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Critical Essays on Anthony Burgess - Google Books

Critical essays on anthony burgess

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Critical Essays on Anthony Burgess - Google Books

baudrillard essays by Richard Hanley. There is nothing new under the sun. With the death of the real, or rather with its (re)surrection, hyper-reality both emerges and is already always reproducing itself. The dead are already dead; precisely more than the living which are yet alive. God himself has only ever been his own simulacrum; his own Disneyland… Philosophers can get pretty excited about The Matrix . An apparent exception is Jean Baudrillard , the author of Simulacra and on anthony burgess Simulation (henceforth, SS), the book that appears in the movie. Numerous sources report Baudrillard saying that the movie “stemmed mostly from separate misunderstandings” of his work. So a natural point of inquiry has been whether or not this is true. Yeffeth (2002) contains two essays both entitled “The Matrix: Paradigm of post-modernism or intellectual poseur?”; one answering “the former” and essays the other “the latter,” and both apparently assuming the essay on censorship in music, disjunction is exclusive. 1. In this article I will point out some further interpretations, and (eventually) argue for one of them.

I. An analytic take on post-modernism. But first, let me lay my cards on the table. I am no fan of either Baudrillard or post-modernism. 2 I am an analytic philosopher, and my focus is entirely upon what to critical on anthony make of Baudrillard and his connection to The Matrix, from the analytic point of view. But then what is the essay application, non-literal meaning? What post-modernists are doing is essays not really philosophy at persuasive essay all, and they give the discipline a bad name amongst other academics, take jobs that could and essays on anthony should go to more sensible folks, and present dangerous falsehoods to the general public. But what are we really comparing the on censorship in music, fiction to? Isn’t it the way we think the critical essays on anthony, real world is?

And that’s just another representation of the introductions to an, real world, a mental story “about” it, not the real world itself. But the touchstone in all the analytic views on this subject is that representation - language, say - is aimed at the real world: for instance, on one very common view, names often refer to real individuals, and predicates often apply to real properties. Truth is a matter of the essays on anthony, predicates used applying to the individuals referred to. On School Discipline. Now this pursuit - semiotics, or semiology - has its limits, though it’s not as limited as you might think, since post-modernists tend to radically expand the domain of things that count as representations (e.g. to include all artifacts). Moreover, some even suggest that semiotics is not objective, anyway.

So in post-modernist circles there is on anthony burgess a shift toward what I would call aesthetic aspects of representation. Philosophy becomes after all an art-form, where presentation is as important (maybe more so) than representation. The point becomes to be playful, to fill one’s writings with double-meanings, puns, scare-quotes, irony, metaphors, capitalizations, and essay discipline so on. For instance, in a post-modernist’s hands, the first sentence of this paragraph might be: The form of my language is almost more important than what I have to say within it. Language has to be synchronous with the fragmentary nature of reality. On Anthony Burgess. With its viral, fractal quality, that’s the great to an, essence of the thing! It’s not a question of ideas – there are already too many ideas!” This quote is from Philosophers, a book of photo-portraits by critical burgess Steve Pyke , accompanied by sides each philosopher’s answer to the question: “What does philosophy mean to you?” Baudrillard did not answer the question directly, and instead asked one of his English-speaking commentators to provide a suitable quote from his writings. Look up “synchronous” and “fractal” in dictionary, and it seems clear these words are chosen for essays on anthony burgess some effect other than their actual, or even metaphorical, meanings. (“Viral,” on the other hand, at least makes sense as a metaphor applied to language, as in Kripke’s metaphor of the “contagion of meaning.”) II. Simulacra and Simulation. The simulacrum is never what hides the truth - it is legalizing marijuana essay truth that hides the fact that there is critical essays on anthony none.

The simulacrum is true. If once we were able to essay view the Borges fable in critical, which the cartographers of the Empire draw up a map so detailed that it ends up covering the territory exactly (the decline of the Empire witnesses the in music, fraying of this map, little by little, and fall into burgess, ruins, though some shreds are still discernible in the deserts - the metaphysical beauty of this ruined abstraction testifying to a pride equal to introductions essay the Empire and rotting like a carcass, returning to the substance of the soil, a bit as the double ends by being confused with the real through aging) - as the essays on anthony burgess, most beautiful allegory of simulation, this fable has now come full circle for essays for a separate us, and possesses nothing but the discrete charm of second-order simulacra. The territory no longer precedes the map, nor survives it. It is nevertheless the map that precedes the territory - precession of simulacra - that engenders the territory, and if one must return to the fable, today it is the territory whose shreds slowly rot across the extent of the map. It is the real, and not the essays on anthony, map, whose vestiges subsist here and there in the deserts that are no longer those of the for a separate peace, Empire, but ours. The desert of the real itself.

Because it is difference that constitutes the poetry of the map and the charm of the critical on anthony, territory, the magic of the concept and the charm of the real. Essays Separate Peace. This imaginary of representation, which simultaneously culminates in and is engulfed by the cartographer's mad project of the ideal co-extensivity of map and territory, disappears in the simulation whose operation is nuclear and genetic, no longer at all specular or discursive. It is all of metaphysics that is lost. Critical Essays. No more mirror of being and appearances, of the real and its concept. No more imaginary co-extensivity: it is genetic miniaturization that is the dimension of simulation.

The real is produced from miniaturized cells, from matrices, and memory banks, models of control - and it can be reproduced an indefinite number of times from these. On School. It no longer needs to be rational, because it is no longer measures itself against either and ideal or negative instance. It is no longer anything but operational. In fact, it is burgess no longer real the real, because no imaginary envelopes it anymore. It is a hyper-real, produced from a radiating synthesis of combinatory models in a hyperspace without atmosphere. It is no longer a question of imitation, nor duplication, nor even parody.

It is a question of substituting the signs of the real for essays for a separate the real, that is to say of an operation of deterring every real process via its operational double, a programmatic, metastable, perfectly descriptive machine that offers all the critical on anthony burgess, signs of the sides, real and short-circuits all its vicissitudes. Never again will the real have the chance to produce itself - such is the vital function of the model in a system of death, or rather of anticipated resurrection, that no longer even gives the event of death a chance. A hyper-real henceforth sheltered from the imaginary, and from any distinction between the real and the imaginary, leaving room only for the orbital recurrence of models and for the simulated generation of differences. Baudrillard apparently asserts that the post-modern condition is one of critical essays on anthony burgess “simulation,” where reality has disappeared altogether. This historical process has been one of “precession of simulacra”: representation gives way to simulation, through the production and reproduction of both sides of capital images. These would be the successive phases of the image: it is the reflection of a profound reality. it masks and denatures a profound reality. it masks the absence of a profound reality. it has no relation to critical essays burgess any reality whatever: it is its own pure simulacrum.

In the first case, the image is a good appearance - representation is of the sacramental order [i.e. not a simulacrum]. In the essay, second, it is an evil appearance - it is of the essays on anthony burgess, order of maleficence. In the third, it plays at being an appearance - it is of the order of sorcery. In the fourth, it is no longer in the order of appearances, but of simulation. Moreover, whereas Marx claimed that the masses suffered from false consciousness, Baudrillard writes that the masses are post-modernist, understanding that all consciousness is both of capital punishment “false,” and hungrily consuming one “false” image after another.

The connections become more obvious when we consider Baudrillard’s update of Marx’s theory of exchange value. Symbolic exchange is the on anthony burgess, key notion for essay on school discipline Baudrillard, and ties in with the critical essays, precession of simulacra. There is an unequal symbolic exchange when one object is a mere copy of an original (say a reproduction of a Queen Anne chair). In the next order of simulacra, the exchange is equal (say, mass-produced chairs which are only copies of each other). In the current order (simulation), objects are conceived in terms of peace equal-exchange reproducibility (chairs, of course, were not conceived in this way), in binary computer code. Again, The Matrix looks like a simulation, conceived entirely in computer code. If we understand “contradiction” in a loose sense, it is the critical essays on anthony burgess, assertion of both what is true and both of capital what is false, and it is common in logic to denote truth by the numeral “1,” falsehood by the numeral “0.” So perhaps we are to think that the Matrix necessarily contains the seeds of critical on anthony burgess its own de(con)struction? After all, Neo is “the One,” and the name “Cypher” has amongst its meanings, “zero.” For instance, there’s a famous debate involving Alan Turing, John Searle and others, about the for university, simulation of critical intelligence. (Searle argues against Turing’s claim that a digital computer that successfully simulates intelligence thereby counts as intelligent.) Second, global simulation of the sort we see in THE MATRIX seems to great introductions be a logical, physical and epistemic possibility, an critical burgess observation that raises a host of well-known philosophical bugbears. It seems better to interpret him as saying that simulation is not simulated reality, because it doesn’t even have the appearance of expository essay in music reality.

So it seems that Baudrillard has some grounds for his complaint noted above. Essays On Anthony. The Matrix is more faithful to traditional philosophical puzzles concerning global simulation, since there seems to legalizing marijuana persuasive be a profound reality outside the critical essays burgess, Matrix, and the folks in the Matrix falsely take their simulated condition to be reality. Of course, it might turn out when the trilogy is completed that even this appearance of marijuana essay reality is itself a simulation, but that’s not the point. THE MATRIX still has it that humans in critical, or out of the Matrix can conceptualize the distinction between reality and mere simulation. 4. Baudrillard has recently expanded his criticism in this direction: What we have here is essentially the same misunderstanding as with the simulation artists in New York in the 80s. These people take the hypothesis of the virtual as a fact and carry it over to visible realms. But the primary characteristic of this universe lies precisely in the inability to use categories of the on censorship in music, real to speak about it. (Reported translation from an interview in Le Nouvel Observateur.) There is critical essays on anthony a reflexive paradox here, of course.

Baudrillard’s criticism seems to legalizing essay presuppose that we can conceptualize and communicate the difference between mere simulation and reality - else could the movie could not give this impression - -which flatly contradicts the claim that we can’t. From an analytic point of view, this alone shows Baudrillard (when taken literally) to critical burgess be as mistaken as it’s possible to be, and drives us towards non-literal interpretations. Essay On School. Take chicken, for example. Maybe they couldn’t figure out what to make chicken taste like, which is why chicken tastes like everything. The Wachowski brothers are here playfully evoking the old saw that in our world chicken tastes like everything, prompting us to wonder about the possibility of all this being a global simulation, again presupposing that we can conceptualize the critical essays burgess, difference. According to essays peace some views at least, even if the Matrix produces in a human being a mental state that plays the complete functional role of the taste of critical essays Tastee Wheat, that fact does not guarantee that the state has the appropriate phenomenal content. IV. Paradigm of post-modernism and intellectual poseur? There is a real irony in expository on censorship, Baudrillard’s focus on simulation. When I first opened SS and saw the epigraph attributed to Ecclesiastes, I smelled a rat, and critical essays burgess a few minute’s investigation confirmed my suspicion that the sides, attribution was false. Then as I read on, I presumed that Baudrillard was trying to essays on anthony give a concrete example of simulation.

But I remain puzzled. On the one hand, it seems a remarkably poor attempt at simulation - no one even remotely familiar with Ecclesiastes would be taken in by it. Legalizing Marijuana Persuasive. But on critical essays, the other hand, to judge from the plethora of Baudrillard pages on the World Wide Web, many of Baudrillard’s readers seem either to be fooled by the false attribution, or else not to care one way or the other. And maybe that’s Baudrillard’s point: that to marijuana persuasive essay the “masses,” Ecclesiastes is no more and no less than the author of the epigraph. Critical Essays On Anthony Burgess. More on this presently. The diagnosis, then, has been that the editors inappropriately included the article on grounds unconnected to its actual content - political grounds, and particularly the fact that Sokal was an established scientist. So a natural post-modernist response to Sokal is that he inadvertently produced a serious work. (One needn’t claim that it’s a good serious work.) This might diminish it in some ways, but the text could still be engaged with meaningfully. We needn’t press the point about authorial intentions applied to non-fiction.

Instead, we should ask, what is the best explanation of relative ease of simulation of both linguistic output? In the Rogerian psychotherapist and professional sports cases, it’s obvious: there is a very limited range of possible outputs. But that can’t fully explain the post-modern case. I suggest that we get the rest of the explanation by agreeing with the post-modernist. The post-modernist ought to critical essays on anthony burgess regard simulated post-modernism as real post-modernism, and so should we. Essay. 9. But, armed with the modernist distinction between mere simulated philosophy and real philosophy, we ought to conclude that post-modernism is (in large part) a simulacrum, in Baudrillard’s sense: either it masks the burgess, absence of a profound reality, or else it has no relation to essays separate peace any reality whatever, and critical essays is its own pure simulacrum. Here’s the test: try to simulate an analytic philosopher, and explain what the term in question means, without resorting to: paraphrase in terms equally obscure. The failure of the test for a decent number of post-modern expressions would provide some evidence of post-modernists being mere simulators of great introductions philosophy - intellectual poseurs.

V. The meaning of The Matrix. To return to the question with which we began, how should we modernists interpret The Matrix? As a more or less faithful homage to Baudrillard, or as a misguided homage? Or neither? I have already argued that the critical essays burgess, philosophical issues The Matrix plays with are better interpreted as traditional, modernist, analytic ones, than as post-modernist ones. Essay. But even if I’m wrong about that, it clearly can be interpreted that way, and by post-modernist lights, that’s enough.

So perhaps it’s true that The Matrix is a paradigm of post-modernism, and essays not an intellectual poseur, and also true that The Matrix is an intellectual poseur, and not a paradigm of post-modernism. I suggest that they are playful, ironic references. In real life, SS is a slim volume, in the movie it is rather thick. But not because it has more content - if anything, it has less content than in real life. The last chapter, “On Nihilism” has only the first page, and the rest of the book is hollowed out, a hiding place for contraband software. And what is the expository on censorship, purpose of the software? It is an opiate for essays on anthony the masses. The message is either that SS is only good for hiding stuff in, or, at a deeper layer of subtlety, that the real SS is a simulation, in reality only containing brain-numbing escapism. Neo really escapes - rescued from the whole business by waking up to cold, sobering, reality.

SS represents the post-modern condition, a condition only post-modernists themselves are trapped in, a condition where everyone is a drone or an addict (where’s that red pill when you need it?); and, as far as the rest of us are concerned, entirely expendable. Of course, this is sides punishment essays likely not what the Wachowski brothers intended. If it were, then their reported insistence that Keanu Reeves read SS, in preparation for the role, borders on cruelty. And that’s nice to know. 1. Glenn Yeffeth (ed), Taking the Red Pill: Science, Philosophy and Religion in The Matrix (Dallas: Benbella Books, 2003)

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The Great Debate Around Cycling Helmet Laws. Nothing has been more hotly debated or more polarizing than the critical essays burgess debate about the merits of mandatory bike helmet laws. In the essay for university global cycling community, nothing has been more hotly debated or more polarizing than the debate about the merits of burgess, mandatory helmet laws. Carla Danley is a former emergency room nurse who has seen her fair share of legalizing, head injuries. She has also been a daily bicycle rider since 2009 when, at age 50, she moved to Portland, OR, and launched headlong into the city’s vibrant bike scene. In Portland, bicycling verges on the mainstream.

Danley is one of many who choose to wear a helmet every time they ride. “It’s in my marriage contract,” she said. Her husband lost his teenage sister after she was struck by a car while on a cross-Canada bike trip. “One of the critical essays on anthony things I give him credit for is: when we moved to Oregon, I was like, ‘I’m going to get rid of my car and ride a bike’, and he has always been behind me 100 percent,” she said. Essay! “But he is really clear that he wants me to use bike lights at critical, night and for university application, have a helmet on all the time. And I’m good with that.” Across the globe, in Western Australia, Sue Abbott, a 50-year-old mother of four who has cycled for essays on anthony burgess, transportation for 46 years, has never worn a bike helmet. Even after 1991 when Australia became the first country to pass a mandatory helmet law for both adults and children, she rode helmet-free, an both sides essays act that soon earned her a stiff ticket. Abbott emerged victorious last August from a string of court battles over her right to cycle bare-headed in her town of critical essays on anthony burgess, Scone, New South Wales.

Aiding her suit was the essay on censorship embattled and contradictory state of critical essays burgess, scientific research on the efficacy of bike helmets for safety. Since the bike helmet question is one of the essays most fiercely debated and polarized issues in transportation bicycling, the question is, which is more important: personal freedom or a precautionary approach that mandates defensive cycling? Should the government step in to enforce head protection or should the onus be on the individual? The science around bike helmets is murky, but the critical on anthony burgess political philosophies in of capital punishment essays question are sharply delineated. A Brief History of Helmets and Cycling Laws. For much of the history of the bicycle there were no helmets, only critical burgess protective leather caps occasionally worn by bike racers, motorists, aeronauts, rugby players, and in music, mountaineers. Helmets, as we know them today, did not exist until 1975, when Bell Sports introduced the essays burgess first polystyrene model to introductions the United States market. First constructed to protect the skull by crushing on critical burgess impact, there has been little aesthetic or material innovation in their design until recent years. Now, in North America, fanciful or sleek helmet shells with minimal venting, such as those made by great introductions to an Nutcase and Bern, are becoming popular among everyday cyclists.

In Europe, the critical burgess Ribcap – a knit hat with soft inserts that harden on impact – is all the expository rage for critical on anthony, bicycling and skiing. Are Bicycle Helmets Holding Us Back? The first mandatory bicycle helmet laws that went into effect in California in introductions 1987 and New York in 1989 applied only to young children who were passengers on a bike. Critical Essays On Anthony Burgess! Since then, bicycle helmet laws passed across North America and the world mostly govern children under 16 years of of capital, age. These laws are increasingly contentious. Essays! In Tel Aviv, an attempt to to an repeal existing helmet laws is essays being fought as fiercely as successful attempts to impose them in Vancouver, WA, which passed an all-ages helmet law last year. Northern Ireland, Chicago, IL, and Minneapolis, MN, are all considering instituting mandatory helmet laws for children under the age of 16.

Mexico City may have had the shortest-lived helmet law – it was passed in 2009 and repealed a year later in the face of intense opposition. Cycling helmet-clad and helmet-less in Oxford, UK. Photo by Tejvan Pettinger. Pro-helmet advocates compare helmets to seat belts – a common sense response to a known safety problem. They have at their service a wealth of data. In the US, head trauma is the cause of over half of great introductions to an essay, bicycle-related fatalities, with survival of serious crashes strongly linked to helmet use. Also to the point, helmet laws have been shown to be more effective than education campaigns at getting helmets on heads. Opponents of helmet laws see them as a barometer of a society’s regard for personal freedom. They point to research finding that helmets do not in fact protect wearers in burgess the most common types of bicycle crashes, which result in scrapes and other injuries to the arms and legs.

In some cases, research shows that helmets might even cause brain injuries as a result of the for a separate peace mechanical twisting effect that occurs upon essays, impact. Others insist that helmet laws lead to more dangerous bicycling conditions. A British traffic psychologist used sensors to discover that when he biked to work without a helmet, passing drivers gave him more room on the road – though not as much room as when he wore a flowing wig! Australia experienced a drop in bicycle use after its helmet law came into effect. Common sense might lead one to believe that this is a good thing, that fewer bicyclists would mean fewer injuries. Expository Essay In Music! But studies worldwide have repeatedly shown the opposite to essays burgess be true: the more people ride bikes, the safer bicycling becomes. This phenomenon is sides punishment called “Safety in on anthony burgess Numbers.” Its core principle is that people on bikes rely largely on legalizing persuasive essay the kindness of strangers for burgess, their safety – the ones whizzing past them in their cars. As more people ride, drivers become more skilled, tolerant and aware of the presence of cyclists, making roads safer for people on bikes – and for everyone else, too, for that matter. The popularity of public bike sharing systems raises another issue around mandatory bicycle helmet laws: how to have both at essays for a, the same time?

City leaders worldwide are discovering the appeal of critical essays on anthony burgess, self-service kiosks where bicycles can be rented cheaply for short trips. Bike share systems are an affordable way to boost bicycle mode share and safety nearly overnight. But no feasible means has yet been found to legalizing persuasive essay incorporate helmets into on anthony such schemes, leaving all-ages helmet law cities, such as Vancouver, BC, struggling to find a way to reap the rewards of a public bike system. It isn’t just cycling helmet laws that face growing opposition. Increasingly, helmets themselves have come under fire. Mikael Colville-Andersen, a cycling advocate and marketing consultant in Denmark, took the cultural battle to the next level in expository on censorship a highly publicized speech called “Why we shouldn’t wear bike helmets.” In his TEDx talk, viewable on YouTube, Colville-Andersen associates helmets with what he calls a “culture of fear.” Helmet use, he said, sends the message that bicycling is dangerous. We’d laugh at wearing helmets for other daily activities that carry a significant risk of head injury, such as walking, driving, bathing and critical on anthony, using stairs. Why, he asked, is bicycling singled out discipline, as dangerous? Debra Rolfe, an American-British urban planning master’s student in critical burgess Vancouver, BC, agreed. North America’s helmet culture is the worst, she said. “It’s like complete strangers walking up to you and lecturing you about how what you’re eating for lunch is essay going to on anthony kill you.”

“Most societies in the developed world spend far more money on essay inactivity-related illnesses than they do on trauma care,” she added. Critical Essays On Anthony Burgess! “We should be doing everything we possibly can to save lives by getting people to exercise.” Ultimately, Rolfe calls helmets “an unfortunate distraction from the real major safety issue affecting cyclists: Cars. Essay For University! Whether or not individuals choose to essays on anthony wear bike helmets is irrelevant, but the cycling community in North America spends a huge amount of time debating it, when it could be doing so much more to improve conditions.” But Should I Wear a Bike Helmet, Seriously? When it comes down to essay on school it, the decision about whether or not to don a helmet is often less about scientific studies, political philosophies or even laws, and critical essays on anthony, more about one’s beliefs and sense of safety, or lack thereof, on the road. Elena Findley-de Regt, 29, a Dutch-American citizen who has lived and cycled in the Netherlands, the US, Spain and, now, the UK, has observed a wide range of helmet customs. “When I’m cycling in the Netherlands,” she said, “I don’t wear a helmet, never have and wouldn’t dream of it.” There, she feels that riding is safe, thanks to “very minimal interaction with motor vehicles due to separated bike paths” and essay on censorship, a “critical mass of critical essays burgess, cyclists with generally low overall riding speeds.” And there’s a cultural element. Essays Separate Peace! “The Dutch tend to have a pragmatic approach to most things in life – the simplest answer is essays burgess most likely the best. Introductions To An Essay! Fussing with a helmet is an extra, unnecessary step.” “Philosophically,” she said, “I believe that cycling should be such a normal, integrated part of transportation infrastructure that no special equipment is required.” But when riding in essays on anthony burgess any other country, she wears a helmet. “This has a lot to expository do with my confidence in critical on anthony the riding conditions, and especially my trust in expository essay on censorship in music other road users to behave appropriately.”

Habitual use and cultural norms, as well as compelling personal stories, influence helmet beliefs. Ellen Jacobson said that her husband, also a fervent helmet advocate, began wearing one only when they became mainstream in the 1980s. She doesn’t recall exactly when he made the transition, but does remember that he began wearing a ski helmet after the highly publicized skiing death of critical essays on anthony, Sunny Bono in 1998. One perspective that seems capable of bringing about agreement across the fiery lines of the helmet debate is equity. Ellen Jacobson, who coordinates the Kiwanis Club’s bicycle program in Sparks, NV, is a true helmet believer, having devoted much of the punishment past decade to bicycle safety programs for kids. Burgess! But she wants to make one thing clear: “I am against having a helmet law in Nevada. Essay! Most of the kids who don’t wear helmets are extremely low income. If you fine them, what you’re really doing is taking food off the table. And the fine doesn’t put a helmet on their heads.” Carla Danley, the former ER nurse, leans instinctively towards supporting an all-ages helmet law. Critical On Anthony! “I think it almost has to be something that’s legislated so that people are fined,” she mused, quickly adding the caveat, “but I’d be concerned about marijuana essay certain populations being targeted more than others.” It seems we have reached a decisive moment in the history of urban cycling.

If the pro helmet faction wins, it’s likely that we will see mandatory helmet laws sweeping across Canada and the US. If, on the other hand, the essays burgess pro-choice group wins, existing helmet laws will soon be abolished, potentially changing the essay on school discipline face of cycling in those cities that currently require helmet use by law. There is a lot riding on critical on anthony this debate, and it’s unlikely to fade into the distance anytime soon. This article was originally published in sides punishment essays 2011 and has been updated. Your article is riddled with rumors, misstatements and untruths. There is NOT a SINGLE study showing bike helmets protect from trauma. Bike helmets are not designed to protect from critical essays on anthony burgess trauma.

Bike helmets are designed to protect your head from minor injuries due to expository in music contact with other items while riding. This statement is an outright fabrication. “In the critical US, head trauma is the cause of over half of bicycle-related fatalities, with survival of serious crashes strongly linked to helmet use.” No recognized scientific study has ever supported this. Want better proof, no bicycle helmet manufacturer would say this. In fact, look at all the marketing for for university, bicycle helmets. If bicycle helmets protected your head don’t you think the bicycle helmet manufactures would say so? Don’t you think they would advertise that fact. NO BICYCLE HELMET MANUFACTURER STATES A HELMET WILL PROTECT YOU HEAD.

Why, because they don’t want to be sued when the bicycle helmet wont, can’t and will not protect your head. I know. I am a member of ASTM F08.53 Headgear and essays on anthony burgess, Helmets committee. I am the US representative to the UIAA which creates standards for great introductions, helmets in outdoor sports in critical Europe. Bike helmets are not designed and do not protect from application trauma. For many years now, I have worn a helmet, and sworn by burgess them. Introductions To An! About ten years or so ago, I crashed my bike on black ice. Thank God I was wearing a helmet that day, I could swear that it saved my life. On Anthony Burgess! If I am going anywhere by bike, I always, without fail, put on my helmet!

Yeah, sure the helmets are safer for kids but 12 and essay discipline, up I don’t feel it is nessassary. I bet its better to wear one but I feel higher without one like I make my 6 year old but I force my 13 not to one we feel the same way. I believe you failed to fairly treat the essays scientific evidence question of persuasive essay, this matter seriously. Essays Burgess! The best, most recent studies show that helmet use provides very little protection, and at best neutral outcomes when it comes to preventing head injuries let alone improved public health. Even the very pro helmet magazine Bicycling published and article with the byline that the marijuana essay science shows helmets do not prevent concussions. Critical Burgess! Can’t link directly but it seems the CBC interviewed the author here: Hope Hedy Fry reads this. In my opinion we have to build better roads and severely punish the driver of any vehicle, mostly cars, that operate said vehicle in expository essay a manner where they might endanger others. Everyone pro and con needs to look at the testing standard and how that that to the real world. Critical! 150 Joules of energy against a flat surface, the current CPSC’s current testing criteria is a very nominal blow to absorb before failing. The standard when helmets first appeared was over expository essay on censorship in music, 300 Joules but the helmet manufactures fought to lower the standard so that they could sell more product.

Yeah unfettered capitalism. Essays On Anthony Burgess! What other product, safety or otherwise is half as capable today than in 1990? As for Carla Danley’s sister in law I’m sorry for her and her husbands loss, I don’t know the essay circumstances of that accident but if it’s like virtually all car caused bike fatalities a helmet would not have zero difference, to use that as reasoning to enforce their preferred pieces of safety equipment when there is no evidence to support its efficacy has no place in a free and critical burgess, moral society. No helmet can **prevent** a concussion, but helmets can substantially reduce the risk of a concussions. Essay In Music! Yes, there are improvements to critical essays be made (such as improved handling of expository essay on censorship, rotational forces), but that does not mean they are useless. It also sounds like you do not understand how helmets attenuate impacts. They don’t reduce the total energy, just the peak force experienced by the brain. Reducing peak force makes the impact imminently more survivable as it puts it in the range the brain can handle. Finally, what is right for an individual may not make sense at the population level, but just because a general effect is on anthony burgess not observed at discipline, the population level does not mean there isn’t a benefit for the individual. This is called an essays on anthony ecological fallacy and it really muddies the water when people talk about the efficacy of helmets. Well I don’t know what your credentials are but this quote from the CBC link above from renowned neurosurgeon Charles Tator who treats individuals with major head trauma should clear things up for you; “Current bike helmets, Tator says, “are pretty well useless in essay on censorship in music attenuating rotational acceleration” in the previous paragraph he explains that it is critical essays burgess rotational forces that cause major brain injuries so yeah the thing that you call a bike helmet which is essay on school really just 50 cents of Styrofoam formed into a sporty hat can only provide minimal protection again bruises, contusion and minor skull fractures and is of no help, and can (actually has in Australian and New Zealand but I’ll save that for later) very well worsen brain injury by either not mitigating and or magnifying rotational forces or leading people to behave more recklessly through the phenomena of “risk compensation” and getting into accidents that they would not have otherwise.

So that’s how helmets work, if you want to actually be informed the next time you post on this topic you should read “The efficacy of bicycle helmets against brain injury” by WJ Curnow published here; As for helmet functionality and capacity here is an excellent overview by Brian Walker one of the leading experts on the mechanics of helmets, and whose company Head Protection Evaluations is the essays on anthony principal UK test laboratory for helmets and head protection systems of all kinds. The linked pdfs from the defunct magazine Cycle are an essay excellent read and critical on anthony burgess, will explain bicycle helmets in simple terms that you should be able to essay for university application understand. You can believe the available science or you can believe what your amygdala tells you but if it’s fear that you choose to base your decisions on you have no right to expect or worse demand that others also act irrationally on unfounded fear with no supporting evidence. Well I don’t know what your credentials are but this quote from the CBC link above from essays on anthony burgess renowned neurosurgeon Charles Tator who treats individuals with major head trauma should clear things up for separate peace, you; “Current bike helmets, Tator says, “are pretty well useless in critical essays attenuating rotational acceleration” in the previous paragraph he explains that it is for a separate peace rotational forces that cause major brain injuries so yeah the thing that you call a bike helmet which is really just 50 cents of Styrofoam formed into a sporty hat can only provide minimal protection again bruises, contusion and minor skull fractures and is of no help, and can (actually has in Australian and New Zealand but I’ll save that for on anthony burgess, later) very well worsen brain injury by essays for a separate either not mitigating and or magnifying rotational forces or leading people to behave more recklessly through the phenomena of “risk compensation” and getting into accidents that they would not have otherwise.

So that’s how helmets work, if you want to actually be informed the next time you post on this topic you should read “The efficacy of bicycle helmets against brain injury” by WJ Curnow published here; As for helmet functionality and capacity here is an excellent overview by Brian Walker one of the leading experts on the mechanics of critical essays burgess, helmets, and whose company Head Protection Evaluations is the principal UK test laboratory for helmets and head protection systems of all kinds. The linked pdfs from the defunct magazine Cycle are an excellent read and will explain bicycle helmets in legalizing marijuana simple terms that you should be able to understand. You can believe the critical essays on anthony available science or you can believe what your amygdala tells you but if it’s fear that you choose to essay application base your decisions on you have no right to expect or worse demand that others also act irrationally on unfounded fear with no supporting evidence. There is data to show that helmets do NOT prevent concussion. I always wear a helmet, but do not believe that a flimsy styrafoam shell can effectivly prevent concusions. I believe that some head protection in an accident is better than none, so I always wear a helmet. But, my personal choice should NOT be regulated by safety advocates, insurance lobbyist, and safety nazis.

The day that the essays make helmets mandatory in my city or state is when I will burn my helmet in front of city hall. Despite support from the legalizing essay Spanish government, the Spanish parliament rejected mandatory helmets for adults two years ago after hearing evidence on the negative effects in Australia and listening to testimony strongly criticising mandatory helmet laws from a representative of the World Health Organisation. Bravo. Essays On Anthony Burgess! A law can’t distinguish between a fast athletic rider (racer or “road rider) and someone pootling to the shops on an old 3-speed. . . Both! . There is no difference between the fast racer and the slow recreational cyclist … both fall at critical essays on anthony burgess, the same speed and hit the pavement just as hard. The laws of Nature (gravity vertical acceleration) cannot be disobeyed. You are not invincible. You’re a human being that can fall by yourself without anyone around. No car around. I’ve fallen 8 times off my bike in the last 25 years of regular cycling. I’m car-free.

7 times on black ice/snow in winter and there were no cars around. 8th time, latest…I was knocked down this past New Year’s DAy, while cycling because another cyclist who was cycling too fast when he crashed into after I turned a corner on the Vancouver Seaside-Seawall path. (in Yaletown) I have no memory of the accident, cyclist, his bike, nor being transported by ambulance to the hospital. My partner (a very well-known Vancouver cycling advocate) was riding 10 metres ahead of me, when he heard a huge awful crash behind me. I awoke in legalizing the hospital in pain, with my partner and physician bending over me, testing my memory. I lost my memory for about 4-5 hrs. after the burgess accident/injury. I was tested for discipline, my memory for another 3 times over critical on anthony burgess, a 24 hr. period. On School! This how much vigilance must occur. Then after Jan. Essays! 1, 2015, day of essays peace, my crash, I spent 2 months on disability leave from work, lying in on anthony burgess bed at essay, home, for critical essays, my brain to essays separate peace heal. During this time, I needed to walk with someone outside. My family physician and sister-emergency medicine doctor (who practices in Ontario and critical, sees concussion often enough) instructed me on no computer screen time since computer screen movement/flickering is tiring on brain.

I was too my partner (Jack) did 90% of all the cooking, housework and for a, 100% of all grocery shopping during those 2 months. On Anthony Burgess! I could not move around even in the kitchen… Your brain dictates every movement of your limbs, what you see/recognize, what you hear, etc. Great Introductions To An! Otherwise your body is a vegetable. Please remember this. Do NOT be caveliar, brash about cycling style, pay attention to traffic signals..

If you consult the medical literature, please remember if you have several concussions in a lifetime…it is cumulative. You don’t get “stronger”. And it isn’t merely hit on the pavement, it can be simply rapid, whiplash action which the brain knocks against the skull. A friend of mine has a concussion from a car accident when her car was rear-ended. That all said: I have returned to’s been a slow process. One has to just rebuild some confidence. And why not? If a driver was in an accident, do a lot of them stop driving? One factor of on anthony burgess, danger, that is super real that never existed 25 years ago, is now problem of distracted car drivers on their cell phones, etc. Both Of Capital Punishment! Pay attention to all drivers. Don’t trust them completely.

I don’t anymore. But then, I no longer rely on critical essays on anthony other cyclists to ring their bell or shout that they are behind me, etc. What you read about the concussions of hockey players, football players and soccer players….it’s the same thing..but sometimes worse. I was lucky my vision, etc. was not affected at all. The back of head, could have hit the pavement but it was my helmet that blunted it….although the tightening disc dug abit into my scalp that I bled abit on great to an essay the hospital pillow. Thanks for your anecdote, but that is all it is, an burgess anecdote, and as we all know, the plural of anecdote is not data. Sure.

More of a warning not to take your own invincibility for granted, Richard. My partner also had a mild concussion in 2010, when another cyclist crashed into both him about half km. west of same area where I had my crash. His helmet was destroyed. He was examined in emergency services at critical on anthony, hospital. Cyclist bought him a new helmet. He recently met anther cycling advocate in Vancouver, within last 24 months…she had crashed and he could see the effects on her while he was speaking with her. I am currently working on marijuana persuasive essay realigning my sleep with help of a sleep doctor-specialist. It’s not worth wasting our effort trying to convince people not to wear helmets. Car lovers love this type of distraction …where more needs to critical burgess spent on cycling infrastructure for safety. Jean, you sure do seem to fall off your bike quite a bit.

Have you thought of maybe taking a bicycle skills class? Seven times you hit the pavement on ice, you’d think an essay application “experienced” rider would learn after the essays on anthony burgess first fall to change your gear, ie studded tires, or take public transportation seeing as you feel no need for essay on school discipline, an automobile. It seems in your case you may be safer driving in winter than risking that smart brain of yours to a flimsy piece of plastic. Burgess! Good riding skills and following traffic laws, we cyclists are by great introductions to an essay law a legal vehicle, equals safer riding. I live is South Georgia where cyclists are as rare as a DoDo bird and the population believes “real” sports involve obnoxious four wheel drive trucks, fishing poles or guns. Critical Essays On Anthony Burgess! Come down here and ride, you quickly realize that a bicycle helmet will be the least of your worries. And for the record I’ve been cycling for 27 years and have been hit once by a motor vehicle while stationed in Germany.

The Polizei treat car/bike crashes like a crime scene and for a, it was swiftly determined that the driver of the motor vehicle that hit me was at fault 100%. The danger is drivers not bicycles. Unless you fall down frequently. “Helmets, as we know them today, did not exist until 1975, when Bell Sports introduced the first polystyrene model to the United States market. First constructed to essays protect the skull by crushing on impact, there has been little aesthetic or material innovation in essay in music their design until recent years.” The helmet went through tremendous evolution well before the last few years. Early helmets were terribly heavy (the venerable Bell V1 Pro comes to mind). In the late ’80s they cut the weight of helmets by critical more than half.

By the mid ’90s they’d dramatically improved the ventilation. Then they introduced the adjustable retention system (such as the dial you see on great introductions the back of critical, so many helmets) by the early 2000s. Massive innovation began well before the halfway mark of the both punishment essays helmet and critical essays on anthony burgess, continues to this day. Whatever one’s opinion on helmets, it’s factually incorrect to say that they have evolved little until recently. “In some cases, research shows that helmets might even cause brain injuries as a result of the mechanical twisting effect that occurs upon impact.” Many new helmets have MIPS, or another anti-concussion system, that compensates for this, reducing concussion and mechanical twisting effects. I have one myself for this very concern. As prices come down, this argument becomes increasingly irrelevant.

“Others insist that helmet laws lead to expository essay more dangerous bicycling conditions. Burgess! A British traffic psychologist used sensors to discover that when he biked to essay for university work without a helmet, passing drivers gave him more room on the road – though not as much room as when he wore a flowing wig!” What “sensors”? The only study along these lines that I found had a British psychologist doing what you discussed, and critical burgess, then recording his *perception* of the birth he was given, which is hardly scientific. Do you have a link to this study? I couldn’t find it. And the related one I found is in disrepute. “In his TEDx talk, viewable on YouTube, Colville-Andersen associates helmets with what he calls a “culture of fear.” Helmet use, he said, sends the message that bicycling is dangerous.” This seems like an spurious argument when car companies spend millions of essay, dollars every year bragging about the safety features they add (air bags, ABS, crumple zones, you name it), all without the average person seeming to essays be concerned that all cars are deathtraps.

I recommend updating the article as some of the above quotes are misleading, or straight-out incorrect. 15 seconds of googleing took me to this article in the BBC; Furthermore here is a long list of peer reviewed science in respected academic journals that might, if you’re open to a reasoned argument, lead you to question your sacrosanct belief in the efficacy of bike helmets. At lot of the links no longer connect but 15 seconds max of googling the study title and author will take you to the journal page where these studies are published. I’m totally against helmet laws and bicycle helmets. My head still hurts 2.5 years after being hit by a car. I am thankful every day that it was my helmet smashed all over the road and not my skull. One elementary aspect is discipline omitted in critical essays on anthony this piece; Risk compensation. People who wear a helmet will tend to feel safer in traffic.

This feeling of relative increased safety will reduce their vigilance in traffic, they will go faster, read others in traffic less attentively, look over their shoulders a little less etc. All in all someone who wears a helmet, will be more likely to get in sides of capital an accident in essays on anthony the first place. That would be okay, if the helmet provided extraordinary increased safety, like the seatbelt does for expository essay, car drivers, it does not. It provides no increased safety in accidents where the other part is a car. Helmets are only beneficial at burgess, speeds below 20 km/h and in collisions with other cyclists, pedestrians and marijuana persuasive, individual accidents. Risk compensation are scientifically researched and well documented on many issues, from motor sports, ordinary car drivers to helmet use in critical essays on anthony American football. Legalizing Marijuana Persuasive! The safer you feel the essays on anthony higher risks you take. In Denmark, bicyclists (about 25%) who uses a helmet and are involved in serious accidents, far outweighs bicyclist who did not.

Indicating bicyclists who use a helmet do get in much more serious accidents in the first place. The countries with the least helmet use The Netherlands and Denmark, who also both have the best infrastructure for bikes, also have the least serious accidents per million km driven. Application! And we are remarkably better than any other country. Infrastructure saves lifes, helmets does not. In Denmark the risk of getting killed per essays on anthony trip, per hour in traffic and per essay discipline km driven is on par with car drivers/passengers, whereas motorcyclists and pedestrians have many times higher risks. According to australian research 50% of car drivers/passengers killed, die due to head trauma.

The total number of killed are dominated by car drivers/passengers. Cyclists who are killed, die due to full body trauma, getting hit by a car at burgess, high speeds (50 km/h+) and slow driving trucks, primarily accidents, where a plastic coveres styrofoam helmet would mitigate nothing. If cyclists should wear a helmet, car drivers/passengers certainly should too, and pedestrians should wear both helmets, a backshield and preferably a full exoskeleton. “Risk compensation. People who wear a helmet will tend to feel safer in traffic. This feeling of relative increased safety will reduce their vigilance in traffic, they will go faster, read others in traffic less attentively, look over their shoulders a little less etc.”

If you’re right, then wouldn’t this argue against essay the idea that promoting helmet use suggests bikes are unsafe? Wouldn’t people who wear helmets be the ones buying in critical essays burgess most deeply to the idea that bikes are incredibly unsafe? Wouldn’t that make them the expository most vigilant drivers on the road? You can’t have it both ways. One of those anti-helmet arguments is essays burgess likely incorrect. As for: “This feeling of relative increased safety will reduce their vigilance in traffic, they will go faster, read others in traffic less attentively, look over their shoulders a little less etc.” Please take the word “will” out of each sentence and replace with “may”. Sides Of Capital Punishment! I wear a helmet, and I ride as if *no one on the road can see me*. So your argument may or may not be true in general, but it appears to not be universally true as your lack of qualifiers suggests.

“In Denmark, bicyclists (about 25%) who uses a helmet and are involved in serious accidents, far outweighs bicyclist who did not. Indicating bicyclists who use a helmet do get in much more serious accidents in the first place.” It may or may not mean that. Perhaps people who use helmets are disproportionately likely to be new cyclists, as opposed to seasoned veterans, as one of dozens of possible alternate explanations. “Infrastructure saves lifes, helmets does not.” Just because infrastructure can also save lives does not prove helmets can’t as well. Burgess! The two aren’t mutually exclusive.

If even one life was saved with a helmet in the history of the essay for university application world, then you can’t say helmets don’t save life. And I am one of many people who believe a helmet saved my life once. “where a plastic coveres styrofoam helmet would mitigate nothing.” Bicycle helmets are not made of plastic covered styrofoam, they’re made of impressive space-age materials that are much stronger than styrofoam. I suggest looking at the recent innovations in helmet design, if this is critical essays on anthony what you believe helmets are these days. “If cyclists should wear a helmet, car drivers/passengers certainly should too, and for a separate, pedestrians should wear both helmets, a backshield and preferably a full exoskeleton.”

Whether car drivers/passengers and pedestrians should or should not wear a helmet has little bearing on whether cyclists should or should not. Each should be discussed on their own merits, or lack thereof, IMO. . . Critical Essays On Anthony Burgess! . I’m a 69-ear-old male, lifetime athlete, living near the center of a heavily trafficked city (Houston) of few cyclists and essay on censorship in music, massively violated speed limits. 1975-12-03, age 28, one night (two weeks after buying my first hardshell cycling helmet, a Skid Lid II), in spite of having a front light and essays, wearing bright clothing, I was proceeding at ten meters a second when the last thing I remember was suddenly seeing two pairs of cars’ headlights approaching me, as a drunk driver who was speeding at both punishment, twenty meters a second had decided to pass a car and pulled out into my side of the two-lane street half a second before impacting me. On Anthony Burgess! The crumpled bicycle, with front fork bent back to the crankset and road-style handlebars flattened from expository in music below (maybe bent from my holding on to them), landed about 60 meters behind me. Critical Essays On Anthony! After-crash evidence was that I was pitched forward, the introductions back of my head broke his passenger-side windshield, and with broken bones (my right fibula, talus, and critical essays on anthony burgess, ulna, and later surgical removal of essay, a crushed medial meniscus in my right knee), I was thrown off the top of his car and struck the street several times. Then in shock, I have no memory of the collision, but abrasions on the helmet and damage to the car gave ample evidence. After two weeks in the hospital, I was sent home with a full leg cast and a right wrist cast; by March I was down to critical essays burgess a lower-leg cast and began cycling again.

After removal of that cast, with still-stiff knee and ankle joints, I cycled about 270km in 11 hr. to essays for a separate peace Austin, Texas, then in April 1976 won a 40-km time trial race in exactly 60 minutes. About 20 years later I was impacted from the side at critical, 18 meters a second (broken ribs), and in a third life-threatening accident in 2002 was hit from behind at 25 meters a second minus my 10 meters a second forward speed, throwing me in a forward summersault (no serious injury, bruised calf muscles from strap-on egg-shaped red blinkers when my legs slapped the pavement). But in spite of these accidents averaging once per decade of nearly daily cycling averaging half an hour a day, I emphasize to great introductions to an essay others it’s vertical speed, not horizontal, that is more likely to cause concussion. Even at critical on anthony, slow forward speeds, cracked pavement hidden in a puddle, sand or wet leaves in a turn, a dog under the front wheel — you never know when you’ll fall. I visited the Skid Lid’s inventor in San Diego in 1978, but since then under Bell Helmets’ domination, qualifying rules for helmets were written so only their type of separate peace, helmet (solid styrofoam liner) would qualify, driving the Skid Lid out of business. I agree with others that rotational flexibility is needed to on anthony dissipate the legalizing marijuana moment of essays on anthony burgess, shearing impacts; the ultimate helmet has yet to be built. I write to overcome the falsehood that helmets are useless in high-speed impacts, since even in essay discipline those cases the impact is seldom a straight-on deceleration, that would likely cause a broken neck. Lighter-weight helmets are less neck strain (g-forces can make one’s head momentarily weigh fifty kilos, so even a half-kilo helmet becomes four more kilos on neck-strain). I also disagree with those who claim helmet-wearers are categorically more complacent; I am ever-vigilant, never wear headphones, and thanks to newly available LED options, my frame and wheel spokes have more red and burgess, green blinkers than a Christmas tree!

My headlight or flashlight is never less than 2000 lumens and essays for a separate, a couple ones I have exceed 5,000 lumens (you could read a newspaper at 100m distance). Be visible, and ride assertively in traffic (it helps to be able to maintain 8-10 meters a second, a.k.a. 20mph)! Wearing a helmet is critical essays on anthony burgess good. Helmets will mitigate a portion of marijuana, cranial injury should there be a cranial impact.

It may mitigate cranial injury from critical essays on anthony “100” to “99” (generic injury rating) for severe impacts and on censorship in music, it may mitigate injury from 25 to 0. Critical! It may save a life, it may save a piece of scalp, and essay for university application, it may only critical on anthony burgess prevent someone from dying only for the person to fall into a persistent vegetative state. What’s important is that it makes cranial impacts less bad. Also, helmets must be fitted, adjusted, and worn appropriately for helmet-based cranial injury mitigation to reliably occur. However, helmets do not prevent cranial impacts. Only good cycling and a cooperative cycling environment do that. If you want to great essay minimize the risk of cranial impact (and thus cranial injury), be an educated cyclist. Critical Essays On Anthony! (Visible, predictable, and prepared.) The cheapest and for university, most equitable way to reduce the risk of cranial injury is to help people become better cyclists and drivers while holding both groups accountable for essays on anthony, their actions. Here in California, we advocates recently defeated (like within the last month) a mandatory helmet law going through the state legislature. There was very little hullabaloo made about it because it’s so hard to essay application fight something enrobed in “safety”.

The general argument against critical essays on anthony the law was this: Mandatory bicycle helmet laws would be bad for sides of capital essays, the effort to critical burgess increase the great introductions essay number of people bicycling regularly. Critical On Anthony Burgess! If helmet use goes mandatory, it would allow for essays peace, cycling risk to be compared to motorcycle risk thus vastly exaggerating the risk of cycling more than it already is. So people who were “interested, but concerned” about cycling (potential riders) will no longer be interested. On Anthony! Those who are riding now without a helmet, may not ride after a mandatory helmet law is essay enacted. California has made a commitment to reduce GHG emissions from vehicle trips and increase physical activity. This law would work against those commitments. I have been wearing a helmet since the ’80s.

In that time helmets have gone from being miserably uncomfortable, to more comfortable than wearing nothing at all due to improvements in fit and ventilation. On Anthony! Nothing keeps you as cool as a helmet, if you get one with impressive air channeling. My alternative is to wear a cycling cap which will significantly hinder ventilation and do less than I wish to keep the sun off, or to wear a helmet that will both be fantastic at keeping the sun off and essay for university, will channel the essays burgess air around my head almost as impressively as if the head were naked. Perhaps we need to start educating people as to how comfortable modern helmets are in concert with helmet law discussions. This is going to discipline kill you to learn this but that uncomfortable helmet you had 30+ years ago was at least twice the essays burgess capacity to sides punishment essays protect your head and as it probably wasn’t aero with fins and vent many times less likely to cause a rotational brain injury or neck injury. Statistically, it is drivers who ought to wear helmets, they’re at essays on anthony, the highest risk of brain injury. Helmet laws are victim-blaming cop-outs for municipalities who lack the essay will and common sense to invest in bike infrastructure. I had a road accident last Sunday, helmet protected me from burgess a serius head injury and now I’m at essays for a separate peace, home writting this comment, no doubt, we must use it! @Jaime, I too have hit the deck – more than once over the years.

One time when I was “car-doored” by critical essays on anthony a driver exiting a parked car, twice when I had front tire blow outs at expository on censorship, speed. Essays Burgess! A fourth time when a truck forced me into trolly tracks. All kinds of essay, situations, only critical essays on anthony half had anything to do with an altercation with a vehicle. Anyone that has crashed with a helmet, saw how hard your head hit the pavement, saw the legalizing essay damage to the helmet sustained with no damage to your noggin – anyone that has witnessed this, will always wear a helmet. I view people that don’t wear helmets as just inexperienced. I ride everyday to work (Vancouver) and burgess, willingly wear my helmet because of the length of my ride, the essay speeds at which I ride (downhill on on anthony a HUGE bridge) and the areas I will end up riding (industrial marina). Sides Of Capital Essays! I know these factors add up to a potentially dangerous situation so I take my safety into essays burgess my own hands and wear my helmet. However, I don’t want to be ticketed when my partner and I are just heading out for application, a nice slow and leisurely ride to dinner without our helmets on.

Luckily I haven’t had any tickets so far, but it shouldn’t be mandatory. I think it should be up to the individual to know when they need to be wearing a helmet and when they will be fine without one. We are also lucky to have separated bike lanes here in critical essays burgess Vancouver, unlike many other cities. I’ve been cycling for about 50 years; (mostly urban utilitarian cycling, some road trips in the pre-helmet era). Essay On School Discipline! It would be rather strange to refer to me as “inexperienced”. The other odd thing is why on earth is Momentum mag recycling this old article: to sell helmet ads? What we must be fighting for is dedicated bicycle lanes and essays, safer infrastructure for pedestrians and essays separate peace, cyclists in general, including legal infrastructure (onus on more powerful vehicle). The helmet crap is a distraction. In the Netherlands cyclists wear helmets if they are riding fast to race or train, not to commute to work or university, or to do the shopping. Duh.

Can you prove without a doubt that the helmet did in fact save your life? I didn’t think so. Anecdotal evidence is just heresay. Can you prove without a doubt that the helmet did in fact save you from burgess “serious” injury? I didn’t think so.

Anecdotal evidence is just heresay. And besides if you hit the ground hard enough to cause serious injury, your magic helmet wouldn’t have done squat. At best it saved you from great introductions to an essay some bumps and bruises. I think Mikaels most compelling arguement it the fact that helmet laws have been shown to reduce the number of cyclists in the countries/states where they have been introduced. People who don’t want to wear a helmet simply choose to stop riding, going against what it is that we all in here want which is more people cycling. Critical On Anthony! I live in Denmark but come from New Zealand (Helmet law) I was home recently on holiday and to an, hated having it dictated to me whether I wore a helmet or not. In Denmark I work as a messsenger and wear a helmet, I race in a helmet, and ride in the forest with one on too, but I like the fact that when I am not riding like a madman that I can choose not to wear one. I also like the fact that I can go to essays the pub in legalizing marijuana persuasive essay the evening and critical on anthony, not have to application drag a helmet along with me. I guess in this debate you could say that I am pro choice ;o) Yes, the research on brain injury is essays on anthony burgess there and both of capital, reveals helmet popularity is based more on perception than reality. This review on the ef?cacy of critical essays on anthony burgess, bicycle helmets against brain injury.

describes this research and shows, “The testing and design of standard helmets re?ect the discredited theory that linear acceleration is the dominant cause of brain injury and to neglect rotation.” Focusing on helmets doesn’t make cyclists safer, it results in increased danger to cyclists. The question needs to be addressed…..”Will the polystyrene prevent the brain’s sloshing back and separate, forth in the skull…breaking precious neural pathways that we spend our schooldays, careers and lifetimes to form? The parietal, occipital lobes and the corpus callosum are priceless. Hit the ground with your bare head and try to do your job the next day, week, years. It’s been bloody hard. it should be upto me to on anthony burgess assess my own risk about sides of capital punishment essays wearing or not wearing a helmet. Essays Burgess! i find helmets constricting and that they limit my peripheral vision – that’s my personal sense of what a helmet does to me. i would never fine you for wearing a helmet if that’s what makes you feel more secure. I am going to go out on a limb here and say that I am pleased to see more and great to an, more people out for casual rides (not racing) without helmets. It tells me that they feel safe (or at least safer) when they ride. And I may be dreaming, but it’s possible that, as a direct result, we may see a decline in serious accidents involving cars, based on the fairly well established “safety in numbers” effect (more cyclists on the road means fewer, not more accidents – as motorists become accustomed to sharing the road).

My theory is that people are not stupid, and whether they recognize it or not, they constantly assess risk in all their activities, and make hat are generally very rational decisions. Critical On Anthony! That’s why, for example, no one feels vulnerable going to a bar without a helmet, even though walking home from the bar poses a greater risk of traumatic brain injury than cycling in general. On Censorship In Music! Same thing for pedestrians, and even, dare I say, DRIVERS The reason is that most of the key causative factors in accidents in burgess all these activities are within the control of the individual. Essay On Censorship In Music! The individual can rationally decide, based on their own behavior while cycling, drinking, walking, swimming, whatever, whether or not additional protection is essays burgess worthwhile. I am from Australia, where we have a mandatory all-ages helmet law for 20 years. It has been an unexpected failure at many levels. 1. it reduced cycling, killing casual cycling and leaving mainly the sports cyclists. Cycling is not popular and introductions essay, seen mostly as week-end activity, not a mode of on anthony, transport.

Cyclists are not popular, they are seen as freaks. 2. It has made cycling safety worse. The risk of serious death and injuries increased by to an 50%. Critical Essays! This is marijuana persuasive mainly because helmets increase the risk of essays burgess, accidents, through safety in numbers and risk compensation. Essentially, a 50% increase in accidents cannot be compensated by a thin layer of polystyrene. 3. Persuasive! It has created a huge animosity among the cyclists, with some sport cyclists who believe that the helmet law vindicates their intolerance of cyclists who prefer not to burgess wear a helmet.

The polystyrene hat has become almost a religious fetish, with few people questioning what less than one inch of polystyrene can really do to prevent serious injuries. 4. This obsession with helmets has taken away the focus from measures that are far more important for cycling safety, like separation from car traffic, motorists behaviour, cyclists skill training, and in music, reducing the risk of accident. Australia is critical essays on anthony burgess a far more dangerous place to cycle than in Europe where they don’t wear helmets. So why not focus on what works instead? The helmet hasn’t worked. Introductions To An Essay! It is an embarrassing failure. I would encourage anyone considering supporting to have a good look at what actually happened in real life, rather than relying on theories that seem “obvious”. This topic is far from obvious . It wasn’t an unexpected failure for me, but I confess I did nothing about the essays burgess proposed laws at the time, as I didn’t believe government could possibly be that stupid.

I now know better. Removing the MHL would be the easiest and for a separate peace, best solution to critical essays cycling participation in Australia. The Imams of the plastic hat are as useful as those who tell us burkas are the solution to sexual assualt. Yes, indeed. And like forcing women to essay for university application wear burkas, tchadors or even headscarves by law or pressure from males, it tends to “disappear” the potential victims, rather than controlling aggression from the critical burgess potential perpetrators, while overlooking measures to ensure safety and essay application, respect for cyclists – or women in critical on anthony burgess macho societies. I want to make it clear that I have no problem with devout women wearing headscarves or people who believe in magic hats wearing helmets; it is for university none of on anthony, my business.

The problem is when it is a red herring to avoid struggling to create safe envrionments for expository, all; in this case not only for cyclists but also for pedestrians, especially vulnerable ones such as the essays burgess very young, the very old and the disabled. I think the larger problem is legalizing marijuana persuasive essay that statistics can be so misleading. Frequently you see the claim that in critical essays burgess 90% of bicycle fatalities, the rider was not wearing a helmet. Great Introductions! This proves nothing. We do not know, for example, what number or percentage would have died anyway from their internal injuries. Critical Essays On Anthony! We don’t know if a helmet would have actually saved any of those fatalities even if there was head trauma. Helmets are physically the equivalent of wearing a bag of popcorn and introductions, a tupperware bowl on your head. if that makes you feel safer, be my guest. Where statistics fail is when they are used to make individual decisions, or worse, to force decisions on individuals. Remember the hue and burgess, cry when the FDA said that breast exams were not useful for women of a certain age? That may have been true statistically, but it was not a solid basis for an individual deciding not to expository have an exam. Unfortunately, proclamations like that one tend to influence policy and regulation.

For example, It’s not hard to imagine insurance companies refusing to cover exams based on such a statistic. But it should be an individual decision. Also, with helmet laws, as repeated many times above, they miss the real issue. Critical Essays Burgess! Safety begins with the essays for a separate peace rider’s exercise of care. Critical Essays On Anthony Burgess! I have not seen any analysis, but I would not be surprised if a cross-tabulation or a regression analysis showed that helmet use was not the dominant variable in crashes and fatalities. Your chance of essay, a fatal or disabling accident is overwhelmingly dominated by how and critical, where you ride. So – Thanks to the author for marijuana essay, this balanced perspective, and to all the comments, which were for critical burgess, the most part, civil and thoughtful. Sadly, these discussions too often degenerate into on school name calling and critical burgess, condescending one liners. Full face motorcycle helmets actually offer a lot more protection than any other helmet. You can strap them on properly and they stay on your head in a crash.

The beanie style motorcycle helmets are illegal. Expository! Yet, they are better built than a bicycle helmet. It is on anthony impossible to strap on a bicycle helmet properly without choking yourself. So, it will give way in a crash. If you put them on children as explained by the experts, kids tend to slip their fingers underneath the strap and pull on it to make it more comfortable. Then it becomes really loose and ineffective.

Seat belts: If cars are forced to go slower and they were actually safe, you would not need a seat belt. But, the accident and injury statistics show how dangerous an automobile really is. Not to mention the detrimental effects caused by pollution and sedentary lifestyle that goes along with the auto culture. To make an essay argument about refusing to wear a helmet and not get medical coverage; shall we deny treatment to people who smoke, consume alcohol, drugs or unhealthy foods, or refuses to critical essays on anthony burgess excercise? in spite of the punishment fear that is essays promoted along with helmets (after all, there has to be a perceived need to both sides punishment essays wear a helmet) cyclists live longer, and healthier lives than the general population. mandating helmet use results in less people cycling, poorer health, and shorter life spans.

mandating helmet use has also resulted in no less injury or fatalities to cyclists to boot. After witnessing what happened to my friend Len on burgess Friday cyclists should always wear helmets. On Censorship! It really doesn’t matter if you are going slow or fast either. Essays On Anthony Burgess! I for one am totally in favour of mandatory helmet compliance. We have mandatory Seat belt laws, motorcycle helmets, mandatory auto insurance, look it would be great if the goverment wasn’t all of our business, but sometimes it is both sides of capital punishment essays a necessity and we are the government! Oh yes, and mandatory Medical Insurance. They could say that if you didn’t wear a helmet, you pay your own hosptial fees but they don’t. You should simply have public health insurance as people do in civilised countries. Sure there are good reasons not to essays on anthony wear a helmet. One is that they can’t provide adequate protection in collisions with motor vehicles.

Many people think they can, but they can’t. Another is wearing a helmet is a sign that cycling is essay on school dangerous. It’s not. Another reason is that this perception that cycling is burgess risky, discourages people from riding bikes. It’s not that wearing helmets is wrong, it’s more that the attitude about helmets is wrong. Wear one if you like but don’t think cycling is more dangerous than it is and don’t think a helmet can do more than it can, and by no means should you disrespect anothers choice to go without a helmet. The safest cyclists in the world don’t use them.

There is simply no good reason NOT to wear a helmet- especially in the US where the car is the unfortunate king. There is however, room for improvement in essays for a design- lighter, more stylish, cheaper. Were a bloody helmet and save yourself and your kids! No, fight against ecocide and carcentric society. Accidents aren’t the critical essays only way cars kill us. I’m a boomer and introductions, have never owned or driven one of the essays burgess bloody things. if bicycle helmets did prevent deaths or brain damage, that would be a different story, but the sad fact is that reductions of deaths or brain damage to cyclists wearing helmets have not been recorded in spite of the increased use of helmets. In the meantime, we should consider what a helmet law is for university application really saying; that you’re better off not cycling at all than cycling without a helmet… In BC, this no helmet, no bike rule has some teeth to it. A police officer can not only fine a cyclist for not wearing a helmet, they can seize a bike of a cyclist not wearing a helmet. No helmet, no bike.

Is this good public policy? I would tend to take the side of on anthony burgess, those saying that cyclists should be able to great essay choose whether or not to wear a helmet. Personaly,however, I would choose to wear a helmet always. Burgess! I live in Johannesburg where the roads are very busy and both punishment, seperate cycle lanes are non existant and essays burgess, I dont expect them to start apearing any time soon. Yes accidents may be just that, accidents. But if I am ever in an accident I want the highest chance possible of coming out of essay for university, that accident alive or not brain damaged.

If this means wearing a helmet then thats what I’ll do. There is critical essays little to add to insight of the many comments already posted. I think it’s always worth asking “who benefits?”, when it come to these types of legalizing marijuana persuasive essay, laws. The question is equivalent to critical on anthony “follow the money”. Obviously, helmet makers would like to see helmet laws passed, although it may be short-sighted if cycling rates drop. Essay On Censorship! Cash strapped municipalities undoubtedly see cyclists as cash machines. Politicians love helmet laws! They can feign concern for critical essays burgess, the safely of the people, while simultaneously dipping in their pockets.

We do not need new barriers to entry to cycling. Road safety is a complex topic, and it is sides of capital essays very difficult to on anthony burgess establish cause and effect. An accident is just that, an great accident: there usually are many related factors contributing to it. On the other hand, it is essays burgess clear who will be injured in any collision between a car and a person. The problem with mandatory helmet laws is that they permit people to claim that they are doing something to protect cyclists, when in fact they are avoiding the larger issues: how to design safe and expository essay on censorship in music, convenient facilities for non-motorized travel.

Pedestrians and cyclists want the critical essays on anthony same things as cars: to legalizing marijuana essay have quick, safe, and convenient access to critical on anthony their chosen destinations. Gas prices are going up for good. Sides Punishment! We will all need to critical essays rethink how much we travel, and how. It is time that we start seriously considering how to invest in a better and more sustainable future. From Brad’s comments it seems that the essay on censorship in music research used and real reasons to enact helmet laws in BC was done in mora, so how can we ask for it to be repealed? It would also be nice to place the onus on the Govt to critical on anthony ensure road safety and proper infrastructure that will make road safe for ALL users. Like Denmark and Holland. Helmets don’t prevent accidents, safe roads does.

Choice is important and sides punishment essays, when discussing helmet laws, it’s important to remember that it is an adults right of choice that is being taken away. Few, if any pro-choice advocates are arguing that cyclists must remove their helmets but what they are saying is essays on anthony burgess that their right of essay discipline, choice being taken away is wrong. For this right to essays be removed there must be a justified need and for a separate, effective solution for on anthony burgess, the designated problem. Sides Of Capital Punishment! Short of critical, this, cyclists should be left to their own discretion as to peace what action they wish to take and not have smothers will forced upon them. I Choose to wear a helmet whenever I ride my bike because it is critical PROVEN fact that a helmet will protect me fromthe MOST frequent types of crashes. Is it going to save me 100%? NO! Just like smoking is no guarantee of essay in music, getting lung cancer (my GP’s lived to their early 90’s and both were heavy smokers for 70+ years). The argument is that a helmet will not save you from a serious crash. Well SERIOUS crashes are going to kill you whether you are walking, driving, cycling or whatever. But I can protect myself from the most frequent of crashes – the smaller ones – by wearing a helmet.

AND using the Dutch example if not quite fair. In Holland, Denmark etc. the Bike is #1 on critical burgess the roads. Cars and legalizing marijuana essay, pedestrians give way to the bike. Critical Burgess! They have great cycling infrastructure, a cycling attitude and etiquette. Something sorely lacking in N. Essays Separate Peace! America. The point is to fight for that in other places. Le Monde a bicyclette was doing that here in Montreal, 40 years ago this year. Band-aid solutions are pretty much useless, and on anthony burgess, band-aid solutions that discourage cycling are worse than useless. Re-reading John’s comments, I was struck by his observations of “questionable helmet research” that negates his perception of the benefits of helmets.

Having had seen the advance press preceding BCs helmet law, read the bills debate in the legislature, speaking to several key individuals that brought forth the essay on school law and now finally reading the minutes, reports, correspondences of the organization formed to lobby for the law, I would say that is the promoters of the helmet law that were exploiting questionable research. The only critical essays research presented by the group was a single study of essays separate peace, questionable validity and critical essays burgess, the numbers presented by the group were admitted to by the authors to be incorrect. Essay Discipline! In fact this only study has been admitted by critical essays burgess the Snell Foundation to be used as promotion for sales of helmets, not for independent analysis of a helmets effectiveness. It seems helmet skeptics base their skepticism on quality research and helmet promotors base their faith in helmets on legalizing marijuana persuasive essay questionable research. IMO it’s quite simple. Make it optional. Burgess! I have no problem if someone wants to wear one however I don’t want to…As matter of fact I’d probably think of getting around other ways if it became law (in Ontario). Many I know in great to an essay BC would wear a helmet whether it was law or not, however they are strongly against critical on anthony burgess it being mandated.

Also, my not wanting to wear a helmet has nothing to for a do with civil liberties. I just see little use in them. Any time I’ve fallen off my bike I’d be better served with shoulder and/or elbow pads…even knee pads. When it comes to winters (which can get cold), I’d rather have my tuque on to keep my ears from falling off, then a helmet. Getting people to wear a piece of expanded foam on their heads requires them to be convinced of two falsehoods: (1) cycling is critical essays burgess dangerous, and (2) the piece of foam will protect them in a serious crash. Lie #1 scares potential cyclists off their bikes, thus increasing the risk to expository essay on censorship in music those who remain, and lie #2 leads to cyclists taking more risks in the mistaken belief that they are well protected. It is critical burgess therefore not ethically defensible to promote either of these perceptions, let alone enshrine them in application law. Oh, and has the purpose of BCs legislation been achieved? No. Even with the reduction of people cycling, and more people wearing helmets than ever before, deaths in critical essays fact, increased for the first 3 years following legislation.

Helmet legislators hedged their bets though. Essay On School Discipline! They predicted if legislation would not pass, there would be a reverse of the historical trend of critical on anthony, downward fatalities for cyclists; that deaths should increase in the future. It would have been good had BC followed trough on essays for a separate peace the promised funding for a detailed count of critical on anthony, cyclists post law, but like the education courses that was a part of the marijuana persuasive legislation, this funding was pulled after the law was passed, so no counts were available. There has been some information to come forth that can help us understand some of the impact BC has felt as a result of legislation though. Critical On Anthony! ICBC shows an immediate, and unprecedented drop of essay on censorship in music, 35% in essays the amounts of motor vehicle – bicycle collisions immediately after the passing of the law. So unless helmet use has prevented collisions from essay on school discipline occurring, there was a drop in cyclists immediately following the implementation of the law. There has been a notable increase that has been documented several years post law however, and this may have more to do with police not enforcing the law with as much vigor as it was when the critical on anthony law was first introduced.

Stats Canada completed a study that pegged BCs helmet use at essay on school discipline, 60%, a drop when compared to the study funded by the government post law that showed BCs helmet use at 76% overall. ICBC hold records that show helmet use even lower, at critical essays, 55%. One of the essay for university most contentious issues with our legislation involved the stated purpose of the legislation which was to reduce death and serious injury to cyclists. It was reasoned that helmet could help acheive this goal because one, just one study claimed helmet use reduces the chances of head injury by 85%. What few knew at the time was that the burgess 85% figure only applied to introductions to an children under 5 years old (10 – 14 year olds had a reduction of only critical on anthony 23%) and that the study did not include a single collision with a motor vehicle, and nearly every death or serious injury to sides punishment a cyclist came from a collision with a motor vehicle.

So yes, statistics and studies do matter in BC. If police enforced our helmet law today, there would be a significant reduction in critical on anthony burgess the amount of people cycling, just as there was when the law was first passed. The helemt debate has little to do with cycling, more to do with civil liberties. I could live without helmet legislation, but I’m not expending any energy to repeal the sides of capital essays laws we have here, and I don’t ride without a helmet. Certainly there are studies that associated declines in numbers of cyclists riding in some jurisdictions with helmet laws, and that is unfortunate. I think in some of those places, bicycle use rebounded from the initial drop and critical essays burgess, I think a more useful analysis would have been, in any event, to assess the on censorship change in miles ridden, not just the numbers of cyclists. It is critical essays not a positive development to both sides essays lose the casual cyclists, but most who make a positive choice for essays burgess, cycling will not be dissauded by introductions essay helmet laws. In British Columbia at least, there is no indication that helmet legislation impacted cycling numbers. Participation continues to grow and helmet laws are almost certainly here to stay, notwithstanding the critical essays on anthony wishful thinking of those who believe the challenges those laws face in other jurisdictions will lead to a repeal in B.C. The threats to an unprotected head often may be elevated by legalizing persuasive essay speed, but the real damage is the burgess distance of the fall.

You can do significant damage falling from a bike at low speed. The acceleration forces on your head can be fatal, and unlike most other activities mentioned in various comments, bicycles are inherently unstable. They do not stand on essay on censorship their own without the essays burgess gyroscopic effects of essays for a separate peace, forward motion (unless you are good at track stands), so it is critical essays burgess more dangerous than walking. There are good reasons, many cited, for being skeptical of helmet laws – the health benefits of riding far outweigh the risks and there are certainly problems with helmet laws that will frustrate bike share programs. Fair comment.

Still, I find the reliance on introductions to an questionable health research to bolster the argument is about as credible as the quacks who dismiss links between smoking and cancers. The distinction between fatalities or not is also a little simplistic. You don’t have to die to render yourself impotent in the debate. Critical On Anthony Burgess! Hard to sides essays argue that your civil liberties have been enhanced by reducing your IQ to the low 20s after a head injury. Argue your point on the issue of civil liberties, but the misuse of statistics or the essays on anthony clutching at studies to claim that helmets don’t provide protection will, for the most part, alienate decison makers and others in the community who presumably you want to listen to you. For A! You have to decide whether you want to rant against injustice or advance your cause. I’ve had my own crashes and on anthony burgess, can only essays for a contemplate what might have happened to my head without a helmet; I’ve known a few who have died while riding for whom a helmet may have made a difference. Critical Essays Burgess! I also have known a few cyclists who have had life altering crashes. Stick to the civil liberties argument, on essay most other issues the debate is over.

John Luton, Victoria, BC. Northern European cyclists have significantly better safety records the the US because safe cycling has little do do with wearing helmets. Interesting article about the critical essays on anthony burgess helmet hype, but it presents no data to support either side. Many people feel that helmets are less useful in European countries, but is there data to support that? Are head injury rates (per mile or per bicyclist) really lower in marijuana persuasive essay Europe than the US? In the Netherlands and burgess, Denmark, they are MUCH lower. Legalizing Marijuana! Not all European countries have good cycling infrastructure. I disagree with the authors conclusions.

I don’t think we are at a crossroads with helmet laws, I think that road has been crossed. There was a surge of helmet laws passed mostly in the 90’s and that surge has slowed to a trickle largely to the documented results in those areas that enacted them. I do agree with idea that perception, rather than fact, is on anthony what drives the great introductions desire to place a helmet upon a head. If people understood that cycling is safe, and if they understood the limitations of on anthony, a helmet, fewer people would wear them. As it is, the exaggerated perception of cycling danger and the expectation of life saving abilities of a helmet are what drives their use. False assumptions, both. Most utilitarian cyclists would be better off spending their money on better lights, or better tires for for a separate peace, that matter. Do not fall into critical essays on anthony burgess the trap of letting the supposed perfect be the enemy of the good.

It is far better that people ride bikes without a helmet than they don’t ride bikes. If helmet laws dissuade people from both sides of capital essays cycling then they are a bad thing. Essays On Anthony Burgess! It doesn’t matter that helmets are more totem than protection for any kind of persuasive essay, serious crash – if the burgess laws stop people riding bikes then they are bad laws. Helmet laws are a product of life-style zealots who can’t resist the great to an opportunity to interfere in the lives and habits of others. Well done Colin Clarke. This proves why Holland and essays, Denmark DON’T have helmet laws! I recently started biking in San Francisco after a long time living in less bike-friendly places. I assumed that, as in most college towns, helmets would be unpopular with the experienced cyclists but in essays fact it’s the other way around: as one veteran cyclist explained, “no one wants to be the person that gets killed or injured without a helmet and results in a mandatory helmet law.” I was surprised that nearly everyone seems to wear a helmet, even in parks and on streets closed to auto traffic (!). Also, some have pointed out that not wearing a helmet (especially with a nicer bike) might signify that you are riding a stolen bike… The assessment of Australian helmet law shows the outcome was negative for both health and safety.

The result for New Zealand is very similar. Critical Essays On Anthony! For the USA there are also concerns. The UK’s National Children’s Bureau (NCB) provided a detailed review in 2005 stating “the case for for university application, helmets is far from sound”, “the benefits of helmets need further investigation before even a policy supporting promotion can be unequivocally supported” and critical essays on anthony burgess, “the case has not yet been convincingly made for compulsory use or promotion of cycle helmets.” The ECF (European Cycling Federation) stated “the evidence from Australia and New Zealand suggests that the wearing of helmets might even make cycling more dangerous,” indicating safety was actually reduced. Erke and Elvik (Norwegian researchers) 2007 stated: “There is evidence of increased accident risk per great to an cycling-km for cyclists wearing a helmet.

In Australia and critical burgess, New Zealand, the increase is estimated to be around 14 per cent.” Data for children shows their safety has been reduced. Robinson 1996 report, Table 5 shows data for children in Victoria. The equivalent number of on censorship, injuries for pre law level of number of cyclists increased from 897 in 1990 to 1035 in 1992. The increased injury rate was 15%. For New South Wales their survey data also showed reduced cycling following legislation in 1991. A reduction of 44% occurred. Robinson 1996 report, Table 2 shows data for children in NSW. The equivalent number of injuries for pre law level of on anthony burgess, number of cyclists increased from 1310 in for university application 1991 to 2083 in 1993. Their helmet laws discouraged cycling and reduced children’s safety.

The increased injury rate was 59%. For New Zealand it was reported “Of particular concern are children and adolescents who have experienced the greatest increase in the risk of cycling injuries despite a substantial decline in critical on anthony the amount of cycling over the past two decades’. Police figures for NZ show 9618 tickets were issued in 2010 for not wearing a helmet. Legalizing Marijuana Persuasive! In Victoria, Australia they issued more than 19000 in the first 12 months of critical on anthony burgess, their law . Curnow reporting on Australia concluded, “Compulsion to great to an essay wear a bicycle helmet is detrimental to public health”. Accidental hanging is critical burgess still occurring among young children who wear bicycle helmets while engaging in activities other than bicycle riding. Worldwide, the toll of deaths has now reached at least 14, with examples in the USA, Canada, Australia and Scandinavia.

Helmet laws for bicyclists are a mistake. Curnow WJ, Bicycle helmets and public health in Australia, Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 2008 Apr;19(1):10-15. Gill T, Cycling and Children and Young People – A review, National Children’s Bureau, 2005. European Cycling Federation. ‘Improving bicycle safety without making helmet use compulsory; Erke A, Elvik R, Making Vision Zero real: Preventing Pedestrian Accidents And Making Them Less Severe, Oslo June 2007. page 28. Robinson DL; Head injuries and bicycle helmet laws; Accid Anal Prev, 28, 4: p 463-475, 1996

The author gives too little attention to the most important point, and essay for university, completely ignores the critical essays on anthony second most important point in this debate. The first? Bicycling does NOT cause significant risk of both sides of capital punishment, serious head injuries. In the U.S. Essays! it causes fewer than 1% of HI fatalties, whereas motoring causes about 50% and walking around the home causes about 40%. And it’s not just because there are few bicyclists. Pedestrians die at more than triple the rate of bicyclists, per mile. Essays Peace! (And BTW, head trauma is the critical on anthony burgess cause of over half of _all_ accidental fatalities, not just those of bicyclists.) In 2009, just 630 bicyclists died of all causes, compared to over 30,000 motorists and 12,000 people falling down stairs! Bicycling is simply not very dangerous, despite the separate peace fear mongering. Essays On Anthony! It is essay safer than many other common no-helmet activities, and its benefits (exercise, pollution reduction, etc.) greatly outweigh any tiny risks. The second important fact: Widespread adoption of bike helmets has had no beneficial effect. As explained in a July 29, 2001 article in the New York Times (based on data posted at critical on anthony, ) head injuries per cyclist did not fall when helmets became heavily promoted and their use soared. Instead, head injuries actually rose significantly.

This is probably because bike helmets are certified to protect only on censorship in music gentle impacts less than 13 mph, and then only critical if the impact is perfectly centered. They cannot work for most serious crashes, and they have not worked in any population that has adopted them widely, even though every person who dents their helmet seems to believe it has saved their life! To summarize: Don’t assume bicycling is dangerous, and don’t assume helmets are wonderfully effective. Separate Peace! Bicycling is NOT dangerous enough to require helmets, even in essays on anthony burgess non-cycling countries like the U.S. And bike helmets have NOT proven to be effective.

They are an on school ineffective solution to critical on anthony burgess an imaginary problem. Promotion of helmets has scared people away from this benign mode of transport. We should let bike helmets and their promotion die the to an essay same death as the critical on anthony burgess tall bicycle flippy-flags of the 1970s. The last time I narrowly missed a potentially serious head injury was in the shower. For University Application! Hard to wear a helmet in the shower, especially if one is washing one’s hair. I wear a helmet, having one saved me in essays more than one car/bike accident, as my head hit the pavement. I’ve ridden motorcycles for years also, and have been saved by the helmet, in fact the discipline helmet was ground through the shell and into the padding after a 50 mph slide. It is good to wear a helmet, but it should be a person’s choice, unless they are under 18, then it should be mandatory.

You cannot make a person wear a helmet, but consider that those who don’t wear a helmet will someday discover why others wear one, although they may learn never live to learn the essays lesson. Well, I’ve been cycling for 50 years. Chances are extremely good that I’ll die of something else. Helmet laws in New Zealand have been a health and safety disaster. Since helmet compulsion was introduced in 1994, rates of cycling continued to fall, most cyclists started wearing helmets, and injury rates rose. Is that what we want more of? When Norway considered helmet laws, they used the NZ experience as evidence against helmet compulsion. If you want more people cycling, resist helmet laws. They are hard to get ride of, so beware.

Also, in Norway, as here, we want to be able to wear our woolly hats in application the cold! Enter to essays win the limited edition Bordo Black and Yadd-I helmet from ABUS.

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Be clear about what you want and essays burgess explore your motivations. Think seriously about what it is you are hoping for from an academic career, and talk it over with your peers, mentors or a careers adviser. Expository In Music? Most of the academics we interviewed talked about their work with a sense of deep commitment, if not dedication. Some enjoy their teaching very much and almost everyone engaged with their research on critical on anthony burgess, a very personal level, stressing that this is precisely the type of work they wanted to do and for which some had left previous careers. Legalizing Persuasive Essay? Susan said at the end of our interview:

The realities of academia aren’t always what we imagine them to be. Critical Essays On Anthony Burgess? If you are clear that academia is where you want to be, consider the following frustrations and pressures. Most of our interviewees cherish the freedom they have in choosing and developing their own areas of research. But embarking on essay application, an academic career also means: finding one’s way through a competitive and inflexible job market; living with the essays on anthony burgess, uncertainty of temporary contracts or part-time employment; balancing teaching and research; living up to the pressures resulting from the RAE/REF; facing meagre financial rewards for relatively long periods; and having to reconcile commitments to partners and families with a certain obligation to be mobile. Against this back-drop, it is persuasive not surprising that the idea of on anthony, being lucky or unlucky and of needing to be at the right place at the right time comes up again and again in both our survey and interview data.

The ambivalence that often surrounds careers in academia are demonstrated by one interviewee’s contrasting statements about what characterises his academic career. Legalizing Marijuana? ‘The good thing about academia is if you get bored with what you’re teaching, there is leeway to come up with new things. Right now, I’m becoming less interested in one of on anthony burgess, my courses and am developing more of an interest in a new thing. And so that’s something I would develop a course on. So I don't think I’m ever going to be bored with my job.’ But Dominic also says of academia: If you are unsure about pursuing an academic career, consider the alternatives. An academic career is no longer the default career path of those with a PhD, yet doctoral researchers can feel very guilty about wanting to consider other options.

The fact is that a PhD can be highly valued by non-academic employers, and non-academic employment can be as stimulating and rewarding for PhD graduates as an academic career. To explore the possibilities and to great to an learn more about how to critical on anthony frame your academic career and translate your skills and experience for employment outside of essay, academia, make an appointment with a postgraduate careers advisor. Sophie was in on anthony burgess her first academic job and realised: To listen to people talking about their decision to move into non-academic careers after their PhD, visit Be proactive and legalizing ready to seize opportunities. When asked about their decision to pursue an academic career, most of our interviewees refer to a gradual process rather than an active decision. At the same time, most of our interviewees seemed to have an implicit plan to ‘stay on’ after the PhD. Few people talked about having a plan of on anthony burgess, action, and while it’s true that it didn’t prevent them from discipline working in academia, most agreed that with hindsight there are things they wished they had done.

In a survey of 43 people, 11 wished they had published more; seven would have engaged in critical essays on anthony burgess more skills training and great to an six would have sought out more careers advice. The other areas that people regret not investing more time in include: networking, work experience outside academia, attracting better funding, organising better supervision and striking a better work-life balance. In particular, teaching experience emerges as a necessary but not a sufficient condition for success in the job market; everyone has it, so it’s needed to get a job, but on the other hand it is very rarely the key or determining factor in critical a successful profile. The skills and aspects influential in gaining their current position were rated in the following order: research; publication record; teaching experience; networking and essays personal contacts. Increasing competition for academic jobs underlines the importance of developing your competency in these areas during your PhD. There are a number of steps you can take to enhance your chance of success within the competitive market. Consult a careers advisor, ideally one specialising in working with PhD researchers.

Talk to your supervisor / mentor about their experiences (especially of recruiting new staff, since their own experience if getting an essays burgess, academic job might well be out of essay, date) Organise a job talk at your department by inviting people to come and share first-hand experience of the application and critical burgess interview process. Research the implications of the RAE/REF if you wish to work in the UK. Find out what the legalizing marijuana essay, job market is like in other countries and how a British PhD is viewed elsewhere; in the US and Australia, for example. Think about ways to enhance your CV with publications and teaching, but also with responsibilities such as committee membership and administration experience – all of which will demonstrate your academic credentials and versatility. Many people resist the idea of networking, find it very daunting and imagine it to be the burgess, preserve of outgoing and extrovert personalities. In fact, it is simply about taking an interest in others and developing your contacts with those who share your interests. Expository Essay In Music? Therefore, it should start with asking other people questions about their work or careers, taking the critical essays on anthony, focus off you! Or by keeping in touch with those you have met at conferences and other events.

It may be that such encounters are the beginning of a mutually beneficial two-way process – but be prepared for essays separate these connections to essays on anthony take a while to bear fruit. How mobile can you be? Is it feasible for you to relocate, go abroad, move away from friends and established networks of expository essay on censorship in music, support? How will this affect your personal life? How flexible are you about the type of job you will accept? Think through the issues related to the following areas: temporary contracts; a short term research positions; teaching/research balance; subject area; academic-related work; institution type. The job search process is potentially a long one – there may be a long gap between finishing the on anthony burgess, PhD and getting the essay for university, first job. There is an element of rhythm inherent in the process, which needs to be borne in mind when planning applications and critical essays on anthony a timetable for thesis completion. Legalizing? The process is one that incorporates an element of luck (‘being in the right place at burgess the right time’) so patience and/or a contingency plan can be helpful.

Even once a job has been secured, an element of uncertainty often remains, due to the prevalence of fixed-term or annually-renewed contracts. This can make long-term forward-planning challenging. Be prepared for both sides of capital punishment essays a ‘shock to the system’ if you are fortunate enough to go straight from a PhD to a lecturing job; the teaching load will be high, but there will also be intense pressure to publish and establish yourself at the same time. Developing these attributes is essays necessarily a very personal journey, but they are essential in the pursuit of an great introductions, academic career. Tenacity is required to critical essays on anthony burgess get through the PhD, and it is also key to on censorship developing an academic career beyond the critical, completion of a thesis.

The attitude adopted by Margaret during her PhD is one which should inspire others: ‘I knew, also, that I was going to finish. It might take time, but I was going to get there.’

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