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Igcse english coursework topics
book quotes Quotations about igcse english Books #38; Reading. Every man likes to mymaths, be his own librarian. Thomas Frognall Dibdin, Bibliographiana, The Director: A Weekly Literary Journal , 1807 April 11th. A good book should leave you. slightly exhausted at the end. Coursework Essays. You live several lives while reading it. William Styron, interview, Writers at Work , 1958.
Anyone who says they have only one life to live must not know how to read a book. I fancy that at the beginning some fairy may have offered me the thesis teaching as a second choice between great power and station and the privilege of coursework, living always among books, and that I, like the good child in about english second the fairy tale, chose the latter. James L. Igcse. Whitney, Reminiscences of an Old Librarian, November 1909 [Whitney credits the idea for his statement to Andrew Lang's Ballade of the Bookworm. t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g ] A good book on your shelf is a friend that turns its back on you and remains a friend. Destroying a book is like destroying a whole world. Bruce Zimmerman, Criminal Minds , Surface Tension [S12, E11, 2017, Diana Reid] A book is the only place in which you can examine a fragile thought without breaking it, or explore an explosive idea without fear it will go off in homework your face. English Coursework Essays. It is one of the few havens remaining where a man's mind can get both provocation and privacy. Edward P. About English As A. Morgan. Igcse Coursework. The worth of a book is to be measured by what you can carry away from it. My booksa ragged lot are they. And yet to me each dingy book.
Appeals with such a friendly look. My Goldsmith's muslin coat is torn; My Boswell I have clothed in cotton; Old Samuel's leathern suit is rotten; Macaulay's page is marked with grime. Beyond my power to tell in rhyme. I've read Sir Walter to the core, His volumes now are somewhat tattered; Poe, ColeridgeI have sucked their sweets, And left the calyx somewhat shattered. English As A Second. T.J. Chapman, My Books, c.1889. There is a great deal of difference between an eager man who wants to read a book and a tired man who wants a book to read.
Many people, other than the authors, contribute to the making of a book, from the first person who had the igcse bright idea of alphabetic writing through the inventor of movable type to the lumberjacks who felled the trees that were pulped for its printing. It is not customary to acknowledge the trees themselves, though their commitment is total. Forsyth and Rada, Machine Learning. If there's a book you really want to about, read but it hasn't been written yet, then you must write it. Old Books are best. What though the prints be not so bright, The paper dark, the binding slight?
Our author, be he dull or sage, Returning from a distant age. So lives again. We say of igcse essays, right: Old Books are best. Beverly Chew, Old Books Are Best, 1886. Education. A good book has no ending. Books are the quietest and most constant of friends; they are the most accessible and igcse, wisest of counselors, and the most patient of teachers. Charles W. Eliot.
Always read something that will make you look good if you die in the middle of it. Outside of a businesswoman, a dog, a book is man's best friend. Inside of a dog it's too dark to read. Attributed to igcse, Groucho Marx. I must say I find television very educational. The minute somebody turns it on, I go into the library and read a good book. Essay On Human Capital. Charles Lamb, letter to S.T.
Coleridge, 11 October 1802. A writer only begins a book, it is the reader who completes it; for the reader takes up where the writer left off as new thoughts stir within him. David Harris Russell (19061965), Children Learn to Read , 1949. The searching spirit. at wisdom's shrine, Will draw pure draughts from her unfathomed well, And nurse the never-dying lamp, that burns. Brighter and brighter on, as ages roll. Igcse Coursework Essays. For there is in the company of books, The living souls of the departed sage, And bard, and hero; there is in the roll. Capital Formation. Of eloquence and history, which speak. The deeds of early and of better days. James G. Percival, Love of Study, c.1822. The man who doesn't read has no advantage over the man who can't read.
Reading and igcse coursework, writing are as necessary to him as eating and drinking, and he hopes he will never lack for teaching english as a, books. Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (17421799), Concerning a Person of My Acquaintance [Writing of igcse coursework essays, himself. An unfinished work. Essay On Human. Translated by Norman Alliston, 1908. t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g ] Books are not made for furniture, but there is nothing else that so beautifully furnishes a house. Igcse English Essays. Henry Ward Beecher. Essay On Human In India. I would be most content if my children grew up to be the kind of people who think decorating consists mostly of english essays, building enough bookshelves. Anna Quindlen, Enough Bookshelves, New York Times , 1991 August 7th. Let books be your dining table, And you shall be full of delights.
Let them be your mattress. And you shall sleep restful nights. Jack Wootton is mymaths homework a Virginian and english, bookworm, in about the sense of 'worm' meaning 'dragon' he hoards books on shelves and in spare rooms and likes to sleep surrounded by them. J. Aleksandr Wootton, About the Author, www.jackwootton.com. I know every book of mine by its smell, and I have but to put my nose between the pages to be reminded of all sorts of things. George Robert Gissing. Igcse Coursework. A book is like a garden carried in the pocket. An old book is always comforting: it speaks to about a businesswoman, us from a distance, we can listen or not, and when suddenly mighty words flare up, we take them not as we would from a book of english coursework essays, today, from an essay author with such and such name, but as though at firsthand, as we take the cry of english coursework essays, a gull or a ray of sunlight.
There's nothing to match curling up with a good book when there's a repair job to be done around the essay on human formation house. Igcse English Coursework. In my garden I spend my days; in my library I spend my nights. My interests are divided between my geraniums and my books. With the flower I am in the present; with the book I am in the past. A Businesswoman. I go into my library, and all history unrolls before me. Igcse English Essays. I breathe the mymaths morning air of the world while the scent of Eden's roses yet lingered in it. Igcse Coursework Essays. Alexander Smith, Books and Gardens, Dreamthorp: A Book of Essays Written in mymaths the Country , 1863.
Books let us into their souls and lay open to us the essays secrets of our own. A book is very like a money-changer: it pays you back in another form what you bring to contest, it. Austin O'Malley (18581932), Thoughts of a Recluse , 1898. My test of a good novel is dreading to begin the last chapter. A dirty book is rarely dusty.
What a silence in those old books as of essays, a half-peopled worldwhat bleating of flockswhat green pastoral restwhat indubitable human existence. O men and women, so far separated yet so near, so strange yet so well-known, by on human capital formation in india, what miraculous power do I know ye all! Books are the true Elysian fields where the spirits of the dead converse, and into these fields a mortal may venture unappalled. What king's court can boast such company? What school of philosophy such wisdom. Seated in igcse english coursework essays my library at night, and mymaths homework, looking on the silent faces of my books, I am occasionally visited by a strange sense of the supernatural. They are not collections of printed pages, they are ghosts. Essays. I take one down and it speaks with me in mymaths homework a tongue not now heard on igcse essays earth, and formation, of men and things of which it alone possesses knowledge.
I call myself a solitary, but sometimes I think I misapply the english essays term. No man sees more company than I do. Alexander Smith, Books and Gardens, Dreamthorp: A Book of Essays Written in the Country , 1863. As a rule reading fiction is as hard to me as trying to hit a target by hurling feathers at it. I need resistance to celebrate! You know you've read a good book when you turn the last page and feel a little as if you have lost a friend. It is what you read when you don't have to that determines what you will be when you can't help it. Around the narrow circuit of the room.
Breast-high the books I love range file on file; And when, day-weary, I would rest awhile, As once again slow falls the gathering gloom. Upon the world, I love to pass my hand. Along their serried ranks, and silent stand. In breathless heark'ning to their silent speech. With rev'rent hand I touch the about back of coursework, each. Of these my books. How much of their dear selves The hand that held the pen, the brain that wrought. On Human Formation In India. The subtle fancies on these pages caught Have men immortal left upon my shelves! Charles Washington Coleman (18621932), Of My Books, c.1893.
Sleep is good, he said. And books are better. Igcse Coursework. George R.R. Martin, A Clash of Kings , 1999 [Tyrion Lannister tg] A book must be an ice-axe to homework, break the seas frozen inside our soul. Lord! when you sell a man a book you don't sell just twelve ounces of paper and ink and english coursework essays, glue you sell him a whole new life. Love and friendship and essay about being, humour and ships at sea by night there's all heaven and earth in a book, a real book. Books serve to show a man that those original thoughts of his aren't very new after all. The smallest bookstore still contains more ideas of worth than have been presented in the entire history of english coursework, television. Unto those Three Things which the Ancients held impossible, there should be added this Fourth, to find a Book Printed without erratas.
Alfonso de Cartagena. About. Errata .— Deathbed confessions of a book. Specimens of english coursework, a Patent Pocket Dictionary, For the use of about, those who wish to understand the meaning of english coursework, things as well as words , The New Monthly Magazine and thesis about music education, Literary Journal , 1824. In the attic Christie was discovered lying dressed upon coursework essays, her bed, asleep or suffocated by the smoke that filled the thesis about music room. A book had slipped from her hand, and in falling had upset the candle on a chair beside her.
I forbade her to keep the gas lighted so late, and see what the deceitful creature has done with her private candle! cried Mrs. English Essays. Stuart. Look at her. She has been at the wine, or lost her wits. She is too fond of books, and essay structure, it has turned her brain. Louisa May Alcott, Servant, Work: A Story of Experience , 1873. I've never known any trouble that an hour's reading didn't assuage. Charles de Secondat, Baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu, Pensees Diverses. We talked books.
We just simply enumerated books without end, praising or damning them, and arranged authors in neat pews. Igcse English Essays. No pastime is more agreeable to people who have the book disease, and none more quickly fleets the hours, and none is more delightfully futile. Arnold Bennett (18671931) To sit alone in american contest the lamplight with a book spread out before you, and hold intimate converse with men of unseen generations such is a pleasure beyond compare. Fiction reveals truths that reality obscures. Sometimes, looking at english the many books I have at home, I feel I shall die before I come to the end of them, yet I cannot resist the thesis as a temptation of buying new books. Whenever I walk into a bookstore and find a book on one of my hobbies. I say to coursework essays, myself, What a pity I can't buy that book, for I already have a copy at home. Jorge Luis Borges (18991986), The Riddle of being a businesswoman, Poetry, This Craft of Verse , edited by C#259;lin-Andrei Mih#259;ilescu, 2000. I suggest that the only books that influence us are those for which we are ready, and which have gone a little farther down our particular path than we have yet got ourselves.
E.M. Igcse English Coursework. Forster, Two Cheers for Democracy , 1951. He was a tall old man, bowed with a scholar's stoop, and thesis music education, never seen without his silver-rimmed spectacles. He had been glad to find a place where he might live the life of a recluse among his books. As he sat now, his white wig falling in lovelocks about his face, he drummed with taper fingers upon the little round stand beside him, where a musty volume lay at his elbow. He was a bookworm first, and everything else afterward, and he longed to be back in his study where he had been engaged for many years upon a neverending commentary upon Homer.
Florence Bone (18751971), The Morning of To#8209;Day , 1907 (a little altered) TV. If kids are entertained by two letters, imagine the igcse coursework essays fun they'll have with twenty-six. Structure. Open your child's imagination. Open a book. There is no thief worse than a bad book.
People say that life is the english coursework essays thing, but I prefer reading. Logan Pearsall Smith, Trivia , 1917. Many, many books. It is on human likely I will die next to a pile of things I was meaning to igcse coursework essays, read. Lemony Snicket, when asked Are there any books you wish you had read, but never got the chance? during a live Facebook chat hosted by Scholastic Reading Club, 2013 January 16th [During this chat we also learn that his favorite kinds of tea are Darjeeling in the morning, green in the afternoon, and essay structure tutorial, mint in the evening. t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g] Wilde strikes an evangel note.
It is a note that lifts itself through sorrow and slavery to joy and freedom. Puts seed in the ground. Into you. When a book stops doing that it is coursework essays dead. No matter how pretty it may be as a corpse it is dead. Horace Traubel (18581919), review of Oscar Wilde's The Soul of Man under Socialism , in education The Conservator , May 1905. We live in an age of science and of abundance. The care and reverence for books as such, proper to an age when no book was duplicated until someone took the pains to copy it out by hand, is obviously no longer suited to 'the needs of society', or to the conservation of learning. The weeder is supremely needed if the igcse english coursework Garden of the Muses is to persist as a garden. Ezra Pound, Chapter One, ABC of Reading , 1934. Always look on the bright side of life.
Otherwise it'll be too dark to being contest, read. I'm old-fashioned and think that reading books is the most glorious pastime that humankind has yet devised. Wislawa Szymborska (19232012), Nonrequired Reading: Prose Pieces , From the Author, translated from the Polish by Clare Cavanagh, 2002. Books had instant replay long before televised sports. The man that I named the Giver passed along to the boy knoweldge, history, memories, color, pain, laughter, love, and truth. Every time you place a book in igcse coursework the hands of a child, you do the thesis teaching same thing. It is igcse very risky. But each time a child opens a book, he pushes open the gate that separates him from essay structure Elsewhere.
It gives him choices. It gives him freedom. Those are magnificent, wonderfully unsafe things. Lois Lowry (b.1937), Newberry Medal acceptance speech, 1994. English. How many a man has dated a new era in his life from the reading of a book. Henry David Thoreau, Walden. To choose a good book, look in essay an inquisitor's prohibited list. In reading, a lonely quiet concert is given to our minds; all our mental faculties will be present in coursework essays this symphonic exaltation. Books are the bees which carry the quickening pollen from one to another mind. James Russell Lowell. Books can be dangerous.
The best ones should be labeled #34;This could change your life.#34; There is a wonder in reading Braille that the sighted will never know: to touch words and have them touch you back. This will never be a civilized country until we expend more money for books than we do for chewing gum. Essay Structure Tutorial. Christie loved books. This amusement lightened many heavy hours, peopled the silent house with troops of friends, and, for a time, was the joy of her life. Louisa May Alcott, Servant, Work: A Story of igcse coursework, Experience , 1873. Essay Being A Businesswoman. We read in bed because reading is halfway between life and dreaming, our own consciousness in igcse english someone else's mind. About Being A Businesswoman. Anna Quindlen, How Reading Changed My Life , 1998. I am a bookworm, old and crusty, Thro' midnight hours my pen I ply. Be there an ancient parchment dusty, The man to wipe that dust, is I.
Gilbert a Beckett (18371891), Three Tenants [Quoted character: Mr.Grope, a Gentleman in search of quiet. Three Tenants is a petite musical comedy. English Coursework. This wording is mymaths homework from the 1897 script. t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g ] Good friends, good books and a sleepy conscience: this is the ideal life. Mark Twain, 1898. A book is to me like a hat or coat a very uncomfortable thing until the newness has been worn off.
Charles B. Fairbanks. If you resist reading what you disagree with, how will you ever acquire deeper insights into what you believe? The things most worth reading are precisely those that challenge our convictions. Books are the glass of council to dress ourselves by. English Essays. Reading means borrowing. Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, Aphorisms.
Books are the about english as a compasses and telescopes and sextants and charts which other men have prepared to help us navigate the igcse english essays dangerous seas of human life. Jesse Lee Bennett. Book lovers never go to bed alone. Until I feared I would lose it, I never loved to read. One does not love breathing. The scholar only knows how dear these silent, yet eloquent, companions of pure thoughts and innocent hours become in the season of adversity. When all that is worldly turns to dross around us, these only retain their steady value. When you reread a classic you do not see more in the book than you did before; you see more in you than was there before. Thesis Music Education. Classics are not classics because hoary with age they are the igcse essays steel balls which have worn down mountains but remained unchanged in the mill of time. Martin H. Fischer (18791962) I hear of many a latest book; I note what zealous readers say; Through columns critical I look, With their decisive yea and nay!
At times I own I'm half inclined. O'er some new masterpiece to american essay, pore; Yet in the end I always find. I choose the book I've read before! Charles R. Ballard, The Book I've Read Before, c.1890. Igcse English Essays. For friends. do but look upon good Books: they are true friends, that will neither flatter nor dissemble. A book that is shut is but a block. In books lies the soul of the whole Past Time: the being contest essay articulate audible voice of the Past, when the body and material substance of it has altogether vanished like a dream. Describe yourself in 3 words: Reads in bed.
There are books so alive that you're always afraid that while you weren't reading, the book has gone and changed, has shifted like a river; while you went on igcse coursework essays living, it went on american essay living too, and coursework essays, like a river moved on and moved away. On Human Formation. No one has stepped twice into the same river. But did anyone ever step twice into the same book? What thrills have been mine as I stood perched on one leg like a stork, half way up a ladder, utterly oblivious of time and space, drinking in equal parts Jules Verne and essays, the dust of the Central Library. Robert Haven Schauffler, Foreword to Printed Joy , 1914. Essay On Human Formation. The stories of igcse coursework, childhood leave an indelible impression, and their author always has a niche in american contest the temple of memory from which the image is never cast out to igcse english, be thrown on the rubbish heap of things that are outgrown and essay about a businesswoman, outlived. No man can be called friendless who has God and the companionship of english, good books. Elizabeth Barrett Browning. I find it necessary to confine my purchases strictly to on human capital formation in india, books. My me!
Yes, strictly to books. Munson Havens, Old Valentines: A Love Story , 1914 [Me too, Mr. Rowlandson, me too! And occasionally, groceries. Essays. t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g] Medicine for the soul. Inscription over the door of the Library at Thebes. There are more truths in a good book than its author meant to put into it. Essay Structure. Marie Dubsky, Freifrau von Ebner-Eschenbach (18301916), translated by Mrs Annis Lee Wister, 1882. Books are lighthouses erected in the great sea of igcse english coursework, time. [Y]ou turn your back on Sylvia and she's got her nose in mymaths homework a book.
Arthur Miller, Broken Glass , 1994. Essays. [S]he had been christened quite differently, but everybody called her Scholastica, because she always had her little nose in a book. Louis de Wohl, Citadel of God , 1959. Characteristically, the budding litterateur has had his nose in a book. About Education. Pierre de la Ruffiniere du Prey, The Villas of Pliny from Antiquity to Posterity , 1994. They. were kept nose-in-books. Igcse. Richard D. Being American Contest Essay. Lewis, The Road from Wigan Pier: Memoirs of igcse english coursework essays, a Linguist , University Days, 1998. I have my nose stuck in a book just about as often as I breathe. Terri Guillemets, Raiding bookshelves, 2003. I? Never in the worldlying here with my nose in a book and never seeing anything.
Henry James, The Patagonia, in The English Illustrated Magazine , August 1888 [And a lovely example of the being shortest sentence possible. Igcse Coursework. t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g ] I just love books, don't you. My sister always says to me. 'you always have your nose stuck in a book.' And that's the truth#8230;I always have got my nose stuck in a book. I'm always reading. I just love books! I'd like to buy every book in the shop. Frances Klenett, I Just Love Books, in on human capital Antiquarian Bookman , 1952.
He read and read and read, and when he didn't have his nose stuck in a book, he wrote and wrote and wrote. Paul Magrs (b.1969), The Godfather, 2000. It is coursework essays better to have your nose in a book than in someone else's business. Thomas Quiller Couch. used to drive about the country in thesis a queer-shaped carriage filled with books, and igcse coursework, read all the way. Very often you'd meet the american contest essay carriage first, filled with halt, maimed, and igcse english, blind, who had crowded him out: and the old man following on mymaths foot, zig-zagging along the igcse english road, with his nose in a book. These are not books, lumps of lifeless paper, but minds alive on thesis music education the shelves. From each of them goes out english coursework its own voice. and just as the thesis about music education touch of a button on igcse essays our set will fill the room with music, so by taking down one of these volumes and opening it, one can call into range the voice of a man far distant in time and thesis about teaching as a second, space, and hear him speaking to english essays, us, mind to thesis about as a second, mind, heart to igcse english coursework, heart. #34;Tell me what you read and I'll tell you who you are#34; is true enough, but I'd know you better if you told me what you reread.
There are worse crimes than burning books. One of them is not reading them. Books are embalmed minds. Children don't read to find their identity, to free themselves from guilt, to quench the thirst for rebellion or to get rid of alienation. Being. They have no use for psychology. They still believe in God, the family, angels, devils, witches, goblins, logic, clarity, punctuation, and other such obsolete stuff. When a book is boring, they yawn openly. They don't expect their writer to coursework essays, redeem humanity, but leave to adults such childish illusions. Mymaths Homework. Isaac Bashevis Singer, 1978.
I divide all readers into essays two classes; those who read to remember and those who read to forget. William Lyon Phelps. Set your pace to a stroll. Stop whenever you want. Interrupt, jump back and forth, I won't mind. Essay About Being. This book should be as easy as laughter. It is stuffed with small things to igcse coursework essays, take away. Please help yourself. The book-lover, so-called, who lacks any of the thrills that go with the establishment as well as the enjoyment of a library in all of essay structure, its appointments has deprived himself of many of the most pleasurable literary and semi-literary emotions. Igcse. His books are servants rather than companions.
Look out for that man! He is not of us. Books are good company, in being contest essay sad times and happy times, for coursework essays, books are peoplepeople who have managed to being american essay, stay alive by hiding between the igcse covers of a book. E.B. Homework. White, letter to child patrons of the Troy Public Library (Michigan), 1971 April 14th, reply to request from children's librarian Marguerite Hart [full portfolio of letters at troypl.org t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g ] The love of learning, the sequestered nooks, And all the sweet serenity of coursework, books. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. In the gradual growth of every student's library, he may or may not continue to being contest essay, admit literary friends and advisers; but he will be sure, sooner or later, to send for english essays, a man with a tool-chest. Sooner or later, every nook and corner will be filled with books, every window will be more or less darkened, and added shelves must be devised. He may find it hard to achieve just the arrangement he wants, but he will find it hardest of all to thesis about, meet squarely that inevitable inquiry of the puzzled carpenter, as he looks about him, Have you really read all these books?. Yet if you asked him in turn, Have you actually used every tool in your tool-chest? you would very likely be told, Not one half as yet, at igcse english essays least this season; I have the others by me, to use as I need them. Now if this reply can be fairly made in a simple, well-defined, distinctly limited occupation like that of a joiner, how much more inevitable it is in a pursuit which covers the whole range of thought and mymaths homework, all the facts in the universe.
The library is the author's tool-chest. He must at least learn, as he grows older, to take what he wants and to leave the rest. Coursework. Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Books Unread, in The Atlantic Monthly , March 1904. There is a temperate zone in the mind, between luxurious indolence and exacting work; and about, it is to this region, just between laziness and labor, that summer reading belongs. Henry Ward Beecher.
Nothing is worth reading that does not require an alert mind. Charles Dudley Warner. I was a bookman; I had always been a bookman. From adolescence books had been one of my passions. Books not merely and perhaps not chiefly as vehicles of learning or knowledge, but books as books, books as entities, books as beautiful things, books as historical antiquities, books as repositories of memorable associations. Essays. Questions of type, ink, paper, margins, watermarks, paginations, bindings, were capable of on human in india, really agitating me. I was too sensitive and catholic a lover a books to be a scholar in the strict modern meaning of the term. My magnum opus was not a work of scholarship, and igcse coursework essays, even such scholarship as it comprised had been attained by a businesswoman, a labor hateful to me. I would inhale the scholarship of others as a sweet smell.
I would gather it like honey, but eclectically, never exhausting one flower before trying the next. My knowledge was, perhaps, considerable, but it was unorganized. And my principal claim to coursework essays, consideration was that I could wander in any demesne of culture without having the awkward air of a stranger. In brief, I was comprehensively bookish. Structure. Arnold Bennett (18671931), The Glimpse: An Adventure of the Soul , 1909. If you have never said #34;Excuse me#34; to a parking meter or bashed your shins on a fireplug, you are probably wasting too much valuable reading time. Sherri Chasin Calvo. The walls of books around him, dense with the past, formed a kind of insulation against the present world and its disasters. The oldest books are still only english essays just out to those who have not read them. On Human Formation. There are many persons pretending to english, have a refined literary taste, who seldom read any books but those which are fashionable.
Charles Lanman, Thoughts on thesis music education Literature, 1840. I have friends whose society is delightful to me; they are persons of all countries and of all ages; distinguished in war, in english coursework council, and in letters; easy to mymaths homework, live with, always at my command. Good as it is to inherit a library, it is coursework essays better to essay being, collect one. Igcse English Coursework. Augustine Birrell, Obiter Dicta , #34;Book Buying#34; I'd like my favourite books to bind. Napoleon's life should glare in red, Thus they would typify bloodshed.
Irving Browne (18351899), How a Bibliomaniac Binds His Books Sometimes, you read a book and it fills you with this weird evangelical zeal, and you become convinced that the shattered world will never be put back together unless and until all living humans read the essay book. And then there are books. which you can't tell people about, books so special and rare and yours that advertising your affection feels like a betrayal. It wasn't even that the book was so good or anything; it was just that the author. seemed to understand me in weird and english, impossible ways. John Green, The Fault in Our Stars , 2012 [The omitted words in this quotation refer to a fictitious book and being, author An Imperial Affliction by Peter Van Houten the essays title of thesis music, which is taken from an igcse english essays Emily Dickinson poem There's a certain slant of light. According to Green, if you want to read the imaginary book, read Infinite Jest by David Foster Wallace and The Blood of the Lamb by Peter De Vries and then try to blend the feeling of those two books. Per Emiko Hastings, imaginary books those which exist only within other books date back to at least the 1530s. Read more here. t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g ] Catalogues of imaginary libraries are an obscure but fruitful area of collecting. The tradition of imaginary books, which exist only within other books, goes back at least to Rabelais, who invented a list of book titles for the Abbey of Saint-Victor in being contest Gargantua and Pantagruel (c.1532). To read without reflecting is like eating without digesting. The art of igcse essays, reading is in great part that of acquiring a better understanding of life from one's encounter with it in a book. Structure. They dwell in english coursework essays the odour of camphor.
These worshipful tomes of mine. Blind-tooled and morocco-jointed, They have Bedford's daintiest dress, They are graceful, attenuate, polished, But they gather the dust, no less. Montaigne with his sheep-skin blistered, And Howell the worse for wear, And the being essay worm-drilled Jesuits' Horace, And the little old cropped Moliere. Austin Dobson (18401921), My Books A house without books is like a room without windows. From my point of view, a book is a literary prescription put up for the benefit of someone who needs it. He fed his spirit with the bread of books.
Antique well-loved books. and bookworms in nooks; Pages curled and dusty, old authors most trusty; Clever, timeless Shakespeare. flanking poets of yesteryear. Terri Guillemets, Heaven's Library, 2007. Through all of my youth these books were my companions, and now, as I write these lines, after sixty years, they still look down upon me with their old friendliness. James L. Whitney, Reminiscences of an Old Librarian, November 1909. Bread of flour is good; but there is bread, sweet as honey, if we would eat it, in igcse essays a good book. One gift the Fairies gave me: (Three. They commonly bestowed of essay on human, yore) The Love of Books, the Golden Key. That opens the coursework essays Enchanted Door.
Andrew Lang (18441912), Ballade of the thesis about teaching english second Bookworm [Lang was a lifelong collector of folklore and fairy tales. The Books I loved, I love them still! t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g ] One cannot celebrate books sufficiently. After saying his best, still something better remains to be spoken in their praise. Igcse Coursework Essays. A. Bronson Alcott, Books, June 1869. Judith stood before her little library in the dark November dawn, with a candle in her hand, scanning the familiar titles with weary eyes. Mymaths Homework. these last few days she had taken to waking at dawn, to lying for hours wide-eyed in her little white bed, while the slow day grew. But to#8209;day it was intolerable, she could bear it no longer. She would try a book; not a very hopeful remedy in her own opinion, but one which [those] who were troubled by sleeplessness, regarded, she knew, as the igcse best thing under the circumstances. Contest Essay. Amy Levy (18611889), Reuben Sachs: A Sketch , 1888. Most books, like their authors, are born to die; of only a few books can it be said that death hath no dominion over them; they live, and their influence lives forever.
He led, at this season, the most home-keeping, book-buying life, and igcse coursework, Old French texts made his evenings dear to him. Henry James, James Russell Lowell, in The Atlantic Monthly , January 1892. A book is a garden, an orchard, a storehouse, a party, a company by the way, a counsellor, a multitude of counsellors. Henry Ward Beecher. Essay. Who gave their lives for these can know no death. For I have walked with them in mortal guise. Through woodland ways and swarming city streets; Yea, have I met the gaze of coursework, Shelley's eyes, And in about education 'Hyperion' kissed the lips of Keats. Igcse. Charles Washington Coleman (18621932), Of My Books, c.1893. I consider as lovers of books not those who keep their books hidden in their store-chests and never handle them, but those who, by nightly as well as daily use thumb them, batter them, wear them out, who fill out a businesswoman all the margins with annotations of many kinds, and who prefer the marks of a fault they have erased to a neat copy full of faults. There is igcse essays reading, and there is reading.
Reading as a means to essay tutorial, an end, for information, to cultivate oneself; reading as an coursework end in itself, a process, a compulsion. Sven Birkerts (b.1951), Notes from on human capital a Confession, The Agni Review , No.22 (1985) Having your book turned into a movie is like seeing your oxen turned into bouillon cubes. Never judge a book by its movie. I do not wish to be misunderstood or to do any wrong to the bookworm, a class to whom I feel most kindly. They generally spend their years and money in the endeavor to climb as high as possible on the ladder of mental perfection, and igcse essays, they out not to be ridiculed, as they often are. About Education. They may appear a dry class of people to the convivial nature of our modern jeunesse doree , who spend their leisure hours and spare cash. in company with something livelier than a set of black-letter prints, but still they are a class most venerable and highly appreciable.
Gustav Boehm, A Discourse on igcse coursework Title Page Composition, in The Inland Printer (Chicago), March 1886. Essay Structure Tutorial. Titles of Books.Decoys to catch purchasers. Reading in english coursework bed is essay on human capital in india a gateway drug to writing in igcse essays bed. Nicole: When you were younger did you enjoy school? Lemony Snicket: Sometimes. When it was time to read A Midsummer Night's Dream , I enjoyed it.
When it was time to teaching english as a, run around playing kickball, I wanted to sit and read A Midsummer Night's Dream . From a live Facebook chat hosted by Scholastic Reading Club, 2013 January 16th. Man's greatest friend is a good book. Francis Edward Faragoh, Chasing Yesterday , 1935 film based on igcse english essays Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard by Anatole France, 1881 [Spoken by the character Coccoz, a door-to-door book salesman. t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g ] Old books are leather-bound ghosts. Bookshops are the most charming of all shops because they relate themselves so intimately to their visitors. Mr. Rowlandson's had stairs worn by the footfalls of four generations of thesis about, book-hunters. Against the background of his overflowing shelves, with his old-fashioned clothes, his stooping shoulders, his iron-gray hair, and his firm, tender, and melancholy face,you will never visit his shop without wishing to frame him as he stands, and set him in the window, among the other rare old prints. Coursework Essays. Not that all the books in american his shop are old; the moderns are there, too. But these newer books are the minority. The composed, brown calf bindings give the shop its tone,and its faint odor, too; a cultivated taste, the liking for that odor of old books. A Full and True Account, of the Battle Fought last Friday, between the Ancient and the Modern Books in St.
James's Library. Jonathan Swift [Yes, this is just the title of english, a 1697 work by Swift. But it's so clever in and of itself I had to quote it. Also a reminder to music education, myself to go back later and actually read the thing, which is about a controversy during that time arguing whether ancient or modern learning was better. Igcse English Coursework. t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g] The literary man must needs be a thinking one, and every day he lives he becomes wiserif wiser, then betterif better, then happier. Charles Lanman, Thoughts on Literature, 1840. Far more seemly were it for thee to american contest essay, have thy study full of books, than thy purse full of money. The wise man reads both books and life itself.
I often derive a peculiar satisfaction in conversing with the ancient and modern dead, who yet live and speak excellently in their works. My neighbors think me often alone , and yet at such times I am in company with more than five hundred mutes each of whom, at my pleasure, communicates his ideas to me by english coursework, dumb signs quite as intelligently as any person living can do by uttering of words. You may have tangible wealth untold; Caskets of jewels and coffers of gold. Richer than I you can never be - I had a mother who read to me.
Strickland Gillilan (Thanks, Laurel) I love all bookstores. Chains, independents, big, small. Once you walk into on human formation a bookstore, time stands still. Alec Baldwin, 2015. Emmy read all sorts of igcse coursework, pretty books, every word of about, which I eagerly listened to, and coursework essays, felt so much interested, and so delighted, and so anxious and curious to hear more. She read pretty stories of little boys and girls, and affectionate mammas and essay on human capital in india, aunts, and kind old nurses, and igcse essays, birds in the fields and about teaching english as a, woods, and flowers in the gardens and hedges; and then such beautiful fairy tales; and also pretty stories in verse, all of which gave me great pleasure, and were indeed my earliest education. Richard Hengist Horne, Memoirs of a London Doll, Written by igcse english, Herself , 1846 [It was common for female authors to homework, publish under male pseudonyms or initials, but here's a case of a man publishing under a woman's nom de plume: Mrs.Fairstar. t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g ] When a new book is published, read an old one.
If you plant a book deep enough in the soil it will come back every spring. Draughts cannot kill it. Nor frosts. Nor overhot suns. Igcse English. Nor overcold snows. It is alive? Does its nerve tingle when you touch it? Does it still answer you back life for life? Here is a book. made five hundred years before we commenced our Christian total of years.
Is it a corpse? No. It still has red in its cheeks. Its eyes sparkle. Its handclasp is warm. You do not need to set back the clock to get contemporary with it. It takes me back and forward with equal ease. Time has nothing to being, do with [it].
It has bettered all the challenges of time. It has neither age nor youth. It has life. Horace Traubel (18581919), review of the Chinese historical classic The Shu King , translated from the ancient text with a commentary by Walter Gorn Old, in The Conservator , March 1905. [W]e may begin with a class of literary barnacles who stick about the libraries of their friends and of the public institutions, and feed their bibliophilistic appetites on what others have spent much time and money in collecting. These may perhaps more appropriately be called biblio-spongers. Igcse Coursework Essays. Henry H. Harper, Book-Lovers, Bibliomaniacs and Book Clubs , 1904.
Borrowers of books those mutilators of collections, spoilers of the essay structure tutorial symmetry of shelves, and creators of odd volumes. Charles Lamb, Essays of Elia , #34;The Two Races of igcse coursework essays, Men,#34; 1822. He who lends a book is an idiot. Mymaths Homework. He who returns the book is more of an idiot. A precious mouldering pleasure 'tis His venerable Hand to take His presence is enchantment Old Volumes shake their Vellum Heads. Emily Dickinson, 1863. The brown book in igcse english coursework his hand was his beloved Malory. He had not yet grown tired of its pages, nor had they lost their magic. They wore a halo, as they must do for natures like Antony's, which is essay in india a grail in igcse english itself. Is it not true that the realism of yesterday becomes the idealism of today? Florence Bone (18751971), The Morning of To#8209;Day , 1907.
The mere brute pleasure of reading the sort of pleasure a cow must have in grazing. Time-eaten, like his books, and worn. Contest. With teen and strong endeavour, Whence lofty thought and verse were born, With lamp-lit toil he met the morn. And wealth bequeathed by english coursework, ages old. Stood round him piled, enshelved, Nor paused when grey was smitten gold. J.J.
Britton (18321913), A Bookworm, A Sheaf of Ballads , 1884. Old books smell of dust and the literary smoke of history, of writer soul and the ink of eternity. Essay Structure Tutorial. An ordinary man can. surround himself with two thousand books. and thenceforward have at igcse english least one place in the world in which it is essay possible to be happy. Books, too, begin like the week with a day of rest in memory of their creation. The preface is their Sunday.
Books the best antidote against the marsh-gas of boredom and vacuity. Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar. But a book is never just a book. The Old Sage Bookshop in coursework Prescott, Arizona. We are too civil to books. For a few golden sentences we will turn over thesis about teaching second, and actually read a volume of four or five hundred pages. Ralph Waldo Emerson. . the peaceful seclusion, and the almost sacred leisure. Frances Milton Trollope (17801863), Mrs. Mathews; or, Family Mysteries , 1851 [In a room full of coursework, books. Note: Some sources cite Mrs Trollope's year of birth as 1779. t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g ] From every book invisible threads reach out to other books; and as the thesis education mind comes to use and control those threads the whole panorama of the english coursework world's life, past and present, becomes constantly more varied and essay tutorial, interesting, while at the same time the mind's own powers of reflection and judgment are exercised and strengthened. To acquire the habit of reading is to construct for yourself a refuge from almost all the miseries of life.
W. Somerset Maugham. Igcse. No matter what his rank or position may be, the lover of books is the richest and happiest of the children of men. John Alfred Langford. Speed reading? Why would anyone give up the formation in india pleasure of letting the writer set the pace? Of using one's ears to adjust to a new voice. This sort of reading does away with the writer, and is probably best used on igcse english coursework essays textbooks which eliminate the write from the start. If you must read everything at the same speed, why not choose to mymaths homework, read slowly. slowly enough to let the words reverberate, to draw the imagination to them. I like books that glow in their own literary light — on a dark shelf, surrounded by a cloud of glittering fairy dust. How vast an igcse essays estate it is that we came into as the intellectual heirs of all the thesis about teaching english watchers and coursework, searchers and essay, thinkers and singers of the generations that are dead!
What a heritage of stored wealth! What perishing poverty of mind we should be left in without it! Books are a uniquely portable magic. The notes he writ were barely dry. Checked at igcse english the leaf where Death The final commentatorthrust. Thesis Music. His cold Here endeth Dryasdust. The face of english essays, men, he nowise knew, Or careless turned from essay being a businesswoman these. To delve, in folios' rust and must. English Essays. And so, with none to mymaths homework, close his eyes, And none to mourn him dead, He in his dumb book-Babel lies. With grey dust garmented. Let be: pass on.
It is but just. Write his Hic Jacet in the Dust. Austin Dobson (18401921), The Bookworm [The Latin phrase means epitaph, literally here lies. English Essays. t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g] He retired to his bibliomaniacal bed. Thomas Frognall Dibdin, The Drawing Room, Bibliomania; or, Book Madness: A Bibliographical Romance , 1811. There is also that kind of reading which is just looking at thesis english as a books. From time to timeI can't say what dictates the impulseI pull a chair up in front of a section of igcse, my library. An expectant tranquility settles over me. Being American Essay. I move my eyes slowly, reading the spines, or identifying the title by english coursework, its color and positioning. Just to see my books, to english second, note their presence, their proximity to other books, fills me with a sense of futurity. Books, I once noted grandly, embody the spirit's dream of perpetual youth. What is important at igcse these moments is not the homework contents of the books, but the idea of their existence.
I have not read every one, nor is it likely that I willbut to know that I might! Sven Birkerts, Notes from a Confession, The Agni Review , No.22 (1985) My oft-despondent heart rejoices; I hear again long-silent voices. T.J. Chapman, My Books, c.1889. That is a good book which is opened with expectation and closed with profit. Igcse English Coursework. Amos Bronson Alcott. Books are the watering cans of our minds. Essay. Knowledge is of two kinds. Igcse English. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon it. When we inquire into any subject, the american contest essay first thing we have to english coursework essays, do is to tutorial, know what books have treated of it.
This leads us to igcse english essays, look at catalogues, and the backs of books in libraries. Samuel Johnson, 1775, quoted by James Boswell in essay on human formation in india The Life of Samuel Johnson [Sometimes paraphrased, since the early 1900s, as The next best thing to knowing something is knowing where to find it. t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g ] I'm a bookaholic on the road to recovery. Ha, not really. I'm on the road to essays, the bookstore. About Education. And then sometimes a sudden chill doth strike.
My heart with very horror, and I shrink. Away from their dull touch, shudd'ring to think. How much of human life that, vampire-like, These books have sucked beneath their leathern wings, How brains have broken and frail bodies bent. Igcse English. To feed with human blood these bloodless things. Thesis Teaching. Charles Washington Coleman (18621932), Of My Books, c.1893.
Books minister to english coursework, our pain, our curiosity and wonder, our needs, our loneliness, our souls. The multitude of books is making us ignorant. The ardor of possessing books, commonly called bibliomania, also styled bibliophilism and bibliowhatever else that has suggested itself to the fruitful imaginations of being american, dozens of felicitous writers upon the subject,is described by Dibdin as a disease which grows with our growth, and strengthens with our strength. #8258; It should be remembered, however, that one possessing a fondness for books is not necessarily a bibliomaniac. There is as much difference between the inclinations and taste of a bibliophile and english coursework, a bibliomaniac as between a slight cold and the advanced stages of consumption. Some one has said that to call a bibliophile a bibliomaniac is to conduct a lover, languishing for his maiden's smile, to an asylum for the demented, and to shut him up in the ward for the incurables. A bibliomaniac might properly be called an insane or crazy bibliophile. It is, however, a harmless insanity. Henry H. Contest. Harper, Book-Lovers, Bibliomaniacs and Book Clubs , 1904. What wild desires, what restless torments seize. The hapless man, who feels the book-disease.
John Ferriar, The Bibliomania, An Epistle, To Richard Heber, Esq., 1809. Books at bedtime, most enchanting. Half-asleep, dipping our cozy feet. Into fantasy and english, dreams so sweet. There is on human formation in india no such thing as a moral or an coursework immoral book. Books are well written, or badly written. That is all. Oscar Wilde, Preface to Dorian Gray , 1890. Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body. Richard Steele, Tatler , 1710. No doubt most of you think biography dull reading.
You would much rather sit down with a good story. But have you ever thought what a story is? It is nothing but a bit of make-believe biography. Essay. Burton E. Stevenson, A Guide to Biography for Young Readers: American Men of Action , Chapter I: A Talk about Biography, 1909. Encourage and pursue an inclination to reading early in life; it is laying up a treasure for english coursework, the latter part of it.
Countess Dowager of Carlisle, Thoughts in the Form of thesis about teaching english second, Maxims addressed to Young Ladies, on english essays their First Establishment in the World , 1790 [Isabella Howard (17211795) t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g] She found herself positively quizzing her own monomania upon the subject of on human capital in india, buying books and peeping at the titles of the great miscellaneous ill-arranged mass of books, the multitude of dusky-looking old tomes with a copious sprinkling of fresh-looking new ones, that in one way or another seemed to igcse english essays, occupy every part of the room. Frances Milton Trollope (17801863), Mrs. Mathews; or, Family Mysteries , 1851 [A little altered. Some sources cite Mrs Trollope's year of birth as 1779. Mymaths. t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g ] What the candystore was to other kids, the bookstore was to me. The library was my vacation. Terri Guillemets, Young bookworm, 1998. The best of a book is igcse coursework essays not the essay on human capital in india thought which it contains, but the thought which it suggests; just as the charm of coursework essays, music dwells not in the tones but in the echoes of our hearts. Oliver Wendell Holmes. Nothing is essay on human capital in india more beautiful than a beautiful book.
Joseph Joubert (17541824), translated from French by George H. Calvert, 1866. The lover may rave of his ruddy-cheeked lass, The sailor may sing of the sea; And topers may tell of the charms of the glass, But Books have more beauty for me. Coursework Essays. A book is a treasure more precious than gold; An heirloom bequeathed to essay structure tutorial, mankind; A casket of wisdom in which we behold. The kingliest gems of the mind. Alfred C. Brant, The Bibliophile, c.1880. One to whom books are as strangers has not yet learned to live. He is a solitary, though he dwell amid a vast population. Coursework. On the essay being a businesswoman other hand, he to whom books are as friends possesses a Key to the Garden of coursework, Delights, where the purest pleasures are open for mymaths, his entertainment, and where he has for igcse english coursework, his companions the about teaching english as a master minds of all the english coursework ages. Charles Noel Douglas, Introduction, Forty Thousand Quotations: Prose and Poetical.
My imagination doesn't require anything more of the book than to provide a framework within which it can wander. Homework. Up late with books, reading in igcse essays bed— Up early with coffee, extra lead. The alluring influences of being contest, bibliophilism, or book-loving, have silently crept into thousands of homes, whether beautiful or humble; for the library is properly regarded as one of the most important features of home as well as mental equipment. Henry H. Harper, Book-Lovers, Bibliomaniacs and Book Clubs , 1904. Why, then, am I so uneasy about the english coursework page-to-screen transfer—a skeptic if not a downright resister? Perhaps it is on human capital because I see in the turning of literal pages—pages bound in igcse coursework essays literal books—a compelling larger value, and essay structure tutorial, perceive in the move away from the book a move away from a certain kind of igcse english essays, cultural understanding, one that I'm not confident that we are replacing, never mind improving upon. I'm not blind to the unwieldiness of the book, or to the cumbersome systems we must maintain to tutorial, accommodate it—the vast libraries and igcse coursework, complicated filing systems. But these structures evolved over homework, centuries in ways that map our collective endeavor to understand and express our world . The book is part of igcse english coursework, a system.
And that system stands for the labor and as a, taxonomy of human understanding, and to touch a book is to touch that system, however lightly. The electronic book, on the other hand, represents—and furthers—a circuitry of instant access. We may gain an extraordinary dots-per-square-inch level of access to detail, but in the process we will lose much of our sense of the woven narrative consistency of the story. That is the trade-off. Access versus context. Sven Birkerts (b.1951), Resisting the Kindle, The Atlantic , 2009 March 2nd.
Touchscreen books — not the same as touching books. Terri Guillemets, Candlelit, 2007. Books have to be read (worse luck it takes so long a time). It is the only way of discovering what they contain. A few savage tribes eat them, but reading is the igcse coursework only method of assimilation revealed to the West.
Books are a hard-bound drug with no danger of an overdose. I am the happy victim of books. Except a living man there is nothing more wonderful than a book! A message to us from the dead, from human souls whom we never saw, who lived perhaps thousands of miles away; and about education, yet these, on those little sheets of paper, speak to us, teach us, comfort us, open their hearts to igcse essays, us as brothers. Book ink is blood-drops of author-heart. Let your bookcases and your shelves be your gardens and your pleasure-grounds.
Pluck the homework fruit that grows therein, gather the igcse coursework essays roses, the formation in india spices, and the myrrh. English. Judah Ibn Tibbon. One of the joys of reading is the ability to plug into the shared wisdom of mankind. Ishmael Reed, Writin' is Fightin': Thirty-Seven Years of Boxing on Paper , p.186. Old or new, the only sign I always try to rid my books of essay structure, (usually with little success) is the coursework price-sticker that malignant booksellers attach to the backs.
These evil white scabs rip off with difficulty, leaving leprous wounds and traces of slime to which adhere the dust and fluff of ages, making me wish for a special gummy hell to which the inventor of these stickers would be condemned. Alberto Manguel, The Library at Night. I'm a bad girl. I read past my bedtime. Bedtime reading is a doorway to dreams. The publishers are wholeheartedly cooperating in essay about being the effort to conserve vital materials and manpower by igcse essays, manufacturing this book in about english as a second full conformity with War Production Board Ruling L-245, curtailing the use of paper by book publishers, and all other United States Government regulations. This has been accomplished without abbreviating the book in any way. It is absolutely complete and unabridged. Not a word, not a paragraph, not a comma has been omitted. Note in Elbert Hubbard's Scrap Book: Containing the Inspired and Inspiring Selections Gathered During a Life Time of Discriminating Reading for His Own Use , copyright 1923 by english, The Roycrofters, printed by the American Book-Stratford Press at about their shops in New York City, Wm.
H. Wise Co. The title of a book fills the place of the face in a human being. Gustav Boehm, A Discourse on Title Page Composition, in The Inland Printer (Chicago), March 1886. Numerous as was her queer and miscellaneous collection of books, she perceived, as she looked around her with a business-like and scrutinising eye, that there was still room for many hundreds more; nay, as her fancy luxuriated in the conscious power of acquisition, she began to meditate on the possibility of adding to her space by a bold inroad on a laundry, to which, though now approached by a different staircase, access might be obtained by means of knocking down an old wall. Frances Milton Trollope (17801863), Mrs. Igcse English. Mathews; or, Family Mysteries , 1851 [My dream too, a bookish remodel!
Note: Some sources cite Mrs Trollope's year of birth as 1779. t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g ] Reading is departure and mymaths, arrival. Coursework Essays. As a child I read books which were inappropriate. Naturally they contained words I had to look up. Later in thesis about teaching life I became quite addicted to the Oxford English Dictionary. Lemony Snicket, answer to Caitlin, How did you come by such an astonishing vocabulary? Some of my favorite words are thanks to your writing, during a live Facebook chat hosted by Scholastic Reading Club, 2013 January 16th. Igcse English Coursework. There are four thousand books on those overweighted shelves; all sorts and conditions of books; big folios and little duodecimos, ragged books and homework, books clothed by Riviere and Bedford. Munson Havens, Old Valentines: A Love Story , 1914. Books that get burned are written by authors whose souls are on fire with passion or knowledge. The truest owner of a library is he who has bought each book for the love he bears to it; who is igcse essays happy and content to say, Here are my jewels, my choicest possessions! I never studied any particular writer, but have always read simply what pleased me, and remembered whatever impressed itself on my memory as it were without any help of thesis english as a, mine, or at any rate apart from any set purpose.
Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (17421799), translated by Norman Alliston, 1908. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested. Books are a refuge, a sort of cloistral refuge, from the vulgarities of the actual world. Clutch some hope from fear — read banned books. There's Byron on my shelf, and Shelley too; There's dear old Doctor Holmes, and Thomas Moore, With Wordsworth just below him, bound in blue, And Browning's works stand over by the door.
There's Milton, Scott, Macaulay's Lays of Rome; There's Tennyson and Matthew Arnold terse; Longfellow, Shakespeare, and Rossetti's tome; The odes of Horace and igcse english coursework, blest Omar's verse. So vast these riches are in my poor eyes, I can't decide which poet on contest essay my shelf. I'll read to-night, and so I'll compromise. And read these Rhymes in full calf by myself. John Kendrick Bangs (18621922), An Alternative
It was a small'ish bookstore. But yet is not any bookstore large to one's heart? Sit bona librorum copia. Igcse English. Horace (There are plenty of good books. Let me have a good supply of books.) I am unpacking my library. Teaching English As A Second. The books are not yet on the shelves, not yet touched by igcse english coursework, the mild boredom of order. I cannot march up and mymaths, down their ranks to pass them in review before a friendly audience. You need not fear any of that.
Instead, I must ask you to join me in the disorder of crates that have been wrenched open, the air saturated with the dust of wood, the floor covered with torn paper, to join me among piles of igcse english coursework essays, volumes that are seeing daylight again after two years of darkness, so that you may be ready to thesis about education, share with me a bit of the mood it is certainly not an elegiac mood but, rather, one of anticipation which these books arouse in a genuine collector. No person who can read is ever successful at igcse english cleaning out an attic. the smell of vintage words, the taste of authors' souls, the feel of books a thousand times read, the sight of essay tutorial, worn spines in line on a shelf, the haunting sound and inked-mind silence of. If the igcse english book is second-hand, I leave all its markings intact, the spoor of previous readers, fellow-travellers who have recorded their passage by means of scribbled comments, a name on the fly-leaf, a bus ticket to mark a certain page. Alberto Manguel, The Library at about music Night. That place that does contain. My books, the best companions, is to me. A glorious court, where hourly I converse.
With the english essays old sages and philosophers; And sometimes, for variety, I confer. A Businesswoman. With kings and emperors, and weigh their counsels; Calling their victories, if unjustly got, Unto a strict account, and, in my fancy, Deface their ill-placed statues. Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher. There are books in which the footnotes, or the comments scrawled by some reader's hand in the margin, are more interesting than the text. George Santayana, Imagination You can't get a cup of tea large enough or a book long enough to suit me. C.S. Lewis, quoted by igcse coursework, Walter Hooper. A health to books. Your goblets all refill; When all things mortal are decayed. May books be with us still!
A truly good book teaches me better than to read it. I must soon lay it down, and homework, commence living on its hint. Igcse. What I began by reading, I must finish by acting. Henry David Thoreau. Structure. Librarians Dewey it better. As seen on a bumper sticker, 2005. Book nerds are better under the covers. Terri Guillemets, Smart Girls, 2008. To read a book for english, the first time is to make an acquaintance with a new friend; to read it for essay on human capital formation, a second time is to meet an old one. O for a Booke and a shadie nooke, eyther in-a-doore or out; With the igcse grene leaves whisp'ring overhede, or the Streete cryes all about. Where I maie Reade all at my ease, both of the Newe and Olde;
For a jollie goode Booke whereon to looke is better to me than Golde. Contest Essay. Thou patient grub, that through this volume old. Thy labyrinthine way hast bored Not for the wealth of wisdom stored. Between its oaken lidsnot for the bold. And soaring fancynot or the gold. Of human sympathy outpoured, Like treasures from some secret hoard, Upon its ample pages stained with mould. T.J. Chapman, To A Bookworm, c.1887.
I'm a professional bookworm and a hopeless romantic. Kendra Leigh Castle, Every Little Kiss , 2015 (Jasper) [Did you know? The phrase professional bookworm goes back to at least 1824. t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g ] The house was singularly well stocked with books; for the late Mrs. King was the only child of a somewhat bookish father, having inherited the whole of igcse english essays, his rather large and very miscellaneous library. That nest was lined, as he jocosely expressed it, with dead men's brains. It was with a perfection of about music education, seclusion which many a professional book-worm might have envied, that Mary King passed the greater part of her life, from the early age of igcse english coursework, twelve years, in reading every book that she could get hold of.
Nor was her own the only library to essay a businesswoman, which she had free access. English. At the cheap rate of being called the oddest girl that ever lived, she obtained the privilege of borrowing books wherever she could find them. Thesis. It is probable that if a mouse were shut up with uninterrupted access to the very largest cheese that ever was made, its constant nibblings would in time produce a greater consumption of the article than would be considered possible by any one who had not watched the marvellous result of ceaseless perseverance. And in essays like manner, the amount of Mary King's reading was considerably greater than any mere ordinary observer would conceive possible. Frances Milton Trollope (17801863), Mrs. Mathews; or, Family Mysteries , 1851 [A little altered. Some sources cite Mrs Trollope's year of birth as 1779. t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g] Never lend books, for no one ever returns them; the only books I have in my library are books that other folks have lent me. I need fiction. I'm an essay tutorial addict.
This is not a figure of speech. Colonies of prose have formed in english coursework essays the bathroom and in the dimness of the upstairs landing, so that I don't go without text even in the leftover spaces of the house where I spend least time. Francis Spufford (b.1964), Confessions of an being English Fiction Eater, The Child That Books Built: A Life in Reading , 2002. A man may as well expect to grow stronger by always eating as wiser by igcse coursework essays, always reading. An odour of essay structure, a book is coursework a complex mixture of odorous volatiles, emitted from different materials from which books are made. Due to the different materials used to homework, make books throughout history, there is no one characteristic odour of old books. The pleasant aromatic smell is english coursework due to aromatic compounds emitted mainly from on human capital in india papers made from ground wood which are characterised by their yellowish-brown colour.
They emit vanilla-like, sweetly fragrant vanillin, aromatic anisol and benzaldehyde, with fruity almond-like odor. On the other hand, terpene compounds, deriving from igcse english coursework rosin, which is used to make paper more impermeable to inks, contribute to the camphorous, oily and tutorial, woody smell of books. Coursework Essays. A mushroom odour is caused by some other, intensely fragrant aliphatic alcohols. Essay About Being. Jana Kolar (The Naked Scientists' Science Questions, 2008 February 17th, The Smell of Old Books, www.thenakedscientists.com) #bibliosmia. Books are immortal sons deifying their sires. No entertainment is so cheap as reading, nor any pleasure so lasting. Mary Wortley Montagu. [W]omen are great readers, they are really very fond of essays, books, have fine literary perception, good judgment and a keen sense of character; but, alas, they cannot bring themselves to regard books as anything more than a mere part and parcel of the universenot the universe itself, as the true book lover regards them. Ben: Bookman's Budget, The Book Lover , published by William Evarts Benjamin, December 1889 [Yah, come say that to my face, Ben! t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g] In the charming romance, Realmah, the homework noble African prince prescribes monogamy to english coursework essays, his subjects, but he allows himself three wives a State wife to thesis education, sit by his side on the throne; a Household wife to rule the kitchen and homely affairs; and a Love-wife to be cherished in his heart and bear him children. Why would it not be fair to the Book-Worm to concede him a Book-wife, who should understand and sympathize with him in his eccentricity, and who should care more for rare and beautiful books than for diamonds, laces, Easter bonnets and ten-button gloves. A woman who has a true and igcse english coursework essays, wise sympathy with her husband's book-buying is an adored object.
Irving Browne, Women as Collectors, In the Track of the thesis about education Bookworm: Thoughts, Fancies, and Gentle Gibes on Collecting and Collectors, by One of Them , 1897 [a little altered t#949;#5511;#5511;?·g] I would never read a book if it were possible for me to talk half an hour with the english coursework essays man who wrote it. The bookworm had intellectual gifts wise, vast, and blazing bliss philosophized. Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1850, and Terri Guillemets, 2014, The Scarlet Letter altered prose. Books, not which afford us a cowering enjoyment, but in which each thought is of unusual daring; such as an idle man cannot read, and a timid one would not be entertained by, which even make us dangerous to existing institution such call I good books. Henry David Thoreau.
It often requires more courage to read some books than it does to fight a battle. Thesis Teaching English. Sutton Elbert Griggs. There are biblio-mercenaries of such sordid inclinations that they would readily part with almost any book in their possession,even inscribed presentation copies! if lightly tempted with money considerations. English Coursework Essays. Verily, these parsimonious traders would barter their own souls, if they possessed any value. Henry H. Harper, Book-Lovers, Bibliomaniacs and Book Clubs , 1904.
Many persons read and essay about being, like fiction. It does not tax the intelligence and the intelligence of most of us can so ill afford taxation that we rightly welcome any reading matter which avoids this. Browsing the dim back corner. Of a musty antique shop. Opened an igcse coursework old book of structure tutorial, poetry. Angels flew out from the pages. I caught the whiff of coursework, a soul. The ink seemed fresh as today.
Was that voices whispering? The tree of the paper still grows. But you said he drank. Is it likely he has a taste for structure, manuscripts? He's almost sure to have had. Most probably it was the manuscripts that drove him to drink. They would, you know, unless he was exceptionally strong minded. George A. English Essays. Birmingham, Spanish Gold , 1908. [F]or decades it survived in the only way that forgotten books do survive: undisturbed in the stacks. Michael Gorra, about a 1911 book titled The Henry James Year Book edited by Evelyn Garnaut Smalley , in the foreword to The Daily Henry James: A Year of Quotes from the Work of the mymaths homework Master , 2016. Americans like fat books and thin women. Books are tangible history.
What holy cities are to nomadic tribes a symbol of race and a bond of union great books are to essays, the wandering souls of being contest essay, men: they are the igcse english coursework Meccas of the mind. God be thanked for books! they are the voices of the distant and the dead, and make us heirs of the spiritual life of past ages. Homework. I feel no need of nature's flowers Of flowers of rhetoric I have store; When books are dry I o'er them pore. Why should I scratch my precious skin. By crawling through a hawthorn hedge, When Hawthorne, raking up my sin, Stands tempting on english essays the nearest ledge? Irving Browne (18351899), The Bookworm Does Not Care For Nature A good book is always on tap; it may be decanted and drunk a hundred times, and it is still there for further imbibement. A blessed companion is a book, a book that, fitly chosen, is a lifelong friend. a book that, at a touch, pours its heart into our own.
[W]omen and books should be looked at daily. 'Bookworms' are now almost exclusively known in the secondary and derivative meaning of the word as porers over dry books; but there was a time when the real worms were as ubiquitous as our cockroaches. English. They would start at the first or last page and tunnel circular holes through the volume, and english coursework essays, were cursed by librarians. They were dignified, like other disagreeable things, with fine Latin names. The most audacious beast of our days is the cutter-out of teaching english, plates. Towards him we feel a ferocity that is merciless.
We should like to extract a tooth without anæsthetics for english coursework essays, every plate he has purloined. The Sufferings and Death of Books, Chambers's Journal of Popular Literature, Science, and Art , 1890 August 30th. There is a feebler but still more irritating form of tutorial, outrage upon books in public libraries, which consists in scrawling on the margins the vapid and frivolous criticisms or opinions of the reader, who often unconsciously gives evidence that he is incapable of appreciating what he reads. The Sufferings and Death of Books, Chambers's Journal of english coursework, Popular Literature, Science, and on human capital formation in india, Art , 1890 August 30th. Reading the best state yet to keep absolute loneliness at bay. [R]eading time is still limited no matter how many commitments of work or friendship I am willing to ditch in favor of the pages. Francis Spufford (b.1964), Confessions of an English Fiction Eater, The Child That Books Built: A Life in Reading , 2002. Igcse. There are books from which one inhales an about as a exquisite air. Igcse English Essays. Joseph Joubert (17541824), translated from French by George H. Calvert, 1866. A large, still book is a piece of quietness, succulent and nourishing in a noisy world, which I approach and essay about being a businesswoman, imbibe with #34;a sort of greedy enjoyment,#34; as Marcel Proust said of those rooms of his old home whose air was #34;saturated with the bouquet of silence.#34; I can always tell when you're reading somewhere in igcse coursework essays the house, my mother used to say. There's a special silence, a reading silence. Francis Spufford (b.1964), Confessions of an about as a second English Fiction Eater, The Child That Books Built: A Life in Reading , 2002.
Ah, bare, small room that I have sorrowed in; Ay, and on english essays sunny days, haply, rejoiced; We know some things together, you and I! Hold there, you ranged row of books! In vain. American. You beckon from your shelf. You've stood my friends. Where all things else were foes; yet now I'll turn. My back upon you, even as the world. Turns it on me. And yetfarewell, farewell!
You, lofty Shakespeare, with the tattered leaves. And fathomless great heart, your binding's bruised. English. Yet did I love you less? Goethe, farewell; Farewell, triumphant smile and tragic eyes, And pitiless world-wisdom! Amy Levy, A Minor Poet, c.1884. 'Tis the good reader that makes the essay on human good book; in every book he finds passages which seem confidences or asides hidden from all else and unmistakenly meant for his ear; the igcse essays profit of books is according to the sensibility of the reader; the profoundest thought or passion sleeps as in a mine, until it is discovered by an equal mind and mymaths, heart. Ralph Waldo Emerson, Society and Solitude , 1870. Psychopathia librorum. I surround myself with the printed word. Sven Birkerts (b.1951), Notes from a Confession, The Agni Review , No.22 (1985) I don't think we should read for instruction but to give our souls a chance to luxuriate.
Feelings come before intellect. Henry Valentine Miller (18911980), letter to Brenda Venus, 1976. Reading well is essays one of the great pleasures that solitude can afford you. One of the advantages of reading books is that you get to play with someone else's imaginary friends, at all hours of the structure night. The book of the moment often has immense vogue, while the book of the igcse age, which comes in its company from the press, lies unnoticed; but the great book has its revenge. It lives to essay on human in india, see its contemporary pushed up shelf by shelf until it finds its final resting-place in the garret or the auction room. Hamilton Wright Mabie. The time to read is igcse coursework essays any time: no apparatus, no appointment of being a businesswoman, time and place, is necessary. English Essays. It is the only art which can be practised at contest any hour of the essays day or night, whenever the time and inclination comes, that is your time for reading; in joy or sorrow, health or illness. I knew a gentleman who was so good a manager of his time that he would not even lose that small portion of it which the calls of essay being, nature obliged him to pass in the necessary-house; but gradually went through all the Latin poets in those moments. Reading in igcse bed jumpstarts dreams.
Bookstores are emotional places both for their patrons and for the employees. They are built on the sweat and about music, tears of hardworking people, each bookshelf lined with the lifework of coursework, hundreds of artists. About A Businesswoman. Each of those books represent endless hours of grind and toil. Igcse Coursework Essays. Often the bookstore owner and employees are also writers. Is there a space with more fulfilled or unfulfilled dreams? Bob Eckstein, Introduction to Footnotes from the on human capital in india World's Greatest Bookstores: True Tales and Lost Moments from Book Buyers, Booksellers, and igcse coursework essays, Book Lovers , 2016. This nice and subtle happiness of reading, this joy not chilled by age, this polite and unpunished vice, this selfish, serene life-long intoxication. Logan Pearsall Smith.
The tedium of many a book is its salvation: the critic, after raising his javelin, falls asleep before he hurls it. Marie Dubsky, Freifrau von Ebner-Eschenbach (18301916), translated by Mrs Annis Lee Wister, 1882. The ink of timeless books. transmutes in tinge and shade. from essay about one century to another. but classic words never fade. Readers of igcse essays, novels. I sometimes think that I could, if put to education, it, pick the real readers of english coursework essays, novels out of a crowd. They have a strangeness about the eye, almost as if there were an extra bit of lens on the cornea. The glance of a reader shows me a soul with a different orientation to time. Sven Birkerts (b.1951), Notes from a Confession, The Agni Review , No.22 (1985) Books are delightful society.
If you go into a room and find it full of books even without taking them from the shelves they seem to essay capital formation, speak to you, to bid you welcome. William Ewart Gladstone. Books support us in english our solitude and keep us from being a burden to ourselves.
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Edexcel Igcse English Coursework Deadline: College essay
Paradigm Shift Essays and english coursework, Research Papers. summary of the book, instead. And there were a lot done by different people/organizations. Essay Capital Formation In India. From the various summaries I read, I found the book interesting . because it was not a conventional science book. Yes, it talked a lot about science but the paradigm shift that Kuhn wrote about got my interest. The ‘scientific revolutions’ were true and believable and igcse essays, somehow, I agree with them. Science, or normal science as Thomas Kuhn put it, is the essay being a businesswoman, process of gathering facts to build hypotheses that explain. Epistemology , Normal science , Paradigm shift 927 Words | 3 Pages. Small Cars: New Paradigm Shift ? Our country has long had an obsession with the automobile. The designs of the essays, sixties and mymaths homework, . seventies remain fond memories that still dominate our garages and car shows today.
Nobody can be anybody without owning a car in today’s culture. It is a status symbol. Our society equates bigger with better. The bigger and more expensive the car you own, the higher your status must be. Everywhere you go there are Escalades and Navigators.
They are America, writ large and thirsty. Automobile , North America , Paradigm shift 1286 Words | 4 Pages. Marshall Sahlins’ has a quote that we stand on the shoulders of giants to shit on english coursework essays, their heads reflects the idea of paradigm . Essay Tutorial. shift . The shoulders personify the collective knowledge of those researchers before us, as students it is where we gain our information. It is not through our own work that we initially study our respective fields; we study the accumulation of igcse english coursework essays work that those giants have codified. The shit represents new ideas, criticism, and essay, reworking of the igcse english coursework essays, previously held beliefs.
The. Anthropology , Evolution , Normal science 1466 Words | 4 Pages. Does Science Consist in the Progressive Development of being american contest essay Objective Truth? Contrast the english coursework essays, Views of Kuhn with One Other Writer on This Topic. historian of science Thomas Kuhn introduced the term paradigm as a key part of what he called normal science: In normal (that is non . revolutionary) periods in a science, there is a consensus across the relevant scientific community about the theoretical and methodological rules to be followed. (Marshall 1998). Paradigms tend to on human formation in india shift over time as new scientific discoveries are made, and anomalies or observations that conflict with the igcse english, current paradigm begin to accumulate. Eventually this leads to.
Epistemology , Paradigm shift , Philosophy of science 1441 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction 1.1 Mayoists brought a fundamental new paradigm . The scientific management movement led the industrial revolution to change our . way of life, our perception of work and essay about being a businesswoman, our understanding for igcse coursework what an organization is. This paradigm shifted to the Human relations movement (led by being a businesswoman, the so called Mayoists) as a result of the Hawthorne studies, which took into consideration the physical, social and psychological needs of employees unlike the previous paradigm . Coursework. Taylorists considered the employee as good. Hawthorne effect , Human resource management , Human resources 2007 Words | 6 Pages. Relativism in Scientific Progress. Many skeptics have accused Thomas S. Kuhn of being a relativist, by saying that the Kuhnian view provides no way for . paradigms to be compared to each other. Essay. This makes it so one cannot measure progress across paradigms , but only within them. Since Kuhn determines there is not a collective foundation for which two paradigms can be measured, the idea that he disproves scientific progress is something skeptics argue for. Though Kuhn is argued to be a relativist, especially. Normal science , Paradigm shift , Philosophy of science 1379 Words | 4 Pages.
Thomas Kuhn - Scientific Revolutions. these paradigms , as Kuhn describes them, are originally limited in scope and precision. It may still be unclear to the researcher(s) to igcse english coursework essays what . is actually being studied. Nonetheless, “the success of a paradigms … is at the start largely a promise of success discoverable in selected and structure tutorial, still incomplete examples.” (pg 23) This however, does not mean the paradigm will be completely successful and by no means to english solve all the existing problems. American. Yet, there is still the notion that the paradigm will be. Normal science , Paradigm shift , Problem solving 786 Words | 3 Pages. Paradigm Shift Example - Thomas Kuhn.
indeed very important in understanding science. Coursework. He claimed that in order to understand science, one has to look into the history of science. He also had a . theory, which was written in structure the book of Structure of Scientific Revolutions, called the Paradigm Shift . Paradigm is a sum of accepted metaphysical assumptions, theories, methodologies, manuals and english coursework, techniques. In Kuhn’s theory there are three periods of science, which are Normal science, Crisis and Scientific Revolution. Normal science is the continuation. Air France , British Airways , Normal science 1606 Words | 5 Pages. Paradigms The Power of a Paradigm Before we can really begin talking about change and solving problems, we need to a businesswoman . understand what a paradigm is and how to english coursework make a paradigm shift . Paradigm is a Greek word. It was originally a scientific term, and is more commonly used today to mean a model, theory, perception, assumption, or frame of being american contest reference. Coursework Essays. In a more general sense, it's the way we see the structure tutorial, world - not in igcse english terms of our visual sense of sight, but in terms of perceiving, understanding. Change , Paradigm , Paradigm shift 1174 Words | 6 Pages.
Castell's argument on Information Society. the way individuals work, produce, and consume. Human processes are changed by these technologies. Thus, to on human capital in india understand the information economy, one should . first understand the characteristics of new information technologies, and then study the paradigm shift into igcse english coursework essays the network society. Contest. Castells (1996, 1997a, 2000) defined the igcse coursework, network society as a social structure which is characterized by networked communications technologies and information processing. This includes such social phenomena as economic. Economy , Industrial Revolution , Industrial society 2078 Words | 6 Pages. Mufc Case Study - Strategic Management. build a bigger local fan base). When TV broadcasting of games became ultra-popular and as the ownership structure changed the club aimed to globalize. . Essay About A Businesswoman. Paradigms – Before 1990’s the underlying paradigm was that the club’s ultimate goal is to “produce” top quality football.
As time passed the club taken for granted assumptions changed. The new paradigm is that the club is a financial asset. This change had a major impact on igcse english coursework essays, the stakeholders’ behavior (e.g. Essay Formation. players pay more attention to the commercial. Change , Limited company , Malcolm Glazer 697 Words | 3 Pages. of Kuhn's Paradigms to the History of Linguistics. Language, 52(2), 285-294. Retrieved from http://people.ku.edu/ percival/Kuhn'sParadigms.pdf . This is a credible journal written by Keith Percival from the university of Kansas applying Kuhn paradigm concept to the history of Linguistics. Percival displays two questions in this article: Has Kuhn's Paradigm concept been correctly applied? and is the igcse english coursework, theory applicable to Linguistics?. Essay In India. He first explains Kuhn's concepts of the igcse coursework, paradigm for readers. Linguistics , Normal science , Paradigm shift 1409 Words | 5 Pages.
the ‘ paradigm shift ’ view and consequently apply it on the mentioned question above. Thomas Samuel Kuhn made several . important contributions to the understanding of the progress of knowledge. The most important and revolutionary at the time was his concept of the so called paradigm shifts . Essay On Human Formation In India. This view implied that there is no improvement in the gaining of knowledge, merely a shift in the perspective on reality (i.e. paradigm shift ). It says that one always operates in a framework ( paradigm ) to. Epistemology , Normal science , Paradigm shift 1458 Words | 5 Pages. Book Review Moral Leadership: Getting to the Heart of School Improvement by: Thomas J. Sergiovanni. point by point the author's ideas of how to shift the environment of schools from igcse essays that of a factory to one of mymaths a learning community. . Sergiovanni discusses living school in igcse english coursework essays leadership rather than just being concerned with the facts and figures involved in playing school.
The viewpoint of the author is mymaths homework being concerned about the leadership processes in schools that are presently accepted as the norm. Sergiovanni would like to see school leadership shift to one that is self-motivated by teachers. College , Education , Management 796 Words | 3 Pages. possibly. He is also not mind sentence and make jokes at the end of the book. Igcse Essays. In the Apology, I can see how three concepts we study in class relate to . the Apology. The three concepts are the homework, tripartite framework of tradition (Eliot), a paradigm shift (Kuhn), and intertextuality. In the Apology I can also see how the foundational tradition of Greece establish by books such as the Iliad, the Odyssey, and Oedipus the King relate to the concepts we study in class and Plato's Apology. Epistemology , Homer , Normal science 1318 Words | 3 Pages. alternative Indigenous research paradigm to inform Indigenous governance” (2010, 45). McGregor, Bayha and igcse coursework essays, Simmons successfully argue their . thesis by being objective in presenting their paper and by discussing the education, limitations of performing research the Indigenous way.
The authors, however, weaken their argument by using only a small, localized number of participants in their workshop. Despite this weakness, they still effectively communicate their argument that a new paradigm should be considered for researching. Colonialism , Indigenous peoples , Indigenous peoples of the Americas 937 Words | 3 Pages. Making differences matter: A new paradigm for managing diversity, written by David A. Igcse English Coursework Essays. Thomas and Robin J. Ely, demonstrates the various types . of diversity management, the ways in which they work, and how they can possibly have an adverse affect on about music, companies. As stated in this article: Our goal is to essays help business leaders see what their own approach to capital formation diversity currently is and how it may already have influenced their companies’ diversity efforts. Managers can learn to igcse essays asses whether they need to. Culture , Management , Paradigm shift 1638 Words | 5 Pages.
meant that Kuhn also saw that “for a new candidate for paradigm to essay be accepted by a scientific community, first, the new candidate must seem to igcse coursework . resolve some outstanding and generally recognized problem that can be met in no other way. Second, the new paradigm must promise to preserve a relatively large part of the concrete problem solving activity that has accrued to science through its predecessors. All in structure tutorial all, Kuhn said that the english coursework, new paradigm must solve more issues than the one that came before it. Epistemology , Falsifiability , Paradigm shift 583 Words | 3 Pages. Problems with the Poverty Threshold. with a better means to create a healthy diet plan, decrease the risk of health problems and disease among impoverished communities, create better standards . for living arrangements in these communities, and move on from the old paradigm way of thinking into the new paradigm way of acting we could possibly avoid further impoverishment and end up raising the poverty threshold in order to assist in the accomplishment of these important goals. If no change is essay structure tutorial made to the poverty threshold, poor people. Health , Malnutrition , Paradigm shift 2760 Words | 7 Pages.
The Importance of the Structure of DNA. necessary for the understanding organisms, it was not a revolution due to coursework essays the cumulative development of biology alongside the thesis about music, discovery of the DNA structure, . the lack of conflict between scientists, and the absence of anomalies in the scientific paradigm in the 1950s (Kuhn, 92-94). On the other hand, this discovery was indeed revolutionary in that it formed such an important biological foundation that has allowed civilization to recognize a new microscopic dimension in their surroundings, allowing. DNA , Francis Crick , Gene 1582 Words | 5 Pages. The Limitations of Falsificationism. theories were falsified early in coursework their careers.? Popper?s response to this latter problem is to say that scientists should be dogmatic and stubborn.? BUT if . they do that, they?re resisting falsification! CHAPTER 8: Theories as Structures: Kuhn?s Paradigms Theories as structures (104) Both Inductivism and Falsificationism portray science as laws confronting observation statements.? Popper does acknowledge the historical nature of scientific knowledge (how novel a statement is depends on thesis about english, the background. Falsifiability , Normal science , Paradigm shift 1697 Words | 6 Pages.
Pseudo-Transformational Leadership: The Relevance within Corporations. quickly and in the end followers within that team will drift away and become distant. How successful a business is igcse english essays depends on their willingness to . make a change to create a thriving innovativeness capable of long-term. There has to be a paradigm shift from old to new. Mymaths Homework. The new paradigm’s main ideas are to create a culture of leadership that is investing in coursework their people. Thesis English As A. Businesses cannot be successful without their employees they are not liabilities they are assets. They need to be treated.
Charismatic authority , Ethics , Leadership 785 Words | 3 Pages. Mcdonald's Organizational Structure. receive prestigious awards for their leading-edge training, including the “Employer of Choice Award” from the Restaurant Business Magazine (Restaurant . Management, 2004; Early et al., 2004). McDonald’s fits the paradigm of a rational organization From the standpoint of the rational system paradigm , the igcse coursework essays, behavior of organizations and their participants are viewed as actions performed by purposeful and coordinated agents (Scott amp; Davis, 2007). Rational systems theory is generally viewed as a closed. Hierarchy , Organization , Organizational culture 1744 Words | 5 Pages. Anthropology 250 March 13, 2012 Midterm Section 1: Short Answer 2. List and briefly explain the three goals of archaeology. How do they apply and . Being A Businesswoman. differ from the igcse coursework essays, earlier paradigms of archaeology? * The three goals of archaeology are the study of mymaths culture history, reconstruct past life ways, and understand cultural processes.
The study of coursework culture history is to piece together the thesis teaching english as a second, history of how culture changes over time. To reconstruct past life ways is a complex process that involves a. Archaeology , Australopithecus , Conspiracy theory 2014 Words | 6 Pages. Quintessential Paradigms Ryan Malaty Revolutions In Science Quintessential Paradigms It is human nature to . try to find meaning in everything, even if some parts need to be dreamed up. Igcse Essays. There always needs to be an answer, or a method of finding an answer, to all the questions that tickle Man’s spirit of inquiry. However, for homework every way of igcse essays thinking there is a way to think otherwise. In Kuhn’s Structure of mymaths Scientific Revolutions, the igcse english, nature of the “ paradigm ” is being discussed.
A paradigm can. Isaac Newton , Nicolaus Copernicus , Paradigm 1658 Words | 5 Pages. A Paradigm Shift Caused by the Impact of Interactive Multimedia Technologies. model by seeing it as a paradigm a similar way to that proposed by Thomas S. Kuhn, the historian of science. Igcse English Coursework Essays. Kuhn explains change in scientific . theory not as a linear series of revolutions but as shifts of paradigms ….an existing paradigm comes under stress when it fails to solve or explain fresh problems. American Contest. A new paradigm becomes dominant when it promises to english essays explain selected and essay capital formation, seemingly incompatible examples which the old paradigm cannot. Barr’s view was that the existing paradigm for art history and. Art , Bauhaus , Modern architecture 5734 Words | 14 Pages.
Self-Managing Team Organizational Paradigm. Self-managing Team Organizational Paradigm XXX University of english essays Phoenix Self-managing Team Organizational Design Paradigm The . Self-managing Team Organizational Paradigm (SMTOP) is a leadership and organizational structure that embraces emotional intelligence and thesis english as a, individuals' work preferences. The model was developed with a combination of several existing models (Compound Model) and is a type of english coursework essays hybrid structure. With guiding principles from the Boundaryless Organizational Design, the Simple Structure. Ethics , Myers-Briggs Type Indicator , Organization 1955 Words | 6 Pages. PARADIGM SHIFTS A paradigm is a world view that controls the way we understand the world in which we live. A . paradigm shift occurs when the dominant paradigm is replaced by a new paradigm . Some examples of thesis about teaching english second paradigm shifts are given below.
One of the most significant paradigm shifts occurred in science when the paradigm that united all truth into one was replaced by igcse, a paradigm that separated the revealed truth of the Bible from scientific truth. Newton wrote that, He was thinking God's thoughts. Catastrophism , Epistemology , Geology 1576 Words | 5 Pages. condition. How do you understand the term paradigm ? What is meant by being american contest, this term? Why is this term important to coursework essays the study of about being a businesswoman . research? My understanding of the term paradigm is that it is a current viewpoint and process from which your mind analyzes information, it’s the igcse english coursework, way I see the essay on human capital, world. Within normal science, the paradigm is the set of exemplary experiments that are likely to be copied or emulated. The prevailing paradigm often represents a more specific way of viewing reality.
Cost-benefit analysis , Epistemology , Paradigm 1425 Words | 5 Pages. The structure of the english coursework, scientific revolution. therefore, it reflects upon being american, much scientific work they have already successfully completed. That is why a new theory, however special its range of igcse . application, is seldom or never just an increment to what is already known. About Being. Kuhn describes how paradigms are created what they contribute to scientific activity. Normal science can be defined as: research as an english attempt to force nature into conceptual boxes is predicated on the assumption that scientists understand the world. The achievements. Epistemology , Paradigm , Paradigm shift 1488 Words | 5 Pages. Making Differences Matter - Review. two midsize high technology companies, a private foundation, and a university medical center.
Diversity initiatives to date have been guided by two . perspectives. Capital In India. (1) The discrimination and fairness paradigm and (2) Access and legitimacy paradigm . This research has emerged with the third paradigm for managing diversity, and recommended abandoning old and limiting assumptions about the meaning of diversity in order to realize the true potential of diversity in a powerful way to increase organization. Employment , Management , Organization 1480 Words | 6 Pages. IMRAN’S CASE KEY ISSUES: The key issues are as follows: Hawthorne Studies SUB ISSUES: The sub issue is: Paradigm . Shift Thus the case revolves around Hawthorne Studies and igcse essays, the Paradigm shift . HAWTHORNE STUDIES The Hawthorne Studies were conducted by Elton Mayo in the Hawthorne Plant of the Western Electric Company in Chicago between 1927 and 1932. These studies can be divided into three main phases a) Test Room Studies b) Interviewing Studies c) Observation Studies . Behavior , Hawthorne effect , Human 835 Words | 3 Pages. 7 Habits of Highly Effective People Book Summary. techniques and homework, quick fixes – not effective at all. Igcse English Coursework Essays. Paradigm The book talks a lot about paradigm shifts and thesis about english as a second, I . remember having to igcse coursework look it up in being contest essay the dictionary to find the true meaning of essays it; paradigm meaning: model, theory, perception, assumption, the way we see world. Conditioning affects our perceptions/ paradigms (old/young lady drawing example in the book worth checking out). We see the thesis teaching as a, world not as it is but as ‘we are’ through our paradigms . Different people can have different views and still. First Things First , Paradigm , Paradigm shift 992 Words | 4 Pages.
know. But, I could not get over how difficult his writing style was to interpret. His form of writing is not something that most people who are not . scientists are use too. Igcse English Coursework Essays. From being written in a scientific and philosophical manner, to essay tutorial explaining a paradigm and normal science, to using words that I was trying to look up in the dictionary on every single page. The one thing I did care for was his redundancy in his book. His redundancy will grab your attention telling you to pay attention to igcse coursework this certain. Epistemology , Normal science , Paradigm 1038 Words | 3 Pages.
Relationship Marketing –Undergraduate Module Question: Some scholars regard Relationship Marketing as old wine in tutorial a new bottle, while others proponents . Igcse. regard it as a different approach representing a paradigm shift . Discuss. Answer: Introduction Relationship Marketing (RM) attempts to involve and integrate customers, suppliers and other infrastructural partners into a firm's developmental and marketing activities (McKenna 1991; Shani and Chalasani 1991). Such involvement results in close. Concept , Customer relationship management , Customer service 1375 Words | 5 Pages. are the new paradigms ? According to you are these paradigms effective or not?
Definition Intellectual perception or view, . accepted by essay structure, an individual or a society as a clear example, model, or pattern of igcse english coursework how things work in the world. This term was used first by homework, the US science fiction historian Thomas Kuhn (1922-96) in his 1962 book 'The Structure Of Scientific Revolution' to refer to theoretical frameworks within which all scientific thinking and practices operate. See also paradigm shift . It is the. Better , Epistemology , Management 1337 Words | 6 Pages. times and the antiquated societal thinking may be in need of additional examination and english, change. Kuhn’s (1996) account of the paradigm . shift specifies that the evolution must “occur all at once” or “not at all” (p.
66). Paradigm shifts specify there is thesis about music a ground-breaking way of thinking occurring and novel ideas are starting to take place. The suggestions that paradigm shifts have is the igcse english coursework essays, expansion of a methodology is about to go forward and change. Schommer-Aikens Hutter’s (2002) article tries. Belief , Critical thinking , Epistemology 1986 Words | 7 Pages. Kuhn’s theory of scientific development. Introduction This essay aims to evaluate the paradigm shift of the scientific development by contrast the “normal science”. . Firstly, explain the definition and formation, evaluate the characteristics of the english essays, Kuhn’s theory by analyses the claims of the questions. Secondly, compare the normal science and other counter-theory form the opponents by relating the problems of reality which is about the contemporary scientific development. Thirdly, to structure argue the barrier of paradigm which is could obstruct Kuhn’s theory developing.
History of science , Paradigm , Paradigm shift 1834 Words | 6 Pages. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Critical Analysis of igcse english essays Thomas Kuhn’s “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” “In learning a paradigm , the scientist acquires theory, . methods, and essay on human formation, standards together, usually in an inextricable mixture. Therefore, when paradigms change, there are usually significant shifts in the criteria determining the legitimacy both of the problems and igcse english essays, of proposed solutions.” – Thomas Kuhn. This quote is from Thomas Kuhn’s work The Structure of Scientific Revolution, in which Kuhn describes his view on. History of science , Normal science , Paradigm 1257 Words | 4 Pages. Literature Review Global Financial Crisis Regulation. “Global Financial Crisis: Regulatory Arbitrage and thesis, Paradigm Shifts ” In early 2008, the economy ground to an almost complete . halt. As the stock indexes were overwhelmed by a virtual tsunami of never relenting red digits, it became clear that the financial markets had been hit by a crisis the scope and igcse coursework, scale of which had not been witnessed since the Wall Street Crash of the 1930’s. Thesis English Second. Over time the causes became more clear, and as the dust settled, the igcse english coursework essays, world was left with several important questions.
Bank , Economics , Finance 629 Words | 3 Pages. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Book Report. (Kuhn) Kuhns’ argument is thesis about teaching english that “normal science” (Kuhn 5) works on english coursework essays, the foundation of paradigms . 2. The author’s use of the word . “ paradigm ,” and the significance of that term to on human capital in india him. Igcse Essays. How does his use of that term compare to how you have heard the term “ paradigm ” used in the work place? In the work place, the word paradigm is used as a prototype or a form of standards. The Encarta Dictionary defines “ paradigm ” as “an example that serves as a pattern or model for something, especially one that.
Normal science , Paradigm , Paradigm shift 2667 Words | 7 Pages. A Short History of Mass Communication Theory Paradigm results is a theory that summarizes and thesis teaching english as a, is consistent with all known facts and this . often leads to english coursework a paradigm shift a fundamental, even radical, rethinking of what we believe to be true (Kuhn, 1970). Essay On Human Capital. Mass communication theory is igcse coursework essays a particulary open to such a paradigm shifts due to 3 factors : 1. Advances in technology or the introduction of new media. 2. Calls for on human formation in india control or regulatiin of these new technologies require. 3. As a. Hypodermic needle , Marshall McLuhan , Mass media 322 Words | 2 Pages. Applications of coursework seven habits by Steven Covey. as the title suggest. It begins with the concept that people perceive the world differently, and we form our own paradigm - how we view the . world with our own unique lens. Mymaths. Covey explains that paradigms are the english, source of our attitudes and behaviours. Essay Capital Formation. Part of achieving insight involves making a paradigm shift which causes us to english coursework essays perceive things differently.
Our paradigms will affect how we interact with others, which in about a businesswoman turn will affect how they interact with us. Covey argues that any. First Things First , Interdependence , Paradigm 1054 Words | 7 Pages. fact there NEVER was weapons of mass destruction. Paradigm shifts are frightening for they highlight the infinite discrepancies . in our perceptions that have been there the whole time. We don't want to be ignorant, but we also desire to igcse be safe and comfortable. Like a bad acid trip, if we know to much at once, or accept all the thesis teaching second, motives for our flawed behavior simultaneously we are prone to “freak out”. In these three pieces the characters undergo a shift of perception that may destroy or strengthen them. Infinity , Man , Paradigm 1501 Words | 4 Pages. Structure of Scientific Revolutions. the utilization of subjective paradigms , which are commonly accepted theories that, “provide models from which spring particular traditions of . scientific research beliefs,” and that these paradigms influence the way scientists perceive reality.
Further, the scientific community abruptly discards and replaces paradigms via “scientific revolution,” based on an “act of faith” that the new paradigm is better than the previous one. When a scientist moves from one paradigm to another, he moves to “a different. History , Paradigm shift , Philosophy of science 3690 Words | 12 Pages. Thomas Kuhn. the Structure of Scientific Revolution. published The Structure of Scientific Revolutions which will be the object of this essay.
This essay will be divided in 5 parts: -the . paradigm , -the phases of paradigm cycles (further divided in: pre- paradigm amp; normal sciences, crisis and new paradigm ), -the incommensurability, -the rationality of scientific progress and -the progression of science. A paradigm The structure of scientific revolution of Thomas Kuhn focus on the cycle of scientific structure in it's whole. From it’s beginning. History of science , Normal science , Paradigm 1357 Words | 5 Pages. Criminology. www.sagepublications.com ISSN 1748–8958; Vol: 6(1): 39–62 DOI: 10.1177/1748895806060666 A desistance paradigm for igcse english essays offender . management FERGUS McNEILL Universities of Glasgow and essay about a businesswoman, Strathclyde, UK Abstract In an in?uential article published in the British Journal of Social Work in igcse coursework 1979, Anthony Bottoms and Bill McWilliams proposed the adoption of a ‘non-treatment paradigm ’ for probation practice. Their argument rested on thesis education, a careful and considered analysis not only of empirical evidence. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 10652 Words | 32 Pages. How Can We Train Leaders If We Dont Know What Leadership Is? do not know what leadership is? - Barker - problem: Leadership is usually not defined, there are multiple definitions (skill, ability, role, . English Coursework Essays. action,etc…), the focus on essay on human capital in india, the leader rather than upon coursework, the process of leadership - new revolutionary paradigm : transforming leadership - definition leadership: leadership is the thesis about, reciprocal process of mobilizing, by persons with certain motives and values, various economic, political and igcse english essays, other resources in a context of competition and conflict in order to. Behavior , Ethics , Leadership 2421 Words | 9 Pages.
Singapore’s future depends on essay tutorial, her ability to reinvent herself. Igcse Essays. Comment. attributed to the ability of the government and the country in thesis music education responding to changes in english coursework essays the globalised world of a businesswoman today to igcse coursework keep the country competitive and . relevant. It has been this ability to thesis teaching english as a innovate, recalibrate and set the coursework, course towards a new paradigm that allows Singapore to survive, remain pertinent and an attraction on the world stage. It will be this ability to re-imagine her path that will allow Singapore to remain an being contest economic hub in the future. ?Singapore’s ability to innovate solutions. Country , Economics , Economy 720 Words | 2 Pages. If You Were Given All the Money You Would Ever Need. new paradigm shift during my lifetime will derive from the work of igcse english engineers. Music. Many people want to live forever but they can’t. . The next best thing to living longer is living better. The invention of the electric light bulb not only improved human life but also extended our productive day and banished darkness. Soon something of equal importance to Edison’s light bulb and the Internet is going to shake the igcse, world.
If I didn’t have to worry about about living I could prepare myself for that paradigm shift. Alternative energy , Economics , Energy development 428 Words | 2 Pages. 1.0 Introduction Apple is igcse coursework essays one of the companies that can attract people to join and about music education, do their best work by using the powerful management. Hence, this report . is going to outline the management issue of Apple that related to the paradigm and analyze the impact of igcse essays these management approaches on the development of Apple. In most case, Apple is using the scientific management approach in order to essay motivate staffs to do their best rather than just requesting them. Besides, some new management approaches. Goal , Management , Paradigm shift 447 Words | 2 Pages.
Article: How Can We Train Leaders If We Don't Know What Leadership Is? Literature Review. analysis Article: HOW CAN WE TRAIN LEADERS IF WE DO NOT KNOW WHAT LEADERSHIP IS ? By RICHARD A: BARKER 2 CONTENT: 1. summary of the english, article . difference between leader and leadership definitions of mymaths leadership different leadership concepts / paradigms difference between leadership and management leadership and leadership training – different ideas 2. Critical discussion Problem of leadership definitions Lack of illustrations Concepts of bureaucracy and adhocracy Problem of ‘leader’ and ‘follower’. Feudalism , Kurt Lewin , Leadership 2623 Words | 8 Pages. more for access to igcse english coursework bigger network, so margins improve as user bases grow. Platform providers have struggled to establish and sustain their two-sided . networks. In creating strategies for two-sided networks, managers have relied on about music education, assumptions and paradigms that apply to products without network effects. As a result, they have made many decisions that are wholly inappropriate for the economics of their industries.
3 Challenges/Factors that senior managers must consider in designing their platforms’. Business development , Business model , Clayton M. Igcse English Coursework Essays. Christensen 5630 Words | 15 Pages. compassion. > DEEP sense of peace > Inspiration, intuition > Awareness of the nature and role of thought > Detachment from being american contest outcome – being OK with . Coursework. whatever happens > Responsibility for one’s feelings and actions Examples of being essay Paradigm Changes Old Paradigm Current Paradigm Geocentrism Heliocentrism (3rd century BC, Aristarchus of Samos) Flat Earth Sphere-ish Earth Disease Theories that did nothing to english coursework essays improve health (e.g. A Businesswoman. Bad Smells, Punishment, Personality Faults) Infection from coursework viruses or. Cognition , Emotion , Feeling 1792 Words | 31 Pages. SPIRITUALITY Dr.
LOUIS XAVIER S.J. Essay About Being A Businesswoman. 1.0 : The Paradigm of Management and Spirituality In 1960, John F. Kennedy declared that by igcse coursework, the end of the . Essay. decade, man will be placed on the moon. Scientists were dismayed. Many thought it to be an impossible dream. But because there was political will, man was placed on the moon and coursework, outerspace was conquered.
There is a dire need today, to conquer a deeper inner space - the hearts and minds of people engaged in essay on human business. The paradigm of management and spirituality is an. Atheism , Culture , God 3421 Words | 9 Pages. 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens. intersection of english knowledge, skill and desire. Change is a cycle of being and thesis about, seeing (visualization).
Our objective is to move progressively on a maturity . continuum from dependence to independence to interdependence. Although independence is the current paradigm of our society, we can accomplish much more by cooperation and specialization. However, we must achieve independence before we can choose interdependence. Habits 1, 2 and 3 (Be Proactive, Begin With The End In Mind, Put First Things First) deal. Dimension , First Things First , Paradigm shift 8255 Words | 26 Pages. consumers. Apple 2 for its time was indeed revolutionary, for instance GUI was already planned for integration and igcse english, as they were looking for the new . trends that would shape our lives. The way Bill stated it is by on human capital, saying that they were looking for a paradigm shift . As people were using the english, DOS based application, he saw that graphics interface was the product of the future. And indeed it was, but it was not an overnight success, there were many resistances in their industry simply because it was something. Apple Inc. , Graphical user interface , Innovation 3162 Words | 9 Pages.
The Contribution of Informatics to the Development of thesis teaching as a second Social Networks and Their Impact on Society. changed a lot in industrial and mechanical era but the igcse english coursework essays, change seen in last half a century is being essay exponential and amazing. Igcse Coursework Essays. If we have to credit one invention . which had bought such a revolution, it would be computers. With advent of computers, a new paradigm shift was seen, computers enable mankind to compute and process data in more meaningful way with a blink of an being contest eye. And it did not stop there, once a standalone computing machine, the true acumen of computers was judge when they were connected with. Alvin Toffler , Computer , Information science 825 Words | 2 Pages. When Seagate finally introduced its 3.5-inch drive in coursework essays 1987, more than $750 million in 3.5-inch drives had already been sold. Information about the market's . size had been widely available throughout the industry. But it wasn't compelling enough to shift the essay capital in india, focus of igcse coursework essays Seagate's managers. They continued to look at the new market through the eyes of tutorial their current customers and in the context of igcse coursework their current financial structure. The posture of today's leading disk-drive makers toward the newest disruptive.
Clayton M. Capital Formation. Christensen , Disruptive technology , Hard disk drive 6478 Words | 17 Pages. Stage of Replacement: A New Paradigm The stage of replacement means shifting to igcse essays a new paradigm . Managers must shift . to teaching as a a new paradigm for igcse coursework essays managing organizations because of the thesis about education, anomalies that threaten their survival and igcse coursework, prosperity. Mymaths Homework. To make this shift , however, they must understand the new paradigm and how it differs from the old paradigm . To initiate this understanding, we will contrast the igcse english coursework, new (but still emerging) paradigm with the old paradigm . Themes of the New Paradigm The differences between the. ISO 9000 , Management , Paradigm shift 46629 Words | 163 Pages.
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American Military Strategy in the Vietnam War, 1965–1973. For nearly a decade, American combat soldiers fought in South Vietnam to help sustain an independent, noncommunist nation in Southeast Asia. Essays! After U.S. troops departed in 1973, the collapse of South Vietnam in about english second 1975 prompted a lasting search to explain the coursework essays United States’ first lost war. Historians of the conflict and participants alike have since critiqued the ways in which civilian policymakers and uniformed leaders applied—some argued misapplied—military power that led to such an undesirable political outcome. While some claimed U.S. politicians failed to commit their nation’s full military might to a limited war, others contended that most officers fundamentally misunderstood the nature of the war they were fighting.
Still others argued “winning” was essentially impossible given the true nature of a struggle over Vietnamese national identity in the postcolonial era. On their own, none of these arguments fully satisfy. Contemporary policymakers clearly understood the essay formation in india difficulties of igcse english coursework waging a war in Southeast Asia against an enemy committed to national liberation. Yet the faith of these Americans in their power to resolve deep-seated local and regional sociopolitical problems eclipsed the possibility there might be limits to thesis about music, that power. By asking military strategists to simultaneously fight a war and igcse, build a nation, senior U.S. Thesis Music! policymakers had asked too much of those crafting military strategy to igcse english essays, deliver on overly ambitious political objectives. Teaching As A! In the end, the Vietnam War exposed the limits of what American military power could achieve in igcse coursework essays the Cold War era. By mid-June 1951, the Korean War had settled into an uneasy, yet conspicuous stalemate. About Music Education! Having blunted North Korean and Chinese offensives that killed thousands of igcse coursework essays soldiers and being, civilians, the igcse english coursework United Nations forces, now under command of General Matthew B. Ridgway, dug in as both sides agreed to open negotiations. Though the enemy had suffered heavily under the weight of allied ground and essay about a businesswoman, air power, Washington and essays, its partners had little stomach to press northward. As the U.S.
Joint Chiefs of Staff declared, the objective was to effect “an end to the fighting . Being American Contest Essay! . . and a return to igcse english essays, the status quo.” 1 Thus, President Harry Truman’s decision in April to relieve General Douglas MacArthur—who in homework Ridgway’s words “envisaged no less than the global defeat of communism”—suggested that political limitations were now an intrinsic part of developing and implementing strategy in a time of war. Yet what was the purpose of war and strategy if not the complete destruction of enemy forces? In a time when men had “control of machines capable of laying a world to waste,” Ridgway believed escalation without restraint would lead to disaster. Essays! Civilian and military authorities had to set attainable goals and work closely in selecting the contest essay means to achieve them. 2. Ridgway’s admonitions forecast inherent problems in a Cold War period increasingly dubbed an era of “limited war.” In short, the very definition of wartime victory seemed in flux. Igcse Coursework! An uncertain end to essay, the fighting in Korea implied there were, in fact, substitutes to winning outright on igcse essays the field of battle. Even if Korea demonstrated the successful application of communist containment, at structure, least one student of strategy lamented that limited war connoted “a deliberate hobbling of tremendous power.” 3 A Manichean view of the igcse Cold War, however, presented knotty problems for those seeking to confront seemingly expansion-minded communists without unintentionally escalating beyond some nuclear threshold. How could one fight a national war for survival against communism yet agree to negotiate an end to a stalemated war? Political scientist Robert Osgood, writing in essay structure 1957, judged there were few alternatives to contesting communists who themselves were limiting military force to “minimize the risk of precipitating total war.” For Osgood, the english challenge was to think about contemporary war as more than simply a physical contest between opposing armies. “The problem of limited war is not just a problem of military strategy but is, more broadly, the problem of combining military power with diplomacy and with the economic and psychological instruments of power within a coherent national strategy that is capable of supporting the United States’ political objectives abroad.” 4. If Osgood was correct in mymaths homework suggesting that war required more than just an igcse english coursework, application of military power, then strategy—as a problem to thesis about teaching english as a second, be solved—entailed more than just battlefield expertise. Thus, the igcse english coursework essays post–World War II generation of U.S.
Army officers was forced to being american contest essay, think about igcse english, war more broadly. And they did. Far from being slaves to conventional operations, officers ascending the ranks in about music the 1950s to english coursework, command in Vietnam understood the rising importance of local insurgency movements. As Andrew Birtle has persuasively argued, by 1965 the army had “succeeded in integrating counterinsurgency and american essay, counterguerrilla warfare in igcse english substantive ways into its doctrinal, educational, and training systems.” 5 An examination of american contest essay contemporary professional journals such as Military Review reveals a military establishment wrestling with the problems of local economic and social development, the importance of community politics, and english, the role played by indigenous security forces. In truth, officers of the day, echoing the recommendations of Harvard professor Henry Kissinger, did not define limited wars in purely military terms. Rather, they perceived strategic problems as those involving changes in technologies, societies, and, perhaps most importantly, political ideas. 6. These same officers labored to devise a coherent strategy for a limited contest in Southeast Asia within the larger construct of the Cold War. In an important sense, the development of strategy for all combatants necessitated attention to multiple layers, all interlaced. As Lyndon Johnson recalled of Vietnam in his 1971 memoir, “It was a political war, an economic war, and a fighting war—all at the same time.” 7 Moreover, American political and military leaders found that Cold War calculations mattered just as much as the fighting inside South Vietnam. Fears of appearing weak against communism compelled the Johnson White House to escalate in 1965 when it looked like Hanoi was making its final bid for Indochinese domination. About A Businesswoman! As Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara told a journalist in April, if the United States withdrew from Vietnam “there would be a complete shift of world power.
Asia goes Red, our prestige and integrity damaged, allies everywhere shaken.” Thus, paraphrasing military theorist Basil Liddell Hart, policy imperatives at english coursework essays, the level of grand strategy would set the foundations for—and later circumscribe—the application of military strategy on a lower plane. About Music! 8. Liddell Hart’s council that strategy involved more than “fighting power” would lead American officers in Vietnam into a near insolvable dilemma. Clearly, the igcse coursework civil war inside Vietnam was more than just a military problem. Yet in the quest to broaden their conception of war, to consider political and social issues as much as military ones, senior leaders developed a strategy that was so wide-ranging as to be unmanageable. Rather than a narrow focus on enemy attrition, sheer comprehensiveness proved to be a crucial factor undermining American strategy in Vietnam. In attempting to both destroy an adversary and build a nation, uniformed leaders overestimated their capacity to manage a conflict that had long preceded American involvement. A near unquestioning faith in the capacity to mymaths homework, do everything overshadowed any unease with entanglement in coursework essays a civil war rooted in competing notions of national liberation and american contest essay, identity. 9 In the end, senior U.S. policymakers had asked too much of igcse english those crafting military strategy to essay structure, deliver on overly ambitious political objectives. Igcse English Essays! Devising Strategy for homework a New Kind of War. By June 1965, General William C. Westmoreland had been serving in english essays the Republic of Vietnam for capital eighteen months.
As the newly appointed commander of the U.S. Igcse Coursework Essays! Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV), the former West Point superintendent was heir to a legacy of varied strategic initiatives aimed at structure tutorial, sustaining an independent, noncommunist foothold in Southeast Asia. Since the division of Vietnam along the seventeenth parallel in 1954, an American military assistance and advisory group (MAAG) had been training local forces for a threat both externally military and internally political. 10 The image of english coursework North Korean forces streaming across an tutorial, international boundary in 1950 surely weighed heavily on U.S. officers. Yet these same men understood the importance of a steady economy and igcse, secure social structure in combating the growing insurgent threat inside South Vietnam. Consequently, the U.S. advisory group focused on more than just advising the Army of the Republic of South Vietnam (ARVN) for conventional operations against the North Vietnam Army (NVA). 11. As advisers, however, the Americans could not dictate strategy to their Vietnamese allies. President Ngo Dinh Diem, struggling to gain popular support for teaching english as a his own social revolution, equally sought ways to secure the population—through programs like agrovilles and strategic hamlets—from a rising communist insurgency. Yet achieving consensus with (and between) Americans proved difficult. Staff officers debated how best to balance economic and igcse, political development with population security and mymaths homework, the training of South Vietnamese forces.
12 Was the threat more military or political, more external or internal? Were local paramilitary forces or the conventional army better suited to dealing with these threats? All the while, a shadow government competed for influence within the countryside. When MACV was established in February 1962, its chief, Paul D. Harkins, received the mission to “assist and support the Government of english coursework essays South Vietnam in being american essay its efforts to english essays, provide for its internal security, defeat Communist insurgency, and resist overt aggression.” 13 Here was a tall order. Moreover, as military operations required a solid political footing for ultimate success, an unstable Saigon government further complicated American strategic planning. Being Contest Essay! Following Diem’s overthrow and death in November 1963, the foundations on which the igcse english U.S. presence in South Vietnam rested appeared shaky at best. Hanoi’s own escalation in 1964 did little to assuage concern. 14. Though cognizant of the difficulties ahead, American leaders felt they had little choice but to persevere in South Vietnam. By early 1965, with the structure tutorial Gulf of english Tonkin Resolution authorizing him to “take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force” to english, assist South Vietnam, President Johnson believed he had little alternative but to escalate. He was in a difficult position.
Hoping to preserve his domestic agenda but stand strong against communist aggression, Johnson initially hesitated on committing ground troops. Instead, he turned to airpower. Operation Rolling Thunder, launched in coursework essays early March 1965, aimed at eliminating Hanoi’s support of the southern insurgency. Concurrently, Johnson hoped, in Michael Hunt’s words, to “bring a better life to homework, the people of Vietnam—on American terms.” 15 The president would be disappointed on english essays both counts. The punitive bombing of North Vietnam did little to interfere with Hanoi’s support of the insurgents and nothing to about being, resolve the internal political problems of South Vietnam. Moreover, military leaders complained that the president’s gradual response, of limiting the tempo and igcse english essays, ferocity of the air campaign, unduly limited American military might. (Few worried as restlessly as Johnson about full-blown Chinese or Soviet intervention.) By the spring, it became clear the president’s policies in South Vietnam were failing. In June, Westmoreland officially requested additional troops “as a stop-gap measure to save the essay structure tutorial ARVN from defeat.” 16.
The decision to igcse essays, escalate in Vietnam persists as one of the most controversial in twentieth-century American foreign policy. Competing interpretations revolve around the question of purpose. Was escalation chosen as a matter of essay tutorial policy, of containing communism abroad? Was it used as a way to test American capacity in nation-building, of expanding democracy overseas? Or did escalation flow from concerns about prestige and credibility, both national and english essays, political? Clearly Johnson considered all these matters in the critical months of about teaching english as a early 1965, and it is plausible to argue that the president believed he had few alternatives given reports of South Vietnam being on the verge of english coursework collapse. Thesis Teaching English As A Second! Yet ultimately intervention was a matter of igcse essays choice. 17 Johnson feared the political ramifications and personal consequences of thesis education “losing” Vietnam just as Truman had “lost” China. Thus, when Westmoreland sent a cable to igcse, the Pentagon in early June requesting 40,000 combat troops immediately and more than 50,000 later, hasty deliberations in the White House led to support for american contest essay MACV’s appeal. As McNamara later recalled, “South Vietnam seemed to be crumbling, with the only apparent antidote a massive injection of US troops.” 18. Essays! The task now fell to Westmoreland to devise an offensive strategy to use these troops.
Realizing Hanoi had committed regular army regiments and battalions to South Vietnam, the MACV commander believed he had no choice but to english as a, contest this conventional threat. But he also had to provide security “from the guerrilla, the assassin, the terrorist and the informer.” 19 MACV’s chief intelligence officer drew attention to these diverse undertakings. As Phillip B. Davidson recalled, Westmoreland “had not one battle, but three to fight: first, to contain a growing enemy conventional threat; second, to develop the Republic of Vietnam’s Armed Forces (RVNAF); and third, to pacify and protect the peasants in the South Vietnamese countryside. Each was a monumental task.” 20 Far from being wedded to a battle-centric strategy aimed at racking up high body counts, Westmoreland developed a comprehensive campaign plan for employing his forces that factored in more than just killing the enemy. Stabilization and igcse essays, security of South Vietnam formed the bedrock of Westmoreland’s “three-phase sustained campaign.” Phase I visualized the commitment of U.S. and allied forces “necessary to halt the losing trend by 1965.” Tasks included securing allied military bases, defending major political and population centers, and essay about being, strengthening the RVNAF. In Phase II, Westmoreland sought to resume the offensive to “destroy enemy forces” and english, reinstitute “rural construction activities.” In this phase, aimed to begin in 1966, American forces would “participate in clearing, securing, reserve reaction and about teaching english as a, offensive operations as required to support and coursework, sustain the resumption of pacification.” Finally, in Phase III, MACV would oversee the “defeat and being, destruction of the remaining enemy forces and coursework, base areas.” It is important to homework, note that Westmoreland’s plan included the term “sustained campaign.” 21 The general was under no illusions that U.S. forces were engaged in a war of annihilation aimed at the rapid destruction of the enemy. Attrition suggested that a stable South Vietnam, capable of resisting the military and igcse, political pressures of both internal and external aggressors, would not arise in a matter of months or even a few years. Mymaths Homework! Hanoi’s political and military leaders equally debated the strategic concerns of time, resources, and capabilities. Igcse English Coursework Essays! Johnson’s decision to commit U.S. combat troops forced Politburo members to reconsider not only the political-military balance inside South Vietnam, but also Hanoi’s relationship with its more powerful allies.
To be sure, national communists like Vo Nguyen Giap had discussed the role of a “long-term revolutionary war” strategy and the importance of political education in essay tutorial military training. 22 By 1965, however, the massive American buildup complicated strategic deliberations. Igcse English Coursework! In December, Hanoi’s leadership, increasingly under the sway of First Secretary Le Duan, promulgated Lao Dong Party Resolution 12, which outlined a basic strategy to defeat the Americans “under any circumstances.” The resolution placed greater emphasis on the military struggle as domestic priorities in the North receded into essay the background. As a result, Le Duan battled with senior military officials like Giap over the pace of military operations and the building of forces for a general offensive against igcse english coursework the southern “puppets.” Escalation proved challenging for both sides. 23.
The strategic decision making leading to American intervention in Vietnam illustrates the difficulties of developing and implementing strategy for a postcolonial conflict in the nuclear era. Even from Hanoi’s perspective, strategy was not a straightforward process. A sense of contingency, of choices, and of action and about music, reaction permeate the critical years leading to 1965. Why Johnson chose war, and the restrictions he imposed on the conduct of that war, remain contentious questions. So too do inquiries into english the nature of the threat that both Americans and their South Vietnamese allies faced. Finally, the relationship between political objectives and the strategy devised to accomplish those objectives offers valuable instruction to those researching the faith in, and limitations of, American power abroad during the Cold War. 24. From Escalation to Stalemate. In March 1965, the first contingent of U.S. Marines landed at Da Nang in formation Quang Nam province. Their mission, to defend American airbases supporting the bombing campaign against North Vietnam, called for setting up three defensive “enclaves” at Phu Bai, Da Nang, and Chu Lai.
As the summer progressed and additional army units arrived in country, Westmoreland sought authorization to expand beyond his airfield security mission. If South Vietnam was to survive, the igcse coursework essays general needed to have “a substantial and hard-hitting offensive capability . . . Formation In India! with troops that could be maneuvered freely.” 25 With the growing recognition that Rolling Thunder was not achieving desired results, the Pentagon gave Westmoreland the green light. The MACV commander’s desires stemmed largely from his perception of the enemy. Igcse Coursework! To the general, the greatest threat to South Vietnam came not from the National Liberation Front (NLF) insurgency but rather from main force units, both NLF and NVA. Westmoreland appreciated the long-term threat insurgents posed to Saigon, but he worried that since the about being a businesswoman enemy had committed larger combat units to battle, he ignored them at his peril. 26. The Americans thus undertook offensive operations to provide a shield for the population, one behind which ARVN could promote pacification in the countryside.
By early October, the U.S. 1st Cavalry Division had expanded its operations into the Central Highlands, hoping to defeat the enemy and reestablish governmental control in coursework essays the NLF-dominated countryside. Hanoi, however, had continued its own buildup and three North Vietnam Army regiments had joined local forces in Pleiku province near the Cambodian border. In mid-November, the cavalry’s lead battalion, using new techniques of helicopter insertion onto the battlefield, collided with the NVA. For two days the battle raged. Structure! Only the employment of B-52 strategic bombers, called in for close air support, staved off defeat.
The battle of Ia Drang clearly demonstrated the necessity of conventional operations—Westmoreland could not risk NVA regiments controlling the critical Highway 19 and thus cutting South Vietnam in igcse english essays two. But the clash raised important questions as well. Was Ia Drang an American victory? Would such battles truly impact Hanoi’s will? And how could MACV help secure South Vietnam if its borders remained so porous? 27.
Despite the attention Ia Drang drew—Westmoreland publicly called it an “unprecedented victory”—revolutionary development and nonmilitary programs never strayed far from a businesswoman MACV’s sights. Westmoreland continued to stress psychological operations and civic action, even in igcse english coursework essays the aftermath of Ia Drang. In December, he wrote the 1st Infantry Division’s commander detailing how the buildup of forces should allow for an increased emphasis on pacification: “I am inviting this matter to your personal attention since I feel that an effective rural construction program is essential to structure tutorial, the success of our mission.” 28 Unfortunately, these early pacification efforts seemed to be making little progress as Hanoi continued infiltrating troops into South Vietnam and desertions from the South Vietnamese armed forces rose sharply. 29 Accordingly, Westmoreland requested an additional 41,500 troops. Further deployments might be necessary.
The request staggered the essays secretary of defense, who now realized there would be no rapid conclusion to the war. Mymaths Homework! “The U.S. presence rested on a bowl of jelly,” McNamara recalled. His doubts, however, were not forceful enough to derail the president’s commitment to a secure, stable, and noncommunist South Vietnam. 30. When American and igcse english essays, South Vietnamese leaders met at Honolulu in early February 1966, Johnson publicly reaffirmed that commitment. While Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky and Chief of State Nguyen Van Thieu pledged a “social revolution” in mymaths homework Vietnam, Johnson urged an expansion of the “other war,” a term increasingly used to describe allied pacification efforts. 31 Concurrently, McNamara and Secretary of State Dean Rusk defined Westmoreland’s goals for the coming year. MACV would increase the South Vietnamese population living in secure areas by 10 percent, multiply critical roads and english essays, railroads by 20 percent, and increase the destruction of essay capital formation NLF and NVA base areas by igcse coursework essays 30 percent. To make sure the president’s directives were not ignored, Westmoreland was to augment the pacified population by 235,000 and ensure the essay tutorial defense of political and population centers under government control. The final goal directed MACV to “attrite, by year’s end, VC/PAVN forces at a rate as high as their capability to put men in the field.” 32. The Honolulu conference is a critical episode for understanding American military strategy in Vietnam.
The comprehensive list of english coursework essays strategic objectives presented by Rusk and McNamara forced American commanders to consider the war as an effort in both construction and destruction. The conference also reinforced the necessity of thinking about strategy in broader terms than simply battle. Attrition of enemy forces was only part of a much larger whole. Essay A Businesswoman! In one sense, pacification of the countryside was a process of trying to create political space so the government of english essays South Vietnam (GVN) could stabilize. (The New York Times reported in April that a “crisis in about a businesswoman Saigon” was snagging U.S. efforts.) Yet MACV’s own definition of igcse pacification—“the military, political, economic, and social process of homework establishing or re-establishing local government responsive to and involving the participation of the people”—seemed problematic. 33 Critics wondered how foreigners could build a local government responsive to its people. Furthermore, the expansive nature of igcse essays pacification meant U.S. troops would be asked to fight an elusive enemy while implementing a whole host of nonmilitary programs. Thus, while Westmoreland and senior commanders emphasized the importance of winning both control over and support of the Vietnamese people, American soldiers wrestled with building a political community in a land long ravaged by war.
That they themselves too often brought devastation to the countryside hardly furthered the goals of pacification. About English As A Second! 34. In important ways, waging battle—a necessity given Le Duan’s commitment to a general offensive in igcse english South Vietnam—undermined U.S. nation-building efforts in 1966 and underscored the difficulties of coordinating so many strategic actors. This management problem long had been a concern of mymaths homework counterinsurgency theorists. British adviser Sir Robert Thompson, a veteran of the Malayan campaign, articulated the need to find a “proper balance between the military and the civil effort, with complete coordination in all fields. Otherwise a situation will arise in igcse coursework essays which military operations produce no lasting results because they are unsupported by civil follow-up action.” 35 The reality of South Vietnam bore out Thompson’s claims. Being American Contest! Worried about Saigon’s political collapse, American war managers too often focused on short-term, military results. The decentralized nature of strategic implementation equally made it difficult to weave provincial franchises into a larger national effort. 36. This lack of coordination led to pressures for a “single-manager” to coordinate the increasingly vast American enterprise in South Vietnam. (By the end of 1966, more than 385,000 U.S. military personnel alone were serving in country.) In May, Westmoreland incorporated a new directorate into his headquarters—Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support.
While ostensibly a South Vietnamese program, CORDS redefined the allied pacification mission. 37 The directorate’s head, Ambassador Robert W. Komer, threw himself into the management problem and assigned each senior U.S. military adviser a civilian deputy for revolutionary development. MACV now provided oversight for all of the allied pacification-related programs: “territorial security forces, the english whole RD effort, care and resettlement of refugees, the Chieu Hoi (“Open Arms,” or amnesty) program to bring VC [Vietcong] to the GVN side, the police program, the attempts to stimulate rural economic revival, hamlet schools, and so on.” 38 In short, CORDS assumed full responsibility for pacification. Essay Being! If CORDS could be viewed as a microcosm of Westmoreland’s comprehensive strategy, it also underscored the difficulties of coursework implementing so many programs at homework, once. Physically controlling the igcse essays population did not guarantee allied forces were making inroads against the insurgency’s political infrastructure.
Improved security conditions did not necessarily win civilian “hearts and minds.” Revolutionary development tasks competed with other urgent operational commitments, further straining American commanders and their staffs. More importantly, pacification required a deeper appreciation of Vietnamese culture than most Americans possessed. 39 Senior officers labored to balance the competing requirements of attacking enemy units and performing civic action in the hamlets and about being, villages. On the english coursework ground, many American soldiers made few distinctions between friend and essay on human capital formation, foe when operating in the countryside. The army’s personnel rotation policy, under which individual soldiers served for twelve months before returning home, only exacerbated these problems. With some units experiencing a 90 percent personnel turnover within a three-month period, the pacification process was erratic at best. 40. Igcse! As 1967 wore on, American journalists increasingly used words like “stalemate” and “quagmire” to mymaths homework, describe the war in Vietnam. Early-year operations like Cedar Falls and english essays, Junction City, though inflicting heavy damage on the enemy, failed to break Hanoi’s will. At most, pacification was yielding modest results. Political instability in english Saigon continued to english essays, worry U.S. Essay About A Businesswoman! embassy officials.
Both the english coursework essays White House and MACV thus found it ever more difficult to convince Americans at home that their sacrifices were generating results. 41 Even Westmoreland struggled to mymaths, assess how well his war was advancing. Body counts told only a fraction of the story. A lack of fighting in english essays a certain district could either mean the area was pacified or the enemy was in such control that battle was unnecessary. Two years into the war, American soldiers remained unsure of mymaths homework their progress. (MACV and igcse english essays, the CIA even debated the american contest number of soldiers within the enemy’s ranks.) President Johnson, however, watched the growing domestic dissent with concern and, given the coursework war’s ambiguities, called Westmoreland and Ambassador Bunker home in support of a public relations campaign. In three appearances in essay being 1967 MACV’s commander reported to coursework essays, national audiences his views on the ongoing war. Though guarded in his commentary, Westmoreland’s tone nonetheless was optimistic given the president’s desires to disprove claims of capital formation a stalemated war. 42. Hanoi’s political and english essays, military leaders similarly deliberated their own progress in essay on human capital formation 1967. Because of the American imperialists’ “aggressive nature,” the Politburo acknowledged the southern insurgency campaign had stalemated in igcse coursework the countryside.
Still, to Le Duan in particular, an opportunity existed. Essay Tutorial! A strategic offensive might break the english essays impasse by instigating a popular uprising in the South, thus weakening the South Vietnamese–American alliance and mymaths homework, forcing the enemy to the negotiating table. A southern uprising might well convince the international community that the United States was unjustly fighting against an internally led popular revolution. Essays! More importantly, a military defeat of the Americans, real or perceived, might change the political context of the entire conflict. 43. During the essay on human capital plan’s first phase, to be executed in late 1967, NVA units would conduct conventional operations along South Vietnam’s borders to draw American forces away from urban areas and to facilitate NLF infiltration into the cities. Essays! Le Duan planned the second phase for early 1968, a coordinated offensive by insurgent and regular forces to mymaths homework, attack allied troops and support popular uprisings in igcse essays the cities and surrounding areas.
Additional NVA units would reinforce the uprising in the plan’s final phase by assaulting American forces and essay, wearing down U.S. military strength in South Vietnam. 44. Though Le Duan’s desired popular uprising failed to materialize, the general offensive launched in late January 1968 shocked most Americans, especially those watching the war at home. Commencing during the Tet holiday, communist forces attacked more than 200 cities, towns, and villages across South Vietnam. English Essays! Though not completely surprised, Westmoreland had not anticipated the ability of Hanoi to coordinate an mymaths, offensive of such size and scope. The allies, however, reacted quickly and the communists suffered mightily under the coursework essays weight of being a businesswoman American and South Vietnamese firepower. Igcse English Essays! Yet the damage to the U.S. position in Vietnam, some argued irreparable, had been done.
Even in the offensive’s first hours, senior CIA analyst George Carver predicted that “the degree of success already achieved in thesis about education Saigon and around the country will adversely affect the image of the GVN (and its powerful American allies as well) in the eyes of the people.” 45 Indeed, Tet had taken a heavy psychological toll on english the population. After years of U.S. About As A Second! assistance, the Saigon government appeared incapable of securing the country against a large-scale enemy attack. Any claims of english essays progress seemed artificial at best, intentionally deceitful at worst. News reports about Westmoreland’s late-February request for mymaths an additional 206,000 men, followed soon after by the president’s decision not to english, run for reelection, only reinforced perceptions of stalemate. Secretary of Defense Clark Clifford, who replaced McNamara in early March, wondered aloud how MACV was winning the war yet needed more troops. Public opinion mirrored growing doubts within Johnson’s inner circle. A 10 March Gallup poll found only 33 percent of Americans believed the United States was making progress in the war. Contest! Thus, Johnson approved only 10,500 additional troops for Westmoreland and in late March suspended all air attacks over North Vietnam in hopes of opening talks with Hanoi. If the 1968 Tet offensive was not an outright turning point of the war—many historians still consider it to coursework essays, be—Hanoi’s assault and Washington’s response brought about a shift in American policy and thesis teaching english second, strategic goals. Westmoreland, hoping for a change in coursework essays strategy that would expand operations into the Cambodian and Laotian sanctuaries and homework, thus shorten the war, instead received word in late spring that he would be leaving Vietnam to igcse english essays, become the Chief of Staff of the thesis music education Army.
The best the igcse english general had been able to achieve was a long and bloody stalemate. 46. On Human Formation In India! Historians have seized upon the Tet offensive and mid-1968 impasse as proof of a misguided military strategy crafted by igcse english coursework essays a narrow-minded general who cared only for piling up high body counts. Such arguments should be considered with care. Far from being focused only on american military operations against coursework enemy main force units, Westmoreland instead crafted a strategy that took into account the issues of pacification, civic action, land reform, and the training of South Vietnamese units.
If Tet illustrated anything, it was that battlefield successes—both military and nonmilitary—did not translate automatically into larger political outcomes. As A! Despite the igcse english wealth of manpower and thesis music, resources Americans brought to South Vietnam, they could not solve Saigon’s underlying political, economic, and english coursework, social problems. Moreover, Westmoreland’s military strategy could not answer the basic questions over mymaths homework, which the war was fought. In a contest over Vietnamese national identity in the postcolonial era, the igcse english coursework U.S. mission in South Vietnam could only keep Saigon from structure tutorial falling to the communists. It could not convince the people a better future lay with an ally, rather than an enemy, of the United States. Coursework! From Stalemate to Withdrawal. In June 1968, Creighton W. Thesis About Education! Abrams, a West Point classmate of Westmoreland, assumed command of MACV. Only a month before, the enemy launched a series of coursework new attacks in South Vietnam.
Dubbed “mini-Tet,” the offensive sputtered out quickly but produced 125,000 new refugees inside a society already heavily dislocated by years of fighting. Reporters were quick to highlight the differences between the outgoing and incoming commanders. But Abrams, in Andrew Birtle’s words, differed from Westmoreland “more in emphasis than in essay being a businesswoman substance.” Stressing a “one war” concept that viewed the enemy as a political-military whole, the new commander confronted familiar problems. As one officer recalled, “By the time Abrams arrived on english essays the scene, there were few options left for being american essay changing the character of the war.” 47 Certainly, Abrams concerned himself more with pacification and ARVN training. These programs rose in essays importance, though, not because of some new strategic concept, but rather because the American phase of the war had largely run its course.
From this point forward, the war’s outcome would increasingly rest on thesis music the actions of the Vietnamese, both North and South. While U.S. English! officials remained committed to mymaths homework, an independent, noncommunist Vietnam, peace had replaced military victory as Americans’ principal national objective. 48. The inauguration of Richard M. Nixon in coursework January 1969 underscored the diminishing role of South Vietnam in American foreign policy. The new president hoped to concentrate on his larger aim of improving relations with China and the Soviet Union. Such foreign policy designs hinged on reversing the “Americanization” of the war in Southeast Asia while fortifying South Vietnam to withstand future communist aggression. As Nixon’s national security advisor Henry Kissinger recalled, the challenge was to structure tutorial, withdraw American forces “as an expression of policy and igcse essays, not as a collapse.” 49 Of course, Nixon, still the Cold War warrior, remained committed to thesis about music education, opposing the igcse essays expansion of communism. Withdrawal from Vietnam thus required maintaining an image of strength during peace negotiations if the United States was to retain credibility as a world power and a deterrent to being a businesswoman, communist expansion. Nixon’s goal of english essays “peace with honor” thus would hold crucial implications for military strategists inside Vietnam.
50. In truth, Nixon’s larger policy goals complicated the about music education process of de-Americanizing the war, soon dubbed “Vietnamization” by Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird. English Coursework! In shifting more of the war’s burden to the South Vietnamese, the education president was quietly redefining success. Realizing, in Nixon’s words, that “total military victory was no longer possible,” the new administration sought a “fair negotiated settlement that would preserve the independence of South Vietnam.” 51 (Both Nixon and Laird believed flagging domestic support was limiting their options, long a concern of senior policymakers.) Abrams would preside over igcse coursework essays, an American war effort increasingly concerned with reducing casualties while arranging for U.S. Essay Being! troop withdrawals. Moreover, the impending American departure did little to settle unresolved questions over the most pressing threat to South Vietnam. In preparing to hand over the war, should Americans be training the english coursework essays ARVN to defeat conventional North Vietnamese forces or a battered yet resilient insurgency?
52. Essay About A Businesswoman! After a detailed examination of the war led by Kissinger, Nixon formulated a five-point strategy “to end the war and english coursework essays, win the peace.” The new policy depended first on pacification, redefined as “meaningful continuing security for the Vietnamese people.” Nixon also sought diplomatic isolation of North Vietnam and placed increasing weight on negotiations in about a businesswoman Paris. Gradual withdrawal of U.S. forces was the fourth aspect of Nixon’s strategy. As the igcse english coursework essays president recalled, “Americans needed tangible evidence that we were winding down the war, and the South Vietnamese needed to be given more responsibility for their defense.” (Some ARVN officers balked at essay on human capital formation in india, the insinuation that they hadn’t been responsible for their nation’s security.) The final element, Vietnamization, aimed at training and equipping South Vietnam’s armed forces so they could defend the country on their own. Of note, political reform in Saigon, largely a task for igcse english essays Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker, accompanied the military side of Vietnamization. “Our whole strategy,” Nixon declared, “depended on whether this program succeeded.” 53. For Abrams, the essay being a businesswoman problem now became one of synchronizing all facets of his “one war” approach.
Back in August 1968, MACV had to fend off another enemy offensive, the third of the year. English Essays! Without retreating from the being conventional threat, Abrams turned increasing attention to pacification. Under the influence of the new CORDS chief William Colby, the GVN initiated an Accelerated Pacification Campaign at year’s end. The campaign endeavored to upgrade 1,000 contested hamlets to relatively secure ratings by the end of igcse coursework January 1969. To provide political space for the Saigon government, U.S. Homework! military operations increased dramatically to keep the enemy off balance, further depopulating the countryside and creating more refugees. 54 In truth, the war under Abrams was no less violent than under Westmoreland. Still, the english essays new MACV chief hoped to cut into the NLF infrastructure by boosting the number of those who would rally to Saigon’s side under the Chieu Hoi amnesty program, reinvigorating local defense forces, and neutralizing the insurgency’s political cadre. 55 This last goal fell largely to “Phoenix,” an intelligence coordination program that targeted the NLF political organization for destruction by police and on human capital in india, local militia forces.
MACV believed the defeat of the enemy infrastructure “essential to preclude re-establishment of an operational or support base to which the VC can return.” 56. While media attention often focused on battles like the costly engagement at “Hamburger Hill” in igcse english coursework essays May 1969, conventional combat operations overshadowed MACV’s larger efforts to essay being a businesswoman, improve and modernize South Vietnam’s armed forces. For Abrams, any successful American withdrawal was predicated on improvements in this key area of Vietnamization. In the field, U.S. advisers trained their counterparts on english coursework small-unit patrolling and coordinating artillery support with infantry and armor operations. In garrison, the Americans concentrated on improving the ARVN promotion system and capital, building an effective maintenance program. Igcse Essays! Moreover, ARVN leadership and being american, morale needed attention to help reduce desertion rates.
So too did intelligence, logistic, and operational planning programs. Abrams also had to igcse english coursework, propose an optimal force structure and help develop an operational approach best suited to ARVN capabilities. 57. Fundamental problems, though, faced Abrams in building up South Vietnam’s military forces. After Nguyen Van Thieu, South Vietnam’s president since the September 1967 election, announced a national mobilization in mid-1968, the essay about a businesswoman size of the regular army and popular and regional forces increased substantially.
In two years, the total armed forces grew by 40 percent. Finding competent officers during this rapid expansion proved nearly impossible. Additionally, capable ARVN leaders, of which there were many, too often found themselves and their units still relegated to igcse coursework, secondary roles during allied maneuvers. 58 These officers consequently lacked experience in coordinating multifaceted operations required for effective counterinsurgency. Problems within the enlisted ranks rivaled those among ARVN’s leadership. Newsweek offered a harsh appraisal of the typical South Vietnamese trooper who was “often dragooned into an army where he is poorly trained, badly paid, insufficiently indoctrinated about why he is fighting—and, for essay tutorial the most part, led by incompetent officers.” 59 Simply increasing the number of soldiers and supplying them with better weapons would not achieve the larger goals of Vietnamization. Moreover, the ultimate success of Vietnamization depended on resolving perennial problems. Igcse English! Hanoi continued to mymaths, send men and material into South Vietnam via the Ho Chi Minh Trail. North Vietnamese units still found refuge in sanctuaries along the Cambodian and Laotian borders. Igcse English Coursework! Thus, expanding the war into Cambodia offered an opportunity to give the GVN the breathing space it needed. From his first day in office, Nixon sought to “quarantine” Cambodia. (Hanoi had taken advantage of the nominally neutral country by building base areas from which NVA units could infiltrate into essay being a businesswoman South Vietnam.) To Nixon and Kissinger, improvements in ARVN readiness and essays, pacification mattered only if South Vietnam’s borders were secure.
On April 30, 1970, the president announced that U.S. Essay About Being A Businesswoman! troops were fighting in Cambodia. By expanding the war, Nixon was hoping to shorten it. While officials in Saigon and Washington heralded the operation’s accomplishments—Nixon stated that the “performance of the ARVN had demonstrated that Vietnamization was working”—the incursion into Cambodia left a mixed record. NVA units, though beaten, returned to their original base camp areas when American troops departed. By early June, the allies had searched only coursework 5 percent of the mymaths homework 7,000 square miles of borderland despite having aimed to disrupt the enemy’s logistical bases.
Additionally, the igcse english essays ARVN’s reliance on American firepower did not augur well for a future without U.S. air and on human capital formation in india, artillery backing. 60. Worse, the igcse Cambodian incursion set off a firestorm of political protest at home. After Ohio National Guardsmen fired into a demonstration at Kent State University on mymaths homework May 4, leaving four students dead, a wave of antiwar rallies swept the nation, closing nearly 450 colleges and universities. Less than four months earlier, the New York Times reported on the My Lai massacre. In March 1968, with the Tet offensive still raging, American soldiers on a search and destroy mission had summarily executed more than 300 unarmed civilians. Igcse English Essays! Claims of civilian casualties prompted an informal inquiry, but army investigators covered up the story for nearly eighteen months. 61 While most congressional leaders still supported Nixon, many began openly questioning the war’s conduct. In early November, Mike Mansfield (D-MT) publically called Vietnam a “cancer.” “It’s a tragedy,” argued the Montana senator. “It’s eating out the heart of America. It’s doing us no good.” Senator George McGovern (D-SD) joined the chorus of dissenters, imploring Nixon to “stop our participation in the horrible destruction of this tiny country and its people.” The loss of support incensed the education president. Nixon insisted that the pace of Vietnamization, not the level of dissent, determine U.S. troop withdrawals.
Still, domestic events clearly were circumscribing Nixon’s strategic options abroad. 62. Essays! The discord at home seemed matched by discontent within the ranks of U.S. troops remaining in South Vietnam. Though contemporary views of a disintegrating army now appear overblown, clearly the strategic withdrawal was taking its toll on American soldiers. By early 1970, with the first units already departed Vietnam and more scheduled to leave, officers worried how the withdrawal was affecting their soldiers’ capacity to fight. One journalist recounted how “talk of fragging, of hard drugs, of racial conflict, seems bitter, desperate, often dangerous.” 63 A company commander operating along the Cambodian border with the 1st Cavalry Division found declining motivation among his troops disrupting unit effectiveness. “The colonel wants to make contact with the about enemy and so do I,” reported the young captain, “but the men flat don’t.” 64 Few draftees wanted to be fighting in Vietnam in the first place and even fewer wanted to risk being killed in a war clearly that was winding down. In addition, Abrams increasingly had to concern himself with racial polarization inside his army. Politically conscious African-American soldiers not only mistrusted their often discriminatory chains of command, but also questioned the war’s rationale. Many blacks denounced the ideal of bringing democracy to South Vietnam when they were denied many freedoms at home. In short, the english essays U.S.
Army in Vietnam seemed to be unraveling. 65. By the end of being american essay 1970, U.S. strength dropped to some 254,800 soldiers remaining in country. Kissinger warned that unilateral withdrawals were weakening the igcse english coursework essays bargaining position of the United States in Paris, but Nixon continued with the redeployments to essay structure tutorial, prove Vietnamization was on coursework essays track. 66 With the new year, however, came the being american realization that NVA logistical bases remained intact. While the Cambodian operation had denied Hanoi the use of the Sihanoukville port, the Ho Chi Minh Trail continued to serve as a major infiltration route into South Vietnam. “An invasion of the Laos Panhandle,” one ARVN officer recalled, thus “became an attractive idea.” Such an operation would “retain the initiative for the RVNAF, disrupt the flow of enemy personnel and igcse, supplies to South Vietnam, and greatly reduce the thesis english as a enemy’s capability to launch an offensive in 1971.” 67 The ARVN’s spotty performance in the ensuing operation, Lam Son 719, further fueled speculations that Vietnamization might not be working as reported. Coursework! Though Nixon declared the campaign had “assured” the next round of U.S. troop withdrawals, Kissinger worried that Lam Son had exposed “lingering deficiencies” that raised questions over essay structure tutorial, South Vietnam’s ability to bear the full burden of the ongoing war. 68. If Kissinger agonized over the need to balance negotiations with troop withdrawals and offensive operations to essays, keep the enemy off balance, he was not alone.
Inside Hanoi’s Politburo, Le Duan equally pondered strategic alternatives in the aftermath of Lam Son 719. Tutorial! Though only sixteen U.S. maneuver battalions remained in South Vietnam by early 1972, on igcse coursework essays all fronts the war appeared deadlocked. Le Duan hoped a new invasion would “defeat the on human American ‘Vietnamization’ policy, gain a decisive victory in 1972, and force the U.S. imperialists to negotiate an end to the war from a position of defeat.” 69 Abrams remained unclear regarding enemy intentions. Was a large-scale invasion an act of desperation, as Nixon believed, or a way to gain leverage in negotiations by controlling South Vietnamese territory? North Vietnamese strategists certainly were taking risks but not out of desperation.
The 1972 Nguyen-Hue campaign aimed for english coursework essays a collapse of South Vietnam’s armed forces, Thieu’s ouster, and the formation of a coalition government. Thesis About Music! Failing these ambitious goals, Le Duan envisioned the struggle continuing against a weakened ARVN. In either case, the Politburo believed its “actions would totally change the character of the war in South Vietnam.” 70. The subsequent “Easter Offensive,” begun on english March 30, 1972, unleashed three separate NVA thrusts into South Vietnam. In some areas, the ARVN fought bravely; in about a businesswoman others, soldiers broke and ran.
Abrams responded by throwing B-52 bombers into the battle as Nixon ordered resumption of bombing in english coursework essays the North and the mining of Haiphong harbor. Gradually, yet perceptibly, the offensive’s momentum began to slow. Structure! Although North Vietnam’s spring offensive had ended with no dramatic battlefield victory, it had met its goal of changing the character of the war. 71 U.S. officials proclaimed Vietnamization a final success given that the ARVN had successfully blunted the igcse english enemy’s assault. Overwhelming U.S. air support, however, quite literally saved many units from being overrun and, more intangibly, helped sustain morale during hard months of fighting. Equally important, North Vietnamese leaders made several errors during the campaign. The separate offensives into South Vietnam dissipated combat strength while placing overwhelming strain on logistical support capabilities.
Moreover, tactical commanders lacked experience in employing tanks and squandered infantry units in suicidal assaults. 72. By the homework end of June, only igcse english 49,000 U.S. Mymaths Homework! troops remained in South Vietnam. English Coursework Essays! Like his predecessor, Abrams was pulled to become the essay about a businesswoman army’s chief of english essays staff before the guns had fallen silent. Throughout the thesis about music summer and fall, stalemated discussions in Paris mirrored the igcse essays military standoff inside South Vietnam. In October, Kissinger reported to Nixon a breakthrough with the North Vietnamese delegation and announced an impending cease-fire. President Thieu fumed that Kissinger had conceded too much, allowing NVA units to remain in South Vietnam and thesis teaching as a, refused to sign any agreement. The resulting diplomatic impasse, fueled by Thieu’s defiance and Hanoi’s intransigence, infuriated Nixon. By December, the president had reached his limits and coursework essays, ordered a massive air campaign against North Vietnam to break the deadlock.
Nixon intended the on human in india bombing assault, codenamed Linebacker II, to induce both Hanoi and igcse english coursework essays, Saigon to return to about education, the negotiating table. On December 26, the Politburo agreed to essays, resume talks while Nixon pressed Thieu to support the armistice. A Businesswoman! The final settlement changed little from the principles outlined in October. Igcse English Coursework Essays! One month later, on January 27, 1973, the United States, North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and essay tutorial, the Provisional Revolutionary Government signed the Paris Agreement on Ending the english coursework War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam. 73. In large sense, Nixon’s use of B-52 bombers during Linebacker II illustrated the limits of American military power in Vietnam. The press reacted strongly, referring to the bombing of urban targets in North Vietnam as “war by tantrum” and an act of “senseless terror.” 74 But by late 1972, B-52s were the only tools left in Nixon’s arsenal. Despite years of effort and sacrifice, the best the Americans could achieve was a stalemate only temporarily broken by strategic bombing. Many senior military officers, perhaps unsurprisingly, would point to Linebacker II as proof of a mismanaged war. They argued that if only civilian policymakers had been less restrictive in setting unnecessary boundaries, those in uniform could have won much earlier and at much less cost.
Such arguments, however, tended to discount the larger political concerns of presidents and structure, their advisers hoping to igcse english coursework essays, limit a war that had become the contest centerpiece of english essays American foreign policy and about education, one that had divided the nation. 75. Others advanced a different “if only” argument regarding U.S. Igcse English Coursework! military strategy for Vietnam. They posited that upon taking command of MACV, Abrams, deviating almost immediately from essay structure tutorial Westmoreland’s conventional methods, had changed the American approach to, and thus nature of, the war. This “better war” thesis found acceptance among many officers in whom a conviction endured that a better application of strategy could have yielded better political results. Igcse English Coursework Essays! Yet senior American commanders, even before Westmoreland’s tenure at as a, MACV, tended to see the english coursework essays war as a comprehensive whole and devised their strategy accordingly. Despite frequent heavy-handedness in applying military power inside South Vietnam, almost all officers recognized that the war ultimately was a contest for political power. Comprehending the complexities of strategy and effectively implementing it, however, were not one and the same. Officers serving in mymaths homework Vietnam quickly found that strategy included much more than simply drafting a plan of political-military action.
The complexity of the igcse english coursework threat, both political and essay, military, confounded U.S. Igcse! analysts and staff officers. Westmoreland understood the important role played by southern insurgent forces but argued he could not stamp out these irregular “termites” without substantially eliminating the enemy’s main force units. Even ascertaining enemy motives proved difficult. Not long after Abrams took command, MACV still faced a “real problem, following the Tet offensive, trying to figure out” the enemy’s overall military strategy. 76. Perhaps most importantly, senior U.S. policymakers were asking too much of thesis education their military strategists. In the end, the war was a struggle between and english coursework, among Vietnamese.
For the United States, the foundation on which American forces waged a struggle—one that involved both construction of an effective host government and destruction of a committed communist-nationalist enemy—proved too fragile. Officers like Westmoreland and Abrams found that nation-building in a time of war was one of the most difficult tasks to ask of being a military force. Yet American faith in the power to reconstruct, if not create, a South Vietnamese political community led to policies that did not address a fundamental issue—the internal contest to define and igcse essays, come to homework, a consensus on Vietnamese nationalism and english, identity in the modern age. More than any other conflict during the Cold War era, Vietnam exposed the limits of American military power overseas. It was a reality that many U.S. About Education! citizens found, and continue to find, discomforting. Yet if a perspective is to be gained from the long American experience in igcse coursework Southeast Asia, it lies here. Not all problems can be solved by about military force, even when that force is combined with political, economic, and social efforts. The capacity of Americans to reshape new political and social communities may not, in english coursework fact, be limitless. Writing of his own experiences in the Korean War, Matthew Ridgway offered an important conclusion while the war in Vietnam was still raging.
In setting foreign policy objectives, the general advised that policymakers look “to define them with care and to make sure they lie within the homework range of our vital national interests and that their accomplishment is within our capabilities.” 77 For those seeking to understand the disappointments of American military strategy during the Vietnam War, Ridgway’s counsel seems a useful starting point. Discussion of the Literature. The historiography on igcse english essays the American experience in Vietnam remains a contentious topic. For a starting point, the best surveys are , which is more a diplomatic and political history, and being, , which places the war in igcse english coursework essays an international perspective. A solid textbook is An excellent collection of essays can be found in both ) and. Fredrik Logevall, Choosing War: The Lost Chance for essay about being a businesswoman Peace and the Escalation of War in Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999 Lloyd C. Gardner, Pay Any Price: Lyndon Johnson and the Wars for Vietnam (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1995) Larry Berman has two very good works on LBJ: Planning a Tragedy: The Americanization of the igcse War in Vietnam (New York: W. W. Norton, 1982 Larry Berman, Lyndon Johnson’s War: The Road to Stalemate in Vietnam (New York: W. W. Mymaths! Norton, 1989). Brian VanDeMark’s Into the Quagmire: Lyndon Johnson and the Escalation of the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991) Robert Dallek, Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961–1973 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998) The escalation of the war under Johnson is well covered. Among the most important works are ), and . ), and is also useful. , provides a balanced overview of the president’s struggles with the igcse coursework essays war.
Gregory A. Daddis, Westmoreland’s War: Reassessing American Strategy in the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014) Andrew F. Krepinevich Jr., The Army and Vietnam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986) Harry G. Summers Jr., On Strategy: A Critical Appraisal of the Vietnam War (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1982) Jeffrey Record, The Wrong War: Why We Lost in Vietnam (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1998). Andrew J. Birtle, U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine, 1942–1976 (Washington, DC: Center of mymaths Military History, 2006). Lewis Sorley, a staunch admirer of the general, provides insights in Vietnam Chronicles: The Abrams Tapes, 1968–1972 (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2004) Mark Clodfelter takes on the air war in The Limits of Airpower: The American Bombing of igcse english essays North Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1989). Thomas L. Ahern Jr. Structure! looks at the CIA in Vietnam Declassified: The CIA and Counterinsurgency (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2010). Robert Buzzanco, Masters of War: Military Dissent and Politics in the Vietnam Era (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996). The topic of U.S. Igcse! military strategy is hotly debated. , offers a reinterpretation of those works in being suggesting Americans were blind to the realities of the war. Samples of coursework essays these latter works include: ; ; and More persuasive is Though Abrams left behind no written work on the war, . Finally, an often overlooked yet important work on senior military leaders is. Jeffrey Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of essay structure tutorial Kansas, 1998) Ronald H. Spector, After Tet: The Bloodiest Year in Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1993) James H. Willbanks, Abandoning Vietnam: How America Left and South Vietnam Lost Its War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004) Lewis Sorley’s A Better War: The Unexamined Victories and Final Tragedy of America’s Last Years in Vietnam (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999) On the war’s final years, see ; ; and . takes an overly sympathetic view of the igcse coursework Abrams’s years. Being! James McCargar, Lost Victory: A Firsthand Account of America’s Sixteen-Year Involvement in igcse coursework Vietnam (Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1989) Lyndon Baines Johnson, The Vantage Point: Perspectives on mymaths the Presidency, 1963–1969 (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1971) Henry Kissinger, Ending the Vietnam War: A History of America’s Involvement in and Extrication from the Vietnam War (New York: Simon Schuster, 2003) Robert W Komer, Bureaucracy at War: U.S.
Performance in the Vietnam Conflict (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1986) Robert S. Igcse! McNamara, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of essay about being Vietnam (New York: Times Books, 1995) Richard Nixon, RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (New York: Grosset Dunlap, 1978) Bruce, Palmer Jr., The 25-Year War: America’s Military Role in igcse Vietnam (New York: Simon Schuster, 1984) William C. Thesis Second! Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976). Philip Caputo, A Rumor of War (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1977) David Donovan, Once a Warrior King (New York: Ballantine, 1986) Stuart A. Coursework! Herrington, Stalking the Vietcong: Inside Operation Phoenix: A Personal Account (Navato, CA: Presidio, 2004) Harold G. Moore and Joseph L. Mymaths! Galloway. We Were Soldiers Once . . . and Young (New York: HarperCollins, 1993). Christian G. Appy, Working-Class War: American Combat Soldiers and Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993) For memoirs from senior leaders, students should consult William Colby with ; ; ; ; ; ; ; and Among the best memoirs from english junior officers and soldiers are: ; ; ; and Less a memoir than an excellent collective biography of the thesis about second enlisted soldier serving in Vietnam is. David Halberstam, The Best and the Brightest (New York: Random House, 1969) David Halberstam, The Making of a Quagmire: America and Vietnam during the Kennedy Era (New York: Alfred A. English! Knopf, 1964, 1988) Michael Herr, Dispatches (New York: Alfred A. Homework! Knopf, 1968) Don Oberdorfer, Tet! (New York: Doubleday, 1971) Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (New York: Random House, 1988). Igcse Essays! Peter Braestrup, Big Story: How the American Press and Television Reported and Interpreted the music Crisis of igcse english coursework essays Tet 1968 in Vietnam and Washington (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1977). Journalists’ accounts were important in about covering the igcse coursework American experience and in structure tutorial setting a foundation for how the war has been outlined in popular memory. Among the most indispensable of this genre are ; ; ; ; and coursework essays, Also useful is. Mark P. Bradley’s Vietnam at War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009) Andrew Wiest, Vietnam’s Forgotten Army Vietnam’s Forgotten Army: Heroism and Betrayal in the ARVN (New York: New York University Press, 2008 Robert K. Brigham, ARVN: Life and essay about a businesswoman, Death in the South Vietnamese Army (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2006) Eric M. Bergerud, The Dynamics of igcse english Defeat: The Vietnam War in essay in india Hau Nghia Province (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1991) Jeffrey Race, War Comes to Long An: Revolutionary Conflict in igcse coursework a Vietnamese Province (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972) James Walker Trullinger Jr., Village at thesis music education, War: An Account of Revolution in Vietnam (New York: Longman, 1980).
Frances FitzGerald, Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972). The South Vietnamese perspective often gets lost in American-centric works on the war but should not be disregarded. Igcse Coursework Essays! is an excellent one-volume history of the war written from the Vietnamese viewpoint. Both ) and , make an important contribution for essay tutorial understanding the U.S. Army’s most important allies. Igcse English Essays! Three provincial studies also delve into the war inside South Vietnam’s villages: ; ; and For an argument on the cultural divide between allies, see. Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s’ Road to the Vietnam War, 1954–1965 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013) Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the thesis education War for Peace in Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012) Ang Cheng Guan, The Vietnam War from the igcse coursework Other Side: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002 Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People’s Army of Vietnam, 1954–1975 , translated by capital formation in india Merle L. Pribbenow (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002) William J. English! Duiker, The Communist Road to Power , 2d ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1996) Warren Wilkins, Grab Their Belts to Fight Them: The Viet Cong’s Big Unit War against the U.S., 1965–1966 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2011).
If the South Vietnamese perspective often is overlooked, the North Vietnamese also tends to get short shrift in American works. Relying on about education new research, the best among this group are ; ; ) and Ending the Vietnam War: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004); ; ; and. Bao Ninh, The Sorrow of War: A Novel of North Vietnam (New York: Riverhead, 1996) Josiah Bunting, The Lionheads (New York: George Braziller, 1972) Karl Marlantes, Matterhorn: A Novel of the Vietnam War (New York: Atlantic Monthly, 2010) Tim O’Brien, The Things They Carried (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990) Robert Roth, Sand in the Wind (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973). Finally, students should not overlook the value of novels in understanding the war from the soldiers’ viewpoint. Among the best are ; ; ; ; and. Among the best documentary collections are ), and Also useful is For encyclopedias on the war, see ), and.
Researchers should also consult two still useful collections of documents: The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of United States Decision making on Vietnam, ed. Mike Gravel , 5 vols. (Boston: Beacon, 1971–1972), and William Conrad Gibbons, The U.S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships , 4 vols. (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986–1995). The U.S. Department of State has collected a wonderful array of documents in the Foreign Relations of the United States ( FRUS ) series. These resources can be found online at igcse coursework, http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments. For researchers delving into about teaching english as a primary sources, the best place to begin is the igcse Virtual Vietnam Archive run by Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas.
This online archive houses more than four million pages of in india materials and is located at http://www.vietnam.ttu.edu/virtualarchive/. The physical archive has much more additional material for igcse researchers. About! For higher level strategic insights, the presidential libraries in Boston, Massachusetts (Kennedy), Austin, Texas (Johnson), and coursework essays, Yorba Linda, California (Nixon) have important archival holdings. Those seeking insights into structure tutorial the U.S. Army will find excellent resources at the U.S. Army Military History Institute in Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, and the U.S.
Army Center of essays Military History at Fort McNair, Washington, DC. The National Archives in College Park, Maryland, offers a vast amount of resources as well. Finally, for those wishing to focus on cultural issues within the region, researchers may wish to consult the John M. Echols Collection on Southeast Asia at essay tutorial, Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Researcher information can be found at http://asia.library.cornell.edu/ac/Echols/index. Igcse English Essays! Anderson, David L., ed. The Columbia History of the Vietnam War . New York: Columbia University Press, 2011. Find this resource: Cosmas, Graham A. Essay About Being! MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of Escalation, 1962–1967. Igcse English Coursework Essays! Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006. Find this resource:
Cosmas, Graham A. MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of Withdrawal, 1968–1973 . Thesis Teaching As A! Washington, DC: Center of igcse english coursework essays Military History, 2007. Find this resource: Daddis, Gregory A. Westmoreland’s War: Reassessing American Strategy in the Vietnam War . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. Being American! Find this resource: Elliott, David W. P. English Coursework Essays! The Vietnamese War: Revolution and Social Change in music education the Mekong Delta, 1930–1975. Armonk, NY: M. English Essays! E. Sharpe, 2002. Find this resource: Herring, George C. America’s Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950–1975 . 4th ed.
New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Find this resource: Hess, Gary R. Vietnam: Explaining America’s Lost War . Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. Find this resource: Hunt, Richard A. Essay Structure! Pacification: The American Struggle for Vietnam’s Hearts and Minds . Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995. Find this resource: Kimball, Jeffrey. Nixon’s Vietnam War . Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998. Find this resource: Lawrence, Mark Atwood. The Vietnam War: A Concise International History . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Find this resource: Nguyen, Lien-Hang T. English Coursework! Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam . Durham: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.
Find this resource: (1.) JCS quoted in essay tutorial Max Hastings, The Korean War (New York: Simon Schuster, 1987), 229. Hastings argued that the “Korean War occupies a unique place in history, as the first superpower essay of the igcse coursework nuclear age in the employment of limited force to achieve limited objectives,” p. Teaching English As A Second! 338. On the relationship of english coursework essays Korea to Europe, see Stanley Sandler, The Korean War: No Victors, No Vanquished (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1999), 144. (2.) Matthew B. Ridgway, The Korean War (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1967 ; reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1986), 145, 232. (3.) Bernard Brodie, Strategy in the Missile Age (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1959), 311 . American Contest Essay! For a broader context of this period, see Jonathan M. House, A Military History of the Cold War, 1944–1962 (Norman: University of igcse Oklahoma Press, 2012) . (4.) Robert E. Osgood, Limited War: The Challenge to American Security (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957), 5, 7 . (5.) Andrew J. Essay Structure Tutorial! Birtle, U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine, 1942–1976 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006), 278. See also Douglas Porch, Counterinsurgency: Exposing the english coursework Myths of the New Way of War (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2103), 217 . For a counterargument on how U.S. Army officers shunned learning and thus lost the war in Vietnam, see John Nagl, Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife: Counterinsurgency Lessons from structure Malaya and english, Vietnam (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002). (6.) Henry A. Kissinger, Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy (New York: Harper Brothers, 1957), 139 . Thesis About! David Fitzgerald argues that senior MACV leaders “made a strong effort to english, understand the type of war [they] confronted.” Learning to Forget: US Army Counterinsurgency Doctrine and Practice from Vietnam to Iraq (Stanford, CA: Stanford Security Studies, 2013), 38 . On multiple dimensions of strategy, see Colin S. Gray, “Why strategy is difficult,” in Strategic Studies: A Reader , 2d ed., ed. Thomas G. Being American Contest Essay! Mahnken and Joseph A. Maiolo (New York: Routledge, 2014), 43. (7.) Lyndon Baines Johnson, The Vantage Point: Perspectives on essays the Presidency, 1963–1969 (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1971), 241 . On larger Cold War issues, see John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of american contest Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), 240 . English Coursework! (8.) McNamara quoted in Gerard J. Formation! DeGroot, A Noble Cause? America and the Vietnam War (Harlow, UK: Longman, 2000), 135 . On enemy escalation and igcse english coursework, its impact, see David Kaiser, American Tragedy: Kennedy, Johnson, and thesis education, the Origins of the Vietnam War (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000), 346 . B. H. Liddell Hart, Strategy , 2d rev. ed. (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1954), 335–336. (9.) Neil L. Jamieson argues that “Vietnamese clung to and fought over their own competing and igcse essays, incompatible visions of tutorial what Vietnam was and what it might and should become.” In Neil L. Igcse Essays! Jamieson, Understanding Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), x . (10.) Ronald H. Spector, Advice and Support: The Early Years, 1941–1960 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 1983), 336 . Homework! While early MAAG commanders realized the importance of economic development as part of an overall approach to strategy, Lieutenant General Lionel McGarr, who took over MAAG in August 1960, elevated the importance of coursework counterinsurgency training within the essay ARVN ranks. Spector, Advice and coursework, Support , 365. See also Alexander S. Essay! Cochran Jr., “American Planning for Ground Combat in Vietnam: 1952–1965,” Parameters 14.2 (Summer 1984): 65 . (11.) Robert Buzzanco, Masters of War: Military Dissent and Politics in the Vietnam Era (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 65, 72–73 . While sympathetic to igcse coursework essays, Ngo Dinh Diem, Mark Moyar covers the essay American participation during the advisory years in Triumph Forsaken: The Vietnam War, 1954–1965 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006) . Igcse English! (12.) Agrovilles were supposedly secure communities to about teaching english as a, which rural civilians were relocated in hopes of separating them from igcse english NLF insurgents.
On Diem, development, and engineering a social revolution, see Edward Miller, Misalliance: Ngo Dinh Diem, the United States, and the Fate of South Vietnam (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013) . For a competing interpretation, see James M. Carter, Inventing Vietnam: The United States and State Building, 1954–1968 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008). On training of South Vietnam forces, James Lawton Collins Jr., The Development and Training of the South Vietnamese Army, 1950–1972 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975) . (13.) Graham A. Cosmas, MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of Escalation, 1962–1967 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006), 35 . (14.) For the North Vietnamese perspective, especially in the years preceding full American intervention, see Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s Road to the Vietnam War, 1954–1965 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013) , and William J. Essay! Duiker, The Communist Road to Power , 2d ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview , 1996) . For a perspective of Diem somewhat at igcse english coursework essays, odds with Miller, and especially Moyar, see Seth Jacobs, Cold War Mandarin: Ngo Dinh Diem and the Origins of America’s War in Vietnam, 1950–1963 (Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield, 2006) . (15.) Michael H. Hunt, Lyndon Johnson’s War: America’s Cold War Crusade in being american essay Vietnam, 1945–1968 (New York: Hill Wang, 1996), 94 . On the air campaign, see Mark Clodfelter, The Limits of Airpower: The American Bombing of North Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1989) , and Lloyd C. Igcse Essays! Gardner, “Lyndon Johnson and the Bombing of Vietnam: Politics and Military Choices,” in The Columbia History of the Vietnam War , ed. David L. Anderson (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011). (16.) Westmoreland quoted in mymaths Larry Berman, Planning a Tragedy: The Americanization of the War in Vietnam (New York: W. W. Norton, 1982), 71 . For an example of senior officers blaming civilians for limiting military means to achieve political ends, see U.S. Coursework Essays! Grant Sharp, Strategy for Defeat: Vietnam in Retrospect (San Rafael, CA: Presidio, 1978) . (17.) On the contentious topic of being american contest essay escalation, see Fredrik Logevall, Choosing War: The Lost Chance for igcse english essays Peace and the Escalation of War in Vietnam (Berkeley: University of mymaths California Press, 1999) , and english essays, Lloyd C. Gardner, Pay Any Price: Lyndon Johnson and capital formation in india, the Wars for Vietnam (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1995). David L. Di Leo offers a treatment of a key dissenter inside the Johnson White House in George Ball, Vietnam, and the Rethinking of igcse english coursework Containment (Chapel Hill: University of essay on human capital North Carolina Press, 1991). (18.) Robert S. Essays! McNamara, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam (New York: Times Books, 1995), 188. (19.) Westmoreland’s assessment in The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of mymaths United States Decisionmaking in Vietnam, vol.
4, ed. Mike Gravel. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971–1972), 606. See also chapter 7, “Evolution of Strategy,” in William C. Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976) . Igcse Coursework! (20.) Phillip B. Davidson, Vietnam at War: The History: 1946–1975 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1988), 354 . On MACV guidance in implementing this broad strategy, see John M. Carland, “Winning the Vietnam War: Westmoreland’s Approach in Two Documents,” Journal of essay being Military History 68.2 (April 2004): 553–574 . Igcse English Essays! (21.) U. S. Grant Sharp and William C. Westmoreland, Report on the War in essay tutorial Vietnam (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969), 100 . The Pentagon Papers , Vol. 4, 296. (22.) Vo Nguyen Giap, People’s War, People’s Army: The Viet Cong Insurrection Manual for Underdeveloped Countries (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1962), 46, 61 . English Coursework! On the evolution of Hanoi’s strategic thinking, see David W. P. Mymaths Homework! Elliott, “Hanoi’s Strategy in the Second Indochina War,” in The Vietnam War: Vietnamese and American Perspectives , ed. Igcse English Essays! Jayne S. On Human In India! Werner and Luu Doan Huynh (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1993) . (23.) The strategic debate is igcse english best outlined in Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the thesis music War for Peace in Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012), 71 . See also Nguyen Vu Tung, “Coping with the coursework essays United States: Hanoi’s Search for an Effective Strategy,” in essay structure The Vietnam War , ed. Peter Lowe (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 46–48 ; and Hanoi Assessment of coursework Guerrilla War in South, November 1966, Folder 17, Box 06, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 01-Assessment and Strategy, The Vietnam Archive, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas (hereafter cited as TTUVA). Resolution 12 in Communist Strategy as Reflected in Lao Dong Party and COSVN Resolutions, Folder 26, Box 07, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 06-Democratic Republic of Vietnam, TTUVA, p. 3. (24.) For a useful historiographical sketch on the debates over intervention and American strategy, see Gary R. Hess, Vietnam: Explaining America’s Lost War (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2009) , chapters 3 and 4. (25.) Westmoreland quoted in music Davidson, Vietnam at War , 313.
On early U.S. Army actions in Vietnam, see John M. Carland, Stemming the coursework essays Tide: May 1965 to October 1966 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2000) , and thesis music education, Shelby L. Stanton, The Rise and Fall of an American Army: U.S. Ground Forces in Vietnam, 1965–1973 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1985) . (26.) Westmoreland explained his rationale for focusing on main force units in A Soldier Reports , 180. For a counterargument against this approach, see Andrew F. Krepinevich Jr., The Army and igcse english essays, Vietnam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986) . (27.) The best monograph on the Ia Drang battles remains Harold G. Moore and Joseph L. Galloway, We Were Soldiers Once . . . and Young (New York: HarperCollins, 1993) . For a perspective from the enemy side, see Warren Wilkins, Grab Their Belts to Fight Them: The Viet Cong’s Big Unit War against the U.S., 1965–1966 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2011) , especially chapter 6. (28.) COMUSMACV memorandum, “Increased Emphasis on Rural Construction,” 8 December 1965, Correspondence, 1965–1966, Box 35, Jonathan O. Essay Capital Formation! Seaman Papers, U.S. Igcse Coursework! Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania (hereafter cited as MHI). (29.) Westmoreland highlighted Hanoi’s continuing infiltration of homework forces into South Vietnam at the end of 1965.
An evaluation of U.S. English Essays! operations in early December underscored his concerns that “our attrition of thesis their forces in South Vietnam is insufficient to offset this buildup.” In Carland, “Winning the Vietnam War,” 570. On the media’s take on these early battles, see “G.I.’s Found Rising to igcse essays, Vietnam Test,” New York Times , December 26, 1965. (30.) Memorandum to President Lyndon B. Johnson from structure tutorial Robert S. McNamara: Events between November 3–29, 1965, November 30, 1964, Folder 9, Box 3, Larry Berman Collection, TTUVA. On McNamara being “shaken” by the meeting, see Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (New York: Random House, 1988), 579–580 . McNamara, In Retrospect , 221–222. (31.) “Presidential Decisions: The Honolulu Conference, February 6–8, 1966,” Folder 2, Box 4, Larry Berman Collection (Presidential Archives Research), TTUVA. John T. Wheeler, “Only a Fourth of South Viet Nam Is Under Control of Saigon Regime,” Washington Star , January 25, 1966. (32.) “1966 Program to Increase the Effectiveness of Military Operations and Anticipated Results Thereof,” February 8, 1966, in The War in Vietnam: The Papers of William C. Westmoreland , ed. Robert E. Lester (Bethesda, MD: University Publications of America, 1993) , Incl. 6, Folder 4, Reel 6. See also U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States , vol. 5, Vietnam, 1967 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002), 216–219 (hereafter cited as FRUS ). Westmoreland took to heart the importance of igcse english rural construction. Mymaths Homework! See MACV Commander’s Conference, February 20, 1966, Counter VCI Folder, Historian’s Files, U.S.
Army Center of coursework essays Military History, Fort McNair, Washington, DC (hereafter cited as CMH). (33.) Pacification defined in essay structure “Handbook for english essays Military Support of teaching second Pacification,” February 1968, Folder 14, Box 5, United States Armed Forces Manual Collection, TTUVA. Seymour Topping, “Crisis in Saigon Snags U.S. Effort,” New York Times , April 5, 1966 . Martin G. Clemis, “Competing and Incompatible Visions: Revolution, Pacification, and the Political Organization of Space during the igcse english coursework Second Indochina War,” paper presented at american, the 81st Annual Meeting of the Society for coursework essays Military History, April 2014, Kansas City, MO. (34.) On Westmoreland’s approach to pacification, see Gregory A. Daddis, Westmoreland’s War: Reassessing American Strategy in Vietnam (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014) , chapter 5. For a counterargument that dismisses allied pacification efforts, see Nick Turse, Kill Anything That Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2013). (35.) Sir Robert Thompson, Defeating Communist Insurgency: The Lessons of Malaya and about, Vietnam (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966), 55 . Igcse Coursework! For a contemporary argument of Malaya not being relevant to Vietnam, see Bernard B. Fall, Viet-Nam Witness: 1953–66 (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966), 272 . (36.) Thomas L. Mymaths Homework! Ahern Jr., Vietnam Declassified: The CIA and Counterinsurgency (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2010), 171–175 . (37.) The best monograph on pacification remains Richard A. Hunt, Pacification: The American Struggle for Vietnam’s Hearts and Minds (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995) . For a balanced treatment of Komer, see Frank L. Jones, Blowtorch: Robert Komer, Vietnam, and American Cold War Strategy (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2013) . See also Robert W. Komer, Bureaucracy at War: U.S. English! Performance in the Vietnam Conflict (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1986) . A partial impetus for an increased emphasis on pacification stemmed from a March 1966 report known as PROVN, shorthand for “A Program for the Pacification and Long-Term Development of South Vietnam.” PROVN stressed nonmilitary means and argued that “victory” could be achieved only by formation in india “bringing the individual Vietnamese, typically a rural peasant, to support willingly the english coursework Government of South Vietnam (GVN).” Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations, “A Program for being the Pacification and Long-Term Development of South Vietnam (Department of the Army, March 1966), 1, 3. The best review of this still hotly debated document is Andrew J. Birtle, “PROVN, Westmoreland, and coursework essays, the Historians: A Reappraisal,” Journal of Military History 72.4 (October 2008): 1213–1247 . (38.) Robert W. Komer, “Clear, Hold and Rebuild,” Army 20.5 5 (May 1970): 19 . On CORDS establishment, see National Security Action Memorandum No. 362, FRUS , 1964–1968, vol. 5, 398–399. Though revolutionary development remained, at least nominally, a South Vietnamese program, many observers believed the about a businesswoman inability of the ARVN to take over pacification in igcse english the countryside helped spur the on human formation in india establishment of CORDS.
Robert Shaplen, The Road from War: Vietnam, 1965–1970 (New York: Harper Row, 1970), 122 . As of March 31, 1967, 53 ARVN infantry battalions were performing missions in direct support of pacification. MACV Monthly Evaluation Report, March 1967, MHI, 13. (39.) For a contemporary discussion on igcse english the cultural divide between Americans and Vietnamese and how this impacted both military operations and the pacification program, see Frances FitzGerald, Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972). About Music! Fitzgerald maintained that the “political and economic design of the Vietnamese revolution” remained “invisible” to almost all Americans, (p. 143). (40.) For competing tasks within CORDS, see Chester L. Cooper, et al., “The American Experience with Pacification in igcse english coursework Vietnam, Volume III: History of Pacification,” March 1972, Folder 65, U.S. Marine Corps History Division, Vietnam War Documents Collection, TTUVA, 271. Journalist Ward Just reported that the real yardsticks of pacification’s progress were “the Vietnamese view of events, the Vietnamese mood, the Vietnamese will and the Vietnamese capability.” See “Another Measure of on human capital Vietnam’s War,” Washington Post , October 15, 1967. On personnel turbulence, see Mark DePu, “Vietnam War: The Individual Rotation Policy,” http://www.historynet.com/vietnam-war-the-individual-rotation-policy.htm . (41.) As a sampling of contemporary journalist critiques of the igcse essays war in mymaths homework 1967, see: Joseph Kraft, “The True Failure in Saigon—South Vietnam’s Fighting Force,” Los Angeles Times , May 3, 1967 ; Ward Just, “This War May Be Unwinnable,” Washington Post, June 4, 1967 ; and R. W. Apple, “Vietnam: The Signs of Stalemate,” New York Times , August 7, 1967. On the war in 1967 being perceived as a stalemate, see Sir Robert Thompson, No Exit from igcse Vietnam (New York: David McKay, 1969), 67 ; and Anthony James Joes, The War for South Viet Nam, 1954–1975, rev. ed. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001), 96 . On military operations early in 1967, see Bernard W. Homework! Rogers, Cedar Falls–Junction City: A Turning Point (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974, 2004) . (42.) On Johnson’s salesmanship campaign, see Larry Berman, Lyndon Johnson’s War: The Road to Stalemate in Vietnam (New York: W. W. Norton, 1989) , especially chapters 5–7. On the MACV-CIA debate, see James J. Wirtz, “Intelligence to english coursework essays, Please? The Order of Battle Controversy during the thesis teaching english Vietnam War,” Political Science Quarterly 106.2 (Summer 1991): 239–263 . (43.) On Hanoi’s views and its policy for a decisive victory, see Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People’s Army of Vietnam, 1954–1975 , trans.
Merle L. Pribbenow (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002), 206–207 . English! On overriding political goals of Tet, see: Ang Cheng Guan, The Vietnam War from the Other Side: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002),116–126 ; James J. Wirtz, The Tet Offensive: Intelligence Failure in War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991), 10, 20–21 ; Ronnie E. Ford, Tet 1968: Understanding the Surprise (London: Frank Cass, 1995), 70–71 ; and Gabriel Kolko, Anatomy of a War: Vietnam, the United States, and being a businesswoman, the Modern Historical Experience (New York: Pantheon Books, 1985), 303 . (44.) If successful, Hanoi’s leaders also would be in english a more advantageous position if forced into a “fighting while negotiating” phase of the war. Ford, Tet 1968 , 93. Being American Contest! See also Merle L. Igcse English! Pribbenow II, “General Vo Nguyen Giap and the Mysterious Evolution of the Plan for the 1968 T?t Offensive,” Journal of Vietnamese Studies 3 (Summer 2008): 1–33 . (45.) Carver quoted in Robert J. Tutorial! McMahon, “Turning Point: The Vietnam War’s Pivotal Year, November 1967–November 1968,” in Anderson, The Columbia History of the igcse english coursework essays Vietnam War , 198. For a journalist’s account, see Don Oberdorfer, Tet! (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971) . For an accessible reference book, see William T. Allison, The Tet Offensive: A Brief History with Documents (New York: Routledge, 2008) . (46.) Gallup poll results in mymaths homework the aftermath of Tet in Berman, Lyndon Johnson’s War , 185. Background on LBJ’s March 31 speech in Robert Mann, A Grand Delusion: America’s Descent into Vietnam (New York: Basic Books, 2001), 600–602 ; A. J. Langguth, Our Vietnam: The War, 1954–1975 (New York: Simon Schuster, 2000), 492–493 ; and Kolko, Anatomy of a War , 320–321. English Coursework Essays! Decision on homework troop levels in Mann, A Grand Delusion , 576. (47.) Zeb B. Bradford, “With Creighton Abrams during Tet,” Vietnam (February 1998): 45 . Media reports in James Landers, The Weekly War: Newsmagazines and Vietnam (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2004), 145–146 . As examples arguing for a change in strategy, see A. J. Langguth, “General Abrams Listens to a Different Drum,” New York Times , May 5, 1968 , and “A ‘Different’ War Now, With Abrams in Command,” U.S.
News World Report , August 26, 1968, 12. On Abrams’s “one-war” concept, see Lewis Sorley, A Better War: The Unexamined Victories and Final Tragedy of America’s Last Years in Vietnam (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999), 18 . Igcse Coursework Essays! The Westmoreland-Abrams strategy debate remains contentious. In his admiration of Abrams, Lewis Sorley is most vocal in supporting a change in strategic concept. See as an example, Vietnam Chronicles: The Abrams Tapes, 1968–1972 (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2004), xix . Others are less certain. Phillip Davidson served under both commanders, as did Robert W. Komer—neither subscribed to tutorial, a change in coursework essays strategy under Abrams. Being Contest Essay! Davidson, Vietnam at War , 512, and Komer in The Lessons of Vietnam, ed. English Essays! W. Scott Thompson and Donaldson D. Thesis About Music Education! Frizzell (New York: Crane, Russak, 1977), 79 . Andrew Birtle’s argument on the change being “more in emphasis than in substance” seems most compelling. “As MACV admitted in igcse english coursework 1970, ‘the basic concept and objectives of essay about pacification, to defeat the VC/NVA and to provide the people with economic and social benefits, have changed little since the first comprehensive GVN plan was published in igcse essays 1964.’” In U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine , 367. Essay! (48.) Andrew J. Goodpaster, Senior Officers Debriefing Program, May 1976, MHI, p. 40. On peace replacing military victory, see Daniel C. Hallin, The “Uncensored War”: The Media and Vietnam (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 178 . (49.) On goals, see Richard Nixon, The Real War (New York: Warner Books 1980), 106 , and No More Vietnams (New York: Arbor House: 1985), 98.
Henry Kissinger, The White House Years (Boston: Little, Brown, 1979), 298 . See also Larry Berman, No Peace, No Honor: Nixon, Kissinger, and Betrayal in Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 2001), 50 . Igcse English Coursework! Jeffrey Kimball argues that de-Americanization “was a course made politically necessary by the American public’s desire to wind down the war and about, doubts among key segments of the foreign-policy establishment about the possibility of winning the war.” The Vietnam War Files: Uncovering the coursework essays Secret History of Nixon-Era Strategy (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004), 12. (50.) On withdrawal not representing a defeat, see “Now: A Shift in Goals, Methods,” U.S. News World Report , January 6, 1969, 16. American! On global perspective, see Jeffrey Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998), 62 . Igcse Coursework Essays! Michael Lind argues that Nixon had to mymaths, withdraw “in a manner that preserved domestic support for the Cold War in other theaters.” Vietnam: The Necessary War (New York: Free Press, 1999), 106 . (51.) Richard Nixon, RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (New York: Grosset Dunlap, 1978), 349 . On realizing limits to igcse coursework, U.S. power, see Lawrence W. Serewicz, America at mymaths, the Brink of Empire: Rusk, Kissinger, and the Vietnam War (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2007), 10 . On containing communism, see U.S. Embassy Statement, “Objectives and Courses of Action of the United States in South Viet-Nam,” FRUS , 1964–1968, vol. 7, 719 . See also Lloyd Gardner, “The Last Casualty? Richard Nixon and the End of the Vietnam War, 1969–75,” in igcse essays A Companion to the Vietnam War , ed.
Marilyn B. Young and essay, Robert Buzzanco (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2002), 230 . (52.) On problems of different types of threats, see Viet-Nam Info Series 20: “The Armed Forces of the Republic of igcse coursework Viet Nam,” from mymaths Vietnam Bulletin, 1969, Folder 09, Box 13, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 02-Military Operations, TTUVA, ps. Essays! 8, 25. See also Richard Shultz Jr., “The Vietnamization-Pacification Strategy of 1969–1972: A Quantitative and essay about being, Qualitative Reassessment,” in Lessons from an Unconventional War: Reassessing U.S. Strategies for Future Conflicts, ed. Richard A. Hunt and Richard H. Shultz Jr. (New York: Pergamon, 1982), 55–56 . English Coursework Essays! Loren Baritz argues that the “Nixon administration abandoned counterinsurgency” since it realized the NLF no longer was a significant threat. Backfire: A History of How American Culture Led Us into Vietnam and american contest essay, Made Us Fight the Way We Did (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985), 279 . Essays! (53.) Nixon, No More Vietnams , 104–107. Definition of pacification on p. 132. (54.) Pacification Priority Area Summary, September 3, 1968, prepared by CORDS, Folder 65, US Marine Corps History Division, Vietnam War Documents Collection, TTUVA. Countryside depopulation in Charles Mohr, “Saigon Tries to Recover from the Blows,” New York Times , May 10, 1968 ; and structure tutorial, David W. P. Igcse English Coursework! Elliott, The Vietnamese War: Revolution and Social Change in the Mekong Delta, 1930–1975, concise ed. (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2007), 331, 336 . On problems of measuring pacification security, see Gregory A. Daddis, No Sure Victory: Measuring U.S. Army Effectiveness and Progress in the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 118–122 . (55.) The Chieu Hoi (“Open Arms”) program, begun in tutorial 1963, aimed to “rally” Vietcong defectors to the GVN side as part of a larger national reconciliation effort. The plan sought to give former insurgents “opportunities for defection, an alternative to the hardships and deprivations of guerrilla life, political pardon, and in some measure, though vocational training, a means of igcse coursework earning a livelihood.” Jeanette A. Koch, The Chieu Hoi Program in South Vietnam, 1963–1971 (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1973), v . (56.) Vietnam Lessons Learned No.
73, “Defeat of VC Infrastructure,” November 20, 1968, MACV Lessons Learned, Box 1, RG 472, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland. About Education! See also Dale Andrade, Ashes to Ashes: The Phoenix Program and igcse english coursework essays, the Vietnam War (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1990) ; and Mark Moyar, Phoenix and the Birds of Prey: Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism in Vietnam (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997, 2007) . (57.) For an example of the hard fighting still continuing during the Abrams years, see Samuel Zaffiri, Hamburger Hill: May 11–20, 1969 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1988). Essay On Human Capital Formation! On what U.S. advisers were doing as part of Vietnamization, see Jeffrey J. Clarke, Advice and Support: The Final Years, 1965–1973 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 1988), 342–343 . English Essays! (58.) On ARVN increases, see in Larry A. Niksch, “Vietnamization: The Program and Its Problems,” Congressional Record Service, January 5, 1972, Folder 01, Box 19, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 02-Military Operations, TTUVA, p. CRS-21. The best work on the South Vietnamese Army is Robert K. Brigham, ARVN: Life and Death in the South Vietnamese Army (Lawrence: University Press of structure Kansas, 2006) . Igcse English Coursework Essays! (59.) “The Laird Plan,” Newsweek , June 2, 1969, 44. On ARVN lacking experience, see James H. Willbanks, Abandoning Vietnam: How America Left and South Vietnam Lost Its War (Lawrence: University Press of essay structure Kansas, 2004), 51 ; and igcse english essays, Samuel Zaffiri, Westmoreland: A Biography of mymaths homework General William C. Westmoreland (New York: William Morrow, 1994), 211 . (60.) Vietnamization working in Nixon, RN , 467. On enemy infiltration, see John Prados, The Blood Road: The Ho Chi Minh Trail and the Vietnam War (New York: John Wiley Sons, 1999) . On the english essays incursion, see John M. Mymaths Homework! Shaw, The Cambodian Campaign: The 1970 Offensive and igcse english, America’s Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005) , and Keith William Nolan, Into Cambodia: Spring Campaign, Summer Offensive, 1970 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1990) . (61.) On My Lai, see Michael Bilton and Kevin Sim, Four Hours in thesis about music education My Lai (New York: Viking, 1992) , and William Thomas Allison, My Lai: An American Atrocity in the Vietnam War (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012) . English Coursework! (62.) Mansfield and McGovern (both Democrats) quoted in Mann, A Grand Delusion , 645, 649. See also Berman, No Peace, No Honor , 76. For an introduction to mymaths homework, the antiwar movement and its impact on Nixon, see Melvin Small, Antiwarriors: The Vietnam War and igcse english, the Battle for America’s Hearts and Minds (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2002). Being Contest Essay! (63.) Donald Kirk, “Who Wants to Be the Last American Killed in igcse essays Vietnam?” New York Times , September 19, 1971 . See also “As Fighting Slows in Vietnam: Breakdown in GI Discipline” U.S. Thesis Music Education! News World Report , June 7, 1971, and George Lepre, Fragging: Why U.S. Soldiers Assaulted Their Officers in Vietnam (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2011) . “Fragging,” derived from fragmentation grenade, was the act of fratricide, usually against an officer in a soldier’s chain of command. For counterarguments to the claims of army dysfunctionality, see William J. Shkurti, Soldiering on in a Dying War: The True Story of the Firebase Pace Incidents and the Vietnam Drawdown (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2011 ), and Jeremy Kuzmarov, The Myth of the Addicted Army: Vietnam and coursework essays, the Modern War on Drugs (Amherst: University of about being Massachusetts Press, 2009) . Igcse Coursework! (64.) Captain Brian Utermahlen, company commander, quoted in John Saar, “You Can’t Just Hand Out Orders,” Life , October 23, 1970, 32 . On Human Capital Formation! (65.) “The Troubled U.S.
Army in Vietnam,” Newsweek , January 11, 1971, 30, 34. On avoiding risks in a withdrawing army, see Saar, 31. James E. Westheider, The African American Experience in Vietnam: Brothers in Arms (Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield, 2008) . (66.) Troop strengths in Shelby L. English Coursework! Stanton, Vietnam Order of Battle: A Complete Illustrated Reference to U.S. Army Combat and Support Forces in Vietnam, 1961–1973 (Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole, 2003), 334 . Kissinger’s concerns in The White House Years , 971. (67.) Nguyen Duy Hinh, Lam Son 719 (Washington, DC: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1979), 8 . On Lam Son 719 being linked to continuing withdrawals, see Andrew Wiest, Vietnam’s Forgotten Army: Heroism and Betrayal in the ARVN (New York: New York University Press, 2008), 199 . (68.) Two new works cover the essay Lam Son 719 operation: James H. Willbanks, A Raid Too Far: Operation Lam Son 719 and Vietnamization in Laos (College Station: Texas AM University Press, 2014) , and Robert D. Sander, Invasion of Laos, 1971: Lam Son 719 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2014) . (69.) Politburo quoted in Victory in Vietnam , 283. On Hanoi’s strategic motives, see Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 324; Stephen P. Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons: Nixon, Kissinger, and the Easter Offensive (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007), 28–29 ; and Ngo Quang Truong, The Easter Offensive of 1972 (Washington, DC: U.S.
Army Center of Military History, 1980), 157–158 . Igcse! (70.) Politburo quoted in Victory in Vietnam , 283. On uncertainty over Hanoi’s intentions, see Berman, No Peace, No Honor , 124; Allan E. Goodman, The Lost Peace: America’s Search for a Negotiated Settlement of the Vietnam War (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1978), 117–118 ; and Anthony T. Bouscaren, ed., All Quiet on the Eastern Front: The Death of South Vietnam (Old Greenwich, CT: Devin-Adair, 1977), 44 . Nixon viewed the invasion “as a sign of desperation.” In RN , 587. (71.) The bombing campaign during mid-1972 was codenamed Operation Linebacker. On debates between the White House and MACV over the best use of B-52s, see Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons , 119–120; Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 314–315; and H. R. Haldeman, The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House (New York: G. P. Putnam’s, 1994), 435 . On the being american essay campaign ending with “no culminating battles and mass retreats, just the gradual erosion of NVA strength and igcse english, the release of pressure against defending ARVN troops,” see Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons , 270. (72.) James H. Willbanks argues that “the fact U.S. On Human Capital Formation! tactical leadership and firepower were the key ingredients . . . was either lost in the mutual euphoria of victory or ignored by Nixon administration officials.” In The Battle of An Loc (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005), 166. (73.) Thieu’s defiance and Hanoi’s intransigence in Robert Dalleck, Nixon and Kissinger: Partners in Power (New York: HarperCollins, 2007), 443 . Paris agreement in Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 366–368. See also Kimball, The Vietnam War Files , 276–277. (74.) Linebacker II goals in Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 364–365. English! Press quoted in ibid., 366 . (75.) Ronald B. Frankum Jr., “‘Swatting Flies with a Sledgehammer’: The Air War,” in Rolling Thunder in essay structure tutorial a Gentle Land: The Vietnam War Revisited , ed. Coursework Essays! Andrew Wiest (New York: Osprey, 2006), 221–222. (76.) Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports , 180–181.
MACV staff in Sorley, Vietnam Chronicles , 9. (77.) Ridgway, The Korean War , 247. Department of History, United States Military Academy West Point.
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In many cases action has been taken by national governments and non-governmental organisations. Flush toilet , Government , Informal sector 1160 Words | 4 Pages. Charles Chaplin's films could be preserved, “ City Lights” (1931) would come the closest to representing all the different notes of his genius. . It contains the slapstick, the pathos, the pantomime, the effortless physical coordination, the igcse coursework essays melodrama, the bawdiness, the grace, and, of course, the music Little Tramp--the character said, at english coursework, one time, to be the most famous image on earth. When he made it, three years into the era of sound, Chaplin must have known that “ City Lights” might be his last silent film;. Charlie Chaplin , City Lights , Film 1384 Words | 4 Pages. Stereotypical Women Throughout well-known stories, authors tend to develop memorable characters in order to enhance the plot; although they may not . always be portrayed in education, the most considerate manner. In Charles Dickens’ novel A Tale of Two Cities , he also uses such characters. First, Lucie’s role of over dramatic damsel in distress.
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151 Words Short Essay On The City I Live In. Disclaimer Copyright Recent Articles PRESERVE YOUR ARTICLE CONTENT QUALITY GUIDELINES DISCLAIMER TOS CONTACT US . Essay Tutorial. 151 Words short Essay on the City I Live In RAGHUDEV ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ? Google ??? ? ?? ? ??? Preserve Articles is home of igcse english, thousands of articles published and preserved by users like you. Thesis About Teaching As A Second. Here you can publish your research papers, essays , letters, stories, poetries, biographies, notes, reviews, advises and allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Web page 351 Words | 2 Pages. in the population. According to the definition provided by the United Nations, megacities are cities with populations of over 10 million . (UNFPA, 12). Based on this definition, it is english coursework expected that the mymaths number of megacities in the world will be mostly located in the developing world. However, the igcse definition of megacities based on the population size is arbitrary given that the about being population in coursework, any given city changes with context and time. In the thesis about teaching english as a second ancient times, for example, Rome, which has a population. City , Demography , Megacity 872 Words | 3 Pages.
An Essay on igcse essays the Characteristics and Development of Ancient City-States. An Essay on the Characteristics and Development of Ancient City -States A city -state is defined as an . Essay On Human. independent or autonomous entity whose territory consists of a city which is not administered as part of a local government. Through reading the articles of Larson, Westenholz, and Neihmer it becomes apparent that city -states differ depending on the region and time they are in, and the purpose they serve. The three specific examples that come to mind are the Phoenicians, Assyrians, and the. Assyria , City , City-state 913 Words | 3 Pages. Explication Essay of Cities and Thrones and Powers, by english, Rudyard Kipling. ?Explication Essay of “ Cities and Thrones and Powers” by Rudyard Kipling Essay by David Taylor . “ Cities and Thrones and Powers, / Stand in Time’s eye,” (lines 1, 2).
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In “The City Planners” Atwood employs strong imagery such as “the houses in pedantic rows” while in “The Planners” Boey adopts an extended metaphor on. City , Grid plan , Metaphor 908 Words | 3 Pages. Tale of Two Cities - Context Essay. Knowing the context is vital to understanding a novel. It is important to understand the historical and cultural context of A Tale of Two . Cities to understand the complexity that has been woven through it by Charles Dickens.
Understanding the cultural context is extremely essential to understanding the ideas of enlightenment that are shown throughout the novel, ideas of enlightenment are held in tension by Dickens when he creates a paradox and help the readers to a businesswoman, understand the coursework essays action and conviction. A Tale of Two Cities , Age of Enlightenment , Deism 1008 Words | 3 Pages. A Tale of Two Cities Structure Essay. In Charles Dickens's, A Tale of Two Cities , the structure of three different books is used to clearly depict the mymaths moral and to better understand . the magnitude and complexities of the story being told. With the first book the reader is igcse coursework put into a politically tense time, a period of turmoil and inequality in France, when the people are on the brim of revolution, in order to set the context of the being contest story and develop the conflict. War then breaks out in France and english coursework Dickens portrays how it can affect life.
A Tale of Two Cities , BAFTA Award for mymaths homework Best Film , Book 870 Words | 3 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . Igcse Coursework Essays. . This is thesis about not the only way to organize and develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages.
Time, Quality and igcse english Discipline. PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATION: Done full time B-tech (2009-13) from Electrical Electronics Engineering ( EN) branch. Essay. . College: SIET Engineering College, Greater Noida, affiliated to U.P. Technical University, Lucknow (U.P.) with (Honours) 81% marks aggregate. ACADEMIC QUALIFICATIONS: Intermediate: Aggregate 81% C.B.S.E BOARD,(2009),SARVODYA. BOYS SR SEC SCHOOL, ASHOK NAGAR , NEW DELHI 110027 SSC: Aggregate 84.8% C.B.S.E BOARD, (2007), GOVT BOYS SR. Delhi , Electronic engineering , Electronics 424 Words | 3 Pages.
reputation of Leipzig as a music city is linked with the Gewandhaus Orchestra based on the concert hall of Gewandhaus. Igcse Coursework. The orchestra performs . every year in different locations in the country and out of the country. During the days when the orchestra is in Germany, it accompanies the St Thomas boy’s choir in being a businesswoman, their performance in igcse essays, the St Thomas church for the creation of the thesis about english as a second Leipzig Opera House (Apel 1973, p. 34). There have been many performances in coursework, the Leipzig city with different minor performers during. Composer , Felix Mendelssohn , Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra 2559 Words | 7 Pages. Venice : City of Dreams this a descriptive essay about the city of Venice.
Venice: City of Dreams The city of Venice is one of the most magical places on earth. The first step taken there is like . walking into a different world, where time seems to stand still and greet you with a warm laugh. The overwhelming power of the city plays on about teaching english second its subjects curiosity and drives them to wander deep into igcse essays, its alluring streets. Built entirely upon water its streets are really wide canals that run throughout the entire city . They carry people from one enchanted building to the . A Different World , Birmingham , Debut albums 433 Words | 3 Pages. Analytical Essay of homework, Donald Halls’ “A Hundred Thousand Straightened Nails” Donald Halls’ “A Hundred Thousand Straightened Nails” is igcse english coursework essays a . symbolic presentation of the decay of New Hampshire the english as a second author uses the life of Washington Woodward to show the pointless existence that is igcse english coursework experienced in a place as lifeless as New Hampshire. Essay A Businesswoman. He uses the contrast of igcse essays, his own opinion and the beliefs of essay, Woodward to show how after a while it is impossible to escape a pointless mindset. Essays. Washington finds joy in discarded. Death , Family , New England 1234 Words | 3 Pages. ukessays.com http://www.ukessays.com/ essays /nursing/nosocomial-infections.php Nosocomial infections Nosocomial Infections 4 Running . Head: NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS Nosocomial infections. Contest Essay. Nosocomial infections are those that result because of english coursework, a treatment process normally carried out in a health care facility like a hospital. On Human. Typically these infections will appear two days after admission into the facility or hospital and up to one month after discharge from the hospital.
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Edward Gibbon suggested in english coursework essays, the late 1700’s that the moral fabric of the essay tutorial Roman citizenry was inferior to that of the victorious barbarian invaders. Joseph A. Tainter attributes the downfall of Rome to the inherent difficulties any society will encounter when expanding beyond its means. This idea seems especially. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Christianity 1566 Words | 3 Pages. you are one of those gay and lesbian couples, no? A recent essay by english coursework essays, Patty Onderko in the current issue of Parenting magazine explores that . question, and concludes that yes, the world feels more embracing to as a, at least one lesbian mother lately.
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Shahinnbd Log In | Essays Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Sign Up Search 1 300 000 Essays Essays . Contest. » Miscellaneous » Recreation Sports Satallite Tv Channel Report | By shahinnbd, October 2010 | 26 Pages (6,325 Words) | 2103 Views| Sign Up to access full essay This is a Premium essay Executive summary: Satellite TV is most important mode of entertainment for all classes and age of people in Dhaka. Day by day its demand is english coursework essays increasing rapidly in Dhaka city . Thesis Education. These satellite. Cable television , Coaxial cable , Free-to-air 674 Words | 4 Pages. west africa and swahili city states cc essay. the Swahili city states The kingdoms of west Africa and english essays the Swahili city states were both built off the main structural ideas, . Capital. but developed differently into their own way of life. The kingdoms of igcse essays, west Africa traded through camels in the Sahara Desert, while the Swahili city states traded by music, ship on coursework essays the Indian Ocean. Both the west African Kingdoms and the Swahili city states each shared religious, political, and economical aspects.
The kingdoms of west Africa and the Swahili city states shared. Africa , Algeria , Islam 776 Words | 3 Pages. Jane Eyre and a Tale of thesis about teaching as a, Two Cities Comparative Essay. Samuel Peter Buckelew III Honors English III Dr. Williams September 1, 2011 Summer Reading Comparative Essay Intro: Many would agree that . love is blind, but if this is igcse english coursework true how can it have the ability to allow people to see and feel things untouched by other emotions.
It has the power to make any given person do extraordinary things, the ability to transform or destroy anybody completely all in one emotion, one thing is for sure, it gives people a greater purpose for existence, a reason to essay being, live. A Tale of Two Cities , Charles Dickens , Interpersonal relationship 1344 Words | 4 Pages. Literature Research Essay : Reading the City . Cities are places which enable the realisation of the igcse coursework essays self, or . conversely cities separate the self from creativity and imagination in spaces of alienation and essay about estrangement’ (Gary Bridge and Sophie Watson). Discuss the english coursework city as a site of essay being, self-enhancement and/or ‘alienation and estrangement’ in the texts on the unit. Our surroundings manipulate the way we react and interact with both others and ourselves. We are like putty waiting to be moulded by the.
Abraham Maslow , Charles Dickens , City 1455 Words | 4 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Coursework Essays. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of a businesswoman, daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Essays. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Thesis About Second. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class.
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Compare and Contrast Big City and Small City. small town vs. a big city Choosing a place to live is an important decision in everyone`s life. In fact, the conditions of the place . one lives have direct effects on his or her life. Some people prefer to live in a big city . Others would rather live in a small town. There are advantages and essays disadvantages about essay on human capital both group`s opinion that in this essay I am going to discuss them.
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are Hindustan Times and The Hindu, which hold second and third position by essay, circulation. In Feb 2013, the igcse english coursework essays Kolhapur edition was launched. The Times of . India has its markets in major cities Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Indore, Jaipur, Ahmedabad, Coimbatore,Madurai,Patna, Pune, Kochi, Lucknow , Nagpur, Nashik, Goa, Mangalore, Bhubaneswar, Visakhapatnam, Chandigarh, Raipur, Ranchi, Guwahati, Trivandrum, Aurangabad amp; Kolhapur. Editorials Columnists Most read Most. British Raj , Broadsheet , English-language newspapers published in on human capital in india, India 1157 Words | 4 Pages. Justin Campbell Professor J. Eastman English 102, Tues and Thur 5:00 Essay 3 11 March 2010 The Wonderful World of Omelas The . city of coursework essays, Omelas is a city compared to on human formation in india, heaven, but in reality, it is more like hell. Coursework Essays. The Festival of Summer paints a perfect picture of essay tutorial, a city of igcse english essays, happiness with an air of excitement, characterized by on human formation in india, boisterous running children, prancing horses and coursework essays flag-adorned boats. The mere reason all the essay structure people in the small town are so happy is igcse coursework essays because this one adolescent child is.
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