-267. -------.
John Hawkesworth: Friend of Samuel Johnson and Editor of Captain Cook's Voyages and of the Gentleman's Magazine . Eighteenth Century Studies 3 (1970): 339-350. -------. No 'Dialect of France': Samuel Johnson's Translations from the essays French. University of Toronto Quarterly 36 (1967): 129-140. -------. Samuel Johnson, John Hawkesworth, and the rise of the Gentleman's magazine [ sic ], 1738-1773.
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31-46. -------. Samuel Johnson's 'A Panegyric on Dr. Morin.' Romance Notes 8 (1966): 55-57. -------. New Evidence on the Pamphilus Letters. Modern Philology 62 (1964): 42-44. -------. A Note on phrases essay, Two Attributions to Johnson. Notes and Queries n.s.
11 (1964): 64. -------. The First Magazine: A History of the Gentleman's Magazine . University Applications Essays. By C. Lennart Carlson [review]. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 38 (1939): 637-639. -------. Samuel Johnson, Journalist. Humanities Association Review 27 (1976): 441- 457.
-------. Portrait of a Grub: Samuel Boyse. Studies in good phrases, English Literature, 1500-1900 7 (1967): 415-425. -------. Some Reprintings of the Gentleman's Magazine . Studies in Bibliography 17 (1964): 210-214.
-------. 'The Last of the ways a compare and contrast Learned Printers': John Nichols and the Bowyer-Nichols Press. English Studies 65 (1984): 11-22. -------. Christopher Smart, Reader of good phrases essay, Obituaries [in the Gentleman's Magazine ]. MLN [ Modern Language Notes ] 71 (1956): 177-182. -------. John Kynaston (1728-83), A Neglected Shakespearean.
Shakespeare Quarterly 48 (1997): 80-83. -------. John Nichols's Notes in the Scholarly Commentary of Others. University Essays. Studies in Bibliography 44 (1991): 318-322. -------. Johnson's 'Falling Houses.' Essays in Criticism 26 (1976): 376-378. -------. Samuel Johnson and certain poems in the May 1747 Gentleman's Magazine . Review of English Studies n.s.
17 (1966): 382-390. -------. Samuel Johnson's Critical Opinions: A Reexamination . Newark: U of Delaware P, 1995. -------. Samuel Johnson's 'Essay' on Du Halde's Description of China . Phrases. Papers on Language and Literature: A Journal for Scholars and Critics of Language and Literature 2 (1966): 372-380. -------. Samuel Pegge, Thomas Holt White, and Piers Plowman. Essay Outline. The Yearbook of Langland Studies 1 (1987): 122-128. -------.
Studies in good use spanish essay, the Johnson Circle . Locust Hill Literary Studies Series 25. West Cornwall, CN: Locust Hill P, 1998. -------. Thomas Holt-White on Johnson's Lives of Prior and Milton. ANQ 13 (2000): 24-27. 3. GM 20 (1750): 208 and why looks bastion, GM 22 (1752): 560-561, respectively.
10. GM 50 (1780): 266-268, 312-314, 367-369. 12. GM 63-i (1793): 85-86; 63-ii (1793): 963-964. 15. Good. C. Lennart Carlson, The First Magazine: A History of the Gentleman's Magazine (Providence: Brown UP, 1938) 84, n. 3. 17. GM 1 (1731): 26; GM 2 (1732): 584 and 7 (1737): 250-251; and university applications, GM 2 (1732): 931-932, 981, respectively. 19. See Jeremy Black, The English Press in the Eighteenth Century (Philadelphia: U of good phrases use spanish essay, Pennsylvania P, 1987); Michael Harris, London Newspapers in the Age of Walpole: A Study of the Origins of the Modern English Press (Cranbury, NJ: Associated UP, 1987); and why looks are the last bastion, Robert Harris, A Patriot Press: National Politics and the London Press in the 1740s (Oxford: Clarendon P, 1993). 20.
The GM 's rival, John Wilford's London Magazine , printed its own version of the parliamentary debates, commencing the same month. 21. See for example accounts of the GM 's re-creation of the parliamentary debates in Carlson, First Magazine 87-104; Edward A. Good Phrases. Bloom, Samuel Johnson in Grub Street (Providence: Brown UP, 1957) 51-62; and Sir John Hawkins, The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL. D. , 2nd ed. (London, 1787) 95. 22. James Boswell, Life of Johnson , ed. R. W. Chapman (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1953) 1308. 23. Applications Essays. The GM 's rival, the London Magazine , took the phrases similar precaution of renaming its feature Debates in the Political Club, a fictitious forensic society. 24. The same sentence was imposed upon Thomas Astley, conductor of the London Magazine . 25.
The union list, like my first GM electronic database, includes approximately 300 reviews bearing the a compare essay signature X. which appeared from April 1767 through March 1773 and which have been proven the work of John Hawkesworth. The complete X. list had never appeared in phrases essay, print before its inclusion in my Attributions of Authorship . Are The Of. . . , 1731-77 . . . , Studies in Bibliography 44 (1991): 271-302. Donald D. Eddy, following up on a claim in Charles Harold Gray's Theatrical Criticism in London to 1795 (New York: Columbia UP, 1931) 171- 172, was the good use spanish essay first to applications essays publish convincing evidence that Hawkesworth wrote the X. reviews. (See Eddy's John Hawkesworth: Book Reviewer in the Gentleman's Magazine , Philological Quarterly 43 : 223-238.) G. J. Finch (John Hawkesworth, 'The Gentleman's Magazine', and 'The Annual Register,' Notes and Queries 22 : 17-18), James F. Tierney (Edmund Burke, John Hawkesworth, the good Annual Register , and the Gentleman's Magazine , Huntington Library Quarterly 42 : 57-72), and John L. Abbott ( John Hawkesworth 213, n. 10) corroborate Gray's and Eddy's claim. I am grateful to to end a compare Arthur Sherbo for good, correcting two X. items ( GM 40 : 510-511 and 616-617) and one J.H. item ( GM 24 : 413-415) I had tentatively and erroneously attributed to John Hawkesworth in Attributions of Authorship . . . , 1731-77 . . . , Studies in Bibliography 44 (1991): 271-302. Those three items have been excluded from the union list, as they were from my first GM electronic database. 26. See for example GM 26 (1756): 71-72 and case studies answers, 29 (1759): 154; 52 (1782): 520; 54-ii (1784): 711; and 69-ii (1799): 876, respectively. 27. GM 34 (1764): plate facing p. 632. 28. GM 43 (1773): 589-596, 547-652; 44 (1774): 17-22, 68-74, 111-115.
29. GM 57-ii (1787): 1009-1011, 1110-1112. 34. Such was John Walcot's characterization of Nichols. (Julian Pooley, review of Emily Lorraine de Montluzin's Daily Life in Georgian England as Reported in the Gentleman's Magazine [Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen P, 2002), in Reviews in good phrases essay, History , published online by the Institute of a compare essay, Historical Research, February 2002 http://ihr.sas.ac.uk/ihr/reviews/pooleyj.html, p. 6.) 35. The GM 's circulation, approximately 3,000 copies in 1746, rose to good essay some 4,450 by 1800. Ways To End And Contrast. (Alvin Sullivan, ed., British Literary Magazines: The Augustan Age and the Age of good, Johnson, 1698-1788 [Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1983]: 137-138; Richard D. Altick, The English Common Reader: A Social History of the Mass Reading Public, 1800-1900 [Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1957] 392.) 46. James M. Kuist, The Nichols File of The Gentleman's Magazine: Attributions of Authorship and Other Documentation in checklist, Editorial Papers at the Folger Library (Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1982) 4. 52. Kuist, Nichols File 6, 13-20.
53. Essay. GM 56-ii (1786): 758-760, 840-842, 958-960, 1057. 54. GM 66-i (1796): 451-454; 66-ii (1796): 627-630, 803-807. 55. GM 66-ii (1796): 891-895, 979-982, 1081-1085. 56. John Nichols, Literary Anecdotes of the last Eighteenth Century (9 vols.; London, 1812- 15) 6: 259. 57. Kuist, Nichols File 9-10, 11-12 (n.
42). 58. Good Phrases Use Spanish Essay. Certain exceptions are instructive. Kuist assigns to Gough the evolve case studies answers items in GM 72-ii (1802): 833-850 (the various works on these pages). However, the Gough contributions in fact end with a review that concludes on p. 850, the other items that follow on p. 850 having been written by John Nichols, to whom Kuist correctly attributes them. Conversely, in the case of the bloc-attribution of good essay, items in GM 59-i (1789): 141-144 to Gough, I made the decision to include in Gough's list a plethora of very short reviews on evolve answers dvt, p. 144, since they all concern the Regency Question, as do the reviews on p. 143. I have not, however, attributed to Gough the good phrases use spanish essay review of Gilbert White's Selborne , which spills over onto the next page. 59. GM 62-ii [Supplement to 1792]: 1195-1196.
60. I have compiled the Johnson entries in the union list from studies answers, twentieth-century studies of the Johnson canon (beginning with Courtney and use spanish, Smith), as those twentieth-century studies have incorporated all previous attempts (by Boswell, Sir John Hawkins, and others) to construct a reasonably reliable Johnson canon. 61. Sir John Hawkins, The Life of bastion, Samuel Johnson, LL.D. (2d ed., rev.; London, 1787), p. Phrases Essay. 132. George Steevens's Account of the Writings of Dr. Outline. Samuel Johnson, including some Incidents of his Life ( European Magazine 7 : 9) and John Gough Nichols's The Autobiography of Sylvanus Urban. Chapter VIII ( GM 202 : 285) disagree with Hawkins's claim. 63. The Craftsman, Prose Studies 16 [April 1993]: 74, n. 2. 64.
Common and Superior Sense: A New Attribution to Johnson, Notes and Queries n.s. 14 (May 1967): 176. 65. Alexander Chalmers, Historical and Biographical Preface to The Connoisseur , The British Essayists: with Prefaces, Historical and Biographical (38 vols.; Boston: Little, Brown, 1856-66) 25 (1864): 15-16, 34. 66.
Simon Varey, Lord Bolingbroke: Contributions to good essay the Craftsman (Oxford: Clarendon UP, 1982) xxiv-xxv makes a strong case that the initials appended to the essays in the 1737 reprint edition of the Craftsman , when combined with corroborative evidence, point convincingly to why looks last bastion of Bolingbroke's authorship of the good essay Craftsman papers signed O and strongly suggest William Pulteney's authorship of the C papers and for editing and essays, Nicholas Amhurst's authorship of the good essay D papers. Varey also states that Nicholas Amhurst, editor from the start, appears after 1737 to have been the principal, perhaps the only author of the Craftsman until his death in April 1742 (Varey 82: xv). However, Martin C. Battestin in his New Essays by why looks are the last, Henry Fielding: His Contributions to the Craftsman (1734-1739) and Other Early Journalism, With a Stylometric Analysis by phrases use spanish, Michael G. Farringdon (Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1989) convincingly attributes a number of essays in the Craftsman , 1738-39, to Henry Fielding. Checklist. In light of Battestin's evidence, I believe that Varey's conjecture that Amhurst was the principal, perhaps the only author of the Craftsman from 1738 through early 1742 is not strong enough to justify making any attributions to Amhurst during that period, for which there exists no collected edition to provide the corroborative evidence of initials. 67. Originally edited jointly by John Martyn and good, Richard Russel, the Grub-Street Journal became Russel's responsibility after Martyn retired from the enterprise to evolve case studies answers become professor of botany at Cambridge. (James T. Hillhouse, The Grub-Street Journal [Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1928] 40 [n.
50] believes that number 67 [15 April 1731] was the good phrases last issue to which Martyn contributed.) Russel remained sole editor of the Grub-Street Journal until he resigned his post in late 1735, whereupon his place apparently was taken by are the bastion, James Miller. (Hillhouse 30 [n. 38], 45-46) Nineteenth-century commentators, swayed by the letter designations included in Russel's preface to his collected edition of the phrases essay periodical's first twenty months ( Memoirs of the Society of Grub Street , 2 vols. Checklist For Editing Paragraphs. [London, 1737]), tended to attribute early contributions signed B[avius] to Martyn and phrases, those signed M[aevius] to Russel. As Alexander Pettit notes, It is now generally accepted (and is suggested by the 'Preface') that both Russel and John Martyn . . . used 'Bavius' [until Martyn's departure] and that Russel alone used 'Maevius.' (Alexander Pettit, The Grub-street Journal and the Politics of Anachronism, Philological Quarterly 69 (Fall 1990]: 448, n. 6) Russel and Martyn recruited the services of a number of other contributors, a few of whom have been identified, notably Rev. Joseph Trapp. Recent scholarship has vastly diminished the role in the Grub- Street Journal formerly ascribed to Pope, both in terms of influencing the day-to-day conduct of the journal or contributing to its weekly numbers. (See Bertrand A. Goldgar, Pope and the Grub-street Journal , Modern Philology 74 (1976-77): 366-380.) 68.
Robert Harris, A Patriot Press: National Politics and the London Press in the 1740s (Oxford: Clarendon P, 1993) 50. 71. GM 16 : 540, quoting from Old England , no. 179 (4 October 1746). 72. Harris, Patriot Press 50, n. 5; Martin C. Battestin and Ruthe R. Battestin, Henry Fielding: A Life (London: Routledge, 1989) 429.
73. Alvin Sullivan, ed., British Literary Magazines: The Augustan Age and are the bastion, the Age of Johnson, 1698-1788 , Historical Guides to the World's Periodicals and Newspapers (Westport, CN: Greenwood P, 1983) 346.